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From the collection of the 



i a 


t P 

San Francisco, California 




Semi-Montbly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 

JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 16, 1901 





ADAM AND EVE, A MODERN Sara A. Hubbard 104 

ESTHETIC, A DASH INTO Charles Leonard Moore . . . 256 



BANKING, Two BOOKS ON Frederick W. Gookin ... 13 


BLACK WORLD, STORM AND STRESS IN THE W. E. Burghardt DuBois . . 262 



BROOKS, PHILLIPS. LIFE OF . . . C. A. L. Richards .... 133 

BUDDHISM, TRUE AND FALSE . . . . V. ... George S. Goodspeed . . . 267 



COLONIZATION IN ALL AGES Harry Pratt Judson . . . 373 


Cox's WAR REMINISCENCES Francis W. Shepardson . . 369 


FAITH AS A THEORY AND AS AN EXPERIENCE ... . . . John Bascom \ 305 


FICTION, RECENT BOOKS OF William Morton Payne . 109, 268 


FRANGIPANI'S RING, STORY OF . . . .'*.'". . . . . Edith Kellogg Dunton . . . 227 

GERMAN LITERATURE, OUTLINES OF W. A. Chamberlin . ' . . . 231 

GREECE, MODERN, SONGS OF ........'.... George Horton 106 


HISTORICAL NOVEL, A LOOK AT THE Alfred Sumner Bradford . . 67 

HISTORY, PERVERSION OF Ephraim D. Adams .... 229 

HOMER IN THE VULGAR TONGUE William Cranston Lawton . . 70 

IDEALISM, INTERMITTENT . . Mary B. Swinney .... 181 

IDEAS, AN HISTORIAN OF . . . . . Paid Shorey 396 

ILLINOIS HISTORY, CHAPTERS FROM . . . Edwin E. Sparks .... 266 

INDIANA, LITERATURE IN Martin W. Sampson . . . 138 




' LITERARY PLAY," TRIUMPH OF THE Margaret F. Sullivan . . . 391 


MEADE, GENERAL. PENNYPACKER'S LIFE OF Charles Leonard Moore . . . 394 

MEANING, SCIENCE OF Paul Shorey 298 

MOODY, WILLIAM VAUGHN, POETRY OF William Morton Payne . . . 365 

Music AND Music CULTURE, ESSAYS ON ... . . . . Ingram A. Pyle 107 

Music, TEN YEARS OF ; . . . . 293 


NAPOLEON, Miss TARBELL'S Josiah Renick Smith . . , 374 

NATURE, A JOURNEY TO * . . . William Morton Payne . . . 333 


NEW YORK FRONTIER, THE OLD Henry C. Matthews .... 398 

NOVEL AND THE PLAY . . . ,..;. ^ -U, . . . . Charles Leonard Moore . . 33 

OLD NASSAU, A GLIMPSE OF . . . ,i '- . . . . . Percy Favor Bicknell . . . 301 

ORIENTAL RUGS AND RUG MAKING * ... Frederick W. Gookin i ; . 137 


PARISH HISTORY EXTRAORDINARY Arthur Howard Noll . 1 . 372 

PARKER, THEODORE, AND HIS TIMES Clark Sutherland Northup . 42 




POETIC DRAMA, A Edward E. Hale. Jr. ...... 71 



POETRY, RECENT William Morton Payne 







. 140 
. 97 
. 336 
. 40 
. 264 
. 65 



SOCIAL ETHICS, ATTEMPTS AT . . Charles R. Henderson . . . 400 





STOIC, A MODERN ...... Percy Favor Bicknell . . . 


TENNYSON, EARLY POEMS OF . . . . Albert E. Jack 

TRAGEDY, OUR IDEA OF Edward E. Hale, Jr. . . . 



WHITE, GILBERT, OF SELBORNE Sara A. Hitbbard .... 

WORLD'S FUTURE, HINGE OF THE Wallace Rice . . . . . . 






BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 1$, 46, 78, 111, 146, 193, 236, 270, 306, 342, 375, 402 

BRIEFER MENTION 21, 50, 82, 114, 148, 197, 239, 273, 346, 378, 405 

NOTES 22, 51, 83, 115, 149, 205, 239, 273, 309, 346, 379, 405 

TOPICS IN LEADING PERIODICALS 23, 84, 150, 240, 347, 379 

LISTS OF NEW BOOKS 23,51,84,115,150,241,274,310,348,380,406 



Abbott, G. F. Songs of Modern Greece . . .106 
Abbott, Lyman. Hints for Home Reading, new ed. 149 

Adams, J. A. Victoria 405 

Adams, O. F. Dictionary of American Authors, 

fourth edition 206 

Addison, D. D. Clergy in Am. Life and Letters 308 
Aiken, C. F. The Dhamma of Gotama . . . 267 
Albee, Helen R. Mountain Playmates .... 104 
Alfred, King, Old South Leaflets from .... 346 
Allen, Alexander V. G. Phillips Brooks . . .133 
Allen, Edward A. School Grammar . . . .115 

Altsheler, J. A. In Hostile Red 110 

American Engineering Competition 205 

Amery, L. S. Times History of South African War 340 
Andrews, C. M. Historical Development of Mod- 
ern Europe, student's edition 83 

Andrews, Jane. Stories of My Four Friends . . 83 
Anitchkow, Michael. War and Labour . . . 235 

Apthorp, W. F. The Opera 237 

Archibald, J. F. J. Blue Shirt and Khaki . . 376 
Armstrong, Geneva. Hewitt's Queens of England 205 
Arnold-Forster, H. O. War Office, Army and 

Empire 77 

Arnold Sale, Catalogue of 274 

Ashe, E. Oliver. Besieged by the Boers ... 77 
Askwith, E. H. Christian Conception of Holiness 17 
Atkins, J. B. The Relief of Ladysmith ... 77 
Ayres, Alfred. Some Ill-Used Words . . . .309 
Babcock, C. L. Study in Case Rivalry .... 378 

Bacon, John M. By Land and Sky 345 

Baildon, H. Bellyse. Robert Louis Stevenson . 345 
Bailey, L. H. Principles of Vegetable-Gardening 149 

Banfield, Frank. John Wesley 82 

Baring-Gould, S. Virgin Saints and Martyrs . 346 
Barrett, R. S. Guide to City of Mexico, new ed. 149 
Bass, Florence. Stories of Pioneer Life . . . 309 
Bates, Herbert. Ruskin's Sesame and Lilies . . 51 
Bates, Katharine Lee. Spanish Highways and 

Byways 75 

Batson, H. M., and Ross, E. D. Omar Khayyam 50 
Bax, Ernest Belfort. Jean Paul Marat . . . 229 

Beddard, F. A. A Book of Whales 113 

Beeching, H. C. Study of Poetry 347 

Bellaigue, Camille. Musical Studies and Silhouettes 108 
Bennett, F. M. Monitor and Navy under Steam 79 

Benson, B. K. Who Goes There ? 110 

Bergen, Joseph Y. Foundations of Botany . . 82 

Besant, Sir Walter. East London 307 

Bierbower, Austin. How to Succeed .... 114 

Bismarck, Love Letters of 329 

Bittinger, Lucy F. Germans in Colonial Times . 81 
Blake, M. M. Glory and Sorrow of Norwich . . 110 
Blashfield, Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Italian Cities . 306 
Blok, P. J. History of the Netherlands, Vol. III. 197 
Boone, H. B., and Brown, Kenneth. Eastover 

Courthouse 268 

Boothby, John. Under England's Flag . . . 147 

Botsford, G. W. History of Rome 309 

Bourinot, Sir J. G. Canada 344 

Bowdoin, W. G. Rise of the Book-Plate . . .344 
Boyle, Hon. Mrs. Sylvana's Letters .... 82 

Bradford, Amory H. Age of Faith 306 

Bradshaw, S. E. On Southern Poetry prior to 1860 83 
Brady, Cyrus T. Under Tops'ls and Tents . . 404 



Breal, Michel. Semantics 298 

British Case against Boer Republics 76 

Brooke, Stopford A. English Literature, revised ed. 21 
Brooke, S. A. Religion in Literature and Life . 309 
Brooke, S. A., and Rolleston, T. W. Treasury of 

Irish Poetry 378 

Brooks, Geraldine. Dames and Daughters of 

Colonial Days 82 

Brown, Abram E. Faneuil Hall 378 

Brown, Alexander. English Politics in Early 

Virginia , . . 343 

Brown, T. E., Collected Poems of 11 

Brown, William G. Andrew Jackson .... 18 
Browne, G. Waldo. Paradise of the Pacific . . 74 
Browne, G. Waldo. Pearl of the Orient ... 74 
Brownson, H. F. O. A. Brownson's Latter Life 50 
Bruce, Richard I. The Forward Policy ... 80 
Bullen, Frank T. A Sack of Shakings .... 308 
Bullen, F. T. Men of the Merchant Marine . . 113 

Bullen, F. T. With Christ at Sea 196 

Burdett-Coutts, Mr. Sick and Wounded in South 

Africa 341 

Burt, Mary E. Mrs. Custer's The Boy General . 273 
Burton, J. H. The Book Hunter, new edition . 83 

Butler, Samuel. Homer's Odyssey 70 

Caldecott, Alfred. Philosophy of Religion . . 306 
Callahan, J. M. Diplomatic History of the Southern 

Confederacy 404 

Cannon, James G. Clearing Houses .... 15 
Carman, Bliss, and Hovey, Richard. Last Songs 

from Vagabondia 144 

Carnegie, Andrew. The Gospel of Wealth . . 235 
Carnegie Library (Pittsburg) Catalogue . . . 115 
Carpenter, F. I. Selections from Byron ... 21 
Carpenter, W. Boyd. Religious Spirit in the Poets 205 
Carrington, Dean. Anthology of French Poetry 82 
Cartwright, Julia. Madame, new edition . . . 149 

Carus, Paul. Whence and Whither 18 

Cecil, Evelyn. On Eve of the War 77 

Chadwick, J. W. Theodore Parker 42 

Chamberlain, D. B., and Harrington, K. P. Songs 

of All Colleges 240 

Champneys, Basil. Coventry Patmore .... 37 

Chapin, Anna A. Masters of Music 271 

Chatty Readings in Elementary Science . . . 405 
Cheyney, E. P. Industrial and Social History of 

England 346 

Choate, Joseph H. Abraham Lincoln .... 205 
Churchill, W. S. Ian Hamilton's March ... 77 
Churchill, W. S. London to Ladysmith ... 77 
Clark, John B. Distribution of Wealth . . . 232 
Clark, J. Scott. Study of English and Am. Poets 21 
Clifford, Mrs. W. K. The Likeness of the Night 238 
Clodd, Edward. Story of the Alphabet ... 146 

Clouston, J. Storer. The Duke 270 

Clutton-Brock, A. Eton 114 

Clymer, W. B. Shubrick. J. Fenimore Cooper . 308 

Cocktail Book, The 22 

Cole, David, and Ferris, M. P. Tarrytown Church 

Records 274 

Cole, Samuel V. In Scipio's Gardens .... 143 

Colegrove, F. W. Memory 79 

Collbran, Christine. An American Girl's Trip . 75 

Collier, William M. The Trusts 233 

Collins, J. C. Early Poems of Tennyson . . .192 
Colorado Grand Canon, Glimpses of the ... 21 

Commerce and Christianity 402 

Comstock, G. C. Text-Book of Astronomy . . 405 

Coudit, I. A. The Chinaman as We See him . 45 

Connell, J. S. Our Nation's Need 402 

Coolbrith, Ina D. O'Connell's Songs from Bohemia 273 
Cooper's Works, illus. by C. E. Brock .... 115 
Corbett, Julian. Successors of Drake .... 46 
Corelli, Marie. Patriotism or Self-Advertisement 20 
Courtney, W. L. The Idea of Tragedy . . .187 
Cox, Jacob D. Military Reminiscences .... 369 
Crane, Stephen. Great Battles of the World . 114 
Crane, Walter. Decorative Illustration of Books, 

revised edition 379 

Crawford, J. H. Autobiography of a Tramp . . 19 
Cross, R. J. Dante's Divina Commedia . . . 309 
Crowninshield, Frederic. Pictoris Carmina . . 142 
Cunningham, W. Western Civilization, Vol. II. 271 
Curtis, W. E. Between the Andes and the Ocean 74 
Cusack-Smith, Sir W. Encyclopedia of Whist . 347 
D'Annnnzio, Gabriele. The Dead City . . .187 
Dasent, G. W. Burnt Njal, new edition . . . 115 

Davis, Nina. Songs of Exile 239 

Davis, R. H. With Both Armies in South Africa 77 

Dawson, W. H. German Life 377 

De Roo, P. History of America before Columbus 12 
Desmolins, Edmond. Boers or English ... 76 
Dew-Smith, Alice. Diary of a Dreamer ... 20 
Dix, Morgan. History of Trinity Parish . . .372 

Dobson, Austin. Puckle's Club 346 

Dodd, Anna Bowman. Falaise 76 

Dole, C. F. Religion of a Gentleman .... 17 
Dolsen, Grace N. Philosophy of Nietzsche . . 240 

Dorr, Julia C. R. Afterglow 144 

Doyle, A. Conan. The Great Boer War ... 78 
Dreyfus, Alfred. Five Years of My Life . . .377 

Dunlop, Robert. Daniel O'Connell 78 

Durham, C. L. Subjunctive Substantive Clauses 

in Plautus V . . . 378 

Easby-Smith, J. S. Songs of Alcieus .... 405 
Eckstorm, Fannie H. The Bird Book .... 238 
Edwards, Neville P. Story of China .... 46 
Egerton, Hugh E. Sir Stamford Raffles ... 47 
Elliot, D. G. Synopsis of North American Mammals 378 

Englishman's Love- Letters 378 

Englishwoman's Love-Letters 194 

Evans, Robley D. A Sailor's Log 375 

Fairchild, G. T. Rural Wealth and Welfare . . 234 
Farrelly, M. J. Settlement after South African 

War 78 

Finck, H. T. Songs and Song Writers . . . .107 

Fiske, Lewis R. Man-Building 307 

FitzGerald, E. Miscellanies 115 

Flynt, Josiah. Notes of an Itinerant Policeman . 401 
Flynt, Josiah, and Walton, Francis. Powers That 

Prey 401 

Flint, Martha B. A Garden of Simples ... 20 

Forbidden Paths in the Land of Og 76 

Forsyth, G. A. Story of the Soldier .... 47 
Forsyth, G. A. Thrilling Days in Army Life . 47 

Fox, John, Jr. Crittenden 110 

Fraser, H. W., and Squair, J. French Grammar 309 
Freeman-Mitford, A. B. The Attache' at Peking 46 

Fuller, Henry B. The Last Refuge 109 

Fulton, R. L., and Trueblood, T. C. Patriotic 

Eloquence 23 

Gardner, Edmund G. Florence 195 

Garland, Hamlin. The Eagle's Heart .... 109 

Garner, R. L. Apes and Monkeys 49 

Gavit, Helen E. Etiquette of Correspondence . 83 
Geddes, J., and Josselyn, F. M. Gil Bias . . 406 



Gentry, T. G. Intelligence in Plants and Animals 19 
Genung, J. F. Working Principles of Rhetoric . 405 
Germann, G. B. National Legislation concerning 

Education 239 

Gilbert, Mrs. Stage Reminiscences 375 

Giles, H. A. Chinese Literature 193 

Gilman, Charlotte P. Concerning Children . . 49 
Glyn, Elinor. The Visits of Elizabeth .... 269 
Gollancz, Israel. Temple Classics 83, 205, 274, 379 
Goodenough, G. Handy Man Afloat and Ashore 238 
Goodnow, F. J. Politics and Administration . . 48 
Goodrich, W. W. Bench and Bar as Makers of 

American Republic 405 

Goodspeed, G. S. Israel's Messianic Hope . . 195 
Gordon, George A. New Epoch for Faith . . 306 

Gould, Alice Bache. Louis Agassiz 377 

Graham, William. English Political Philosophy 336 

Grand, Sarah. Babs the Impossible 268 

Granger, Frank. The Soul of a Christian . . 17 
Grant, A. J. The French Monarchy .... 270 
Gray, Edward, and Iribas, J. L. Velasquez Dic- 
tionary, revised edition 50 

Gray, Elisha. Electricity and Magnetism ... 20 
Green, W. D. Life of William Pitt .... 403 
Griffis, W. E. Pathfinders of the Revolution . . 109 

Griffis, W. E. Verbeck of Japan 81 

Griswold, Mrs. F. Burge. Old Wickford ... 50 
Haeckel, Ernst. Riddle of the Universe ... 18 

Hales, A. G. Campaign Pictures 341 

Hall, J. R. C. Beowulf 346 

Halsey, F. W. Old New York Frontier . . .398 
Hapgood, Norman. The Stage in America . . 335 
Hardy, Arthur Sherburne. Songs of Two . . . 140 
Hare.A.J.C. Story of My Life, Vols. III. and IV. 297 

Harper, W. H. Restraint of Trade 402 

Hart, A. B. Am. History Told by Contemporaries, 

Vol. Ill 149 

Hastie, W. Kant's Cosmogony .22 

Hastings, James. Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. III. 43 
Hatfield, J. T., and Hochbaum, E. Influence of 

American Revolution on German Literature . 239 
Hayes, F. C. Handy Book of Horticulture . . 273 
Hayes, F. W. Gwynett of Thornhaugh . ' . .111 
Hazlitt, W. Carew. The Venetian Republic . . 370 

Hearn, Lafcadio. Shadowings 19 

Heathcote, Norman. St. Kilda 75 

Heath's Home and School Classics 405 

Heckethorn, Charles W. London Memories . .112 
Hendrick, Frank. Railway Control by Commissions 50 
Henshall, J. A. Ye Gods and Little Fishes . . 377 
Hewlett, Maurice. Earthwork out of Tuscany, 

" Eversley " edition 379 

Hewlett, Maurice. Richard Yea-and-Nay . . .110 

Hillegas, H. C. The Boers in War 77 

Hobson, John A. Economics of Distribution . . 232 

Hobson, J. A. The Social Problem 400 

Holcombe, Chester. The Real Chinese Question 46 
Hollis, Ira N. The Frigate Constitution ... 80 
Holme, Charles. Modern Pen-Drawings ... 49 
Holt, Emily. Encyclopaedia of Etiquette . . . 345 
Horder, W . Garrett. Treasury of American Sacred 

Songs, enlarged edition 76 

How, Louis. James B. Eads 18 

Howe, H. Here Lies 272 

Huddilston, J. H. Griechische Tragodie im Lichte 

der Vasenmalerei 149 

Hudson, W. H. The Sphinx 141 

Humphrey, Alice R. A Summer Journey to Brazil 74 


Kuril, Estelle M. Greek Sculpture 404 

Kuril, Estelle M. Murillo 239 

Kuril, Estelle M. Sir Joshua Reynolds ... 21 
Hutton, Miss C. A. Greek Terracotta Statuettes 81 
Kutton, William H. Constantinople .... 196 
Hyde, Mary F. Two-Book Course in English . 273 

Hyde, Solon. A Captive of War 50 

Irwin, Sidney T. Letters of T. E. Brown ... 9 

Jackson, S. M. Huldreich Zwingli 402 

James, G. W. In and around the Grand Canyon 73 
Jameson, J. Franklin. Correspondence of Calhoun 364 
Jastrow, Joseph. Fact and Fable in Psychology 264 

Jebb, R. C. Macaulay 347 

Jenks, Jeremiah W. The Trust Problem . . . 233 
Johnson, Alexander. History of the U. S., revised 

edition 378 

Johnson, Elizabeth L. Recollections of a Georgia 

Loyalist 308 

Jones, Edward D. Economic Crises .... 234 

Jordan, David Starr. To Barbara 141 

Josephson, A. G. S. Bibliographies of Bibliogra- 
phies 259 

Joyce, P. W. Reading Book in Irish History . 346 

Judd, Mary C. Wigwam Stories 309 

Kastner, L. E., and Atkins, H. G. French Literature 83 
Kearton, Richard. Our Bird Friends .... 51 
Keeler, Charles. Idyls of El Dorado . . . .142 
Kilbourn, J. K. Faiths of Famous Men ... 82 
King, Mary P. Comfort and Exercise . . . .114 

King, S. H. Dog- Watches at Sea 307 

Kingsley, Charles. Perseus, " Wayside " edition 405 
Kitton, F. G. Minor Writings of Dickens ... 22 

Knight, William. Lord Monboddo 194 

Knowles, F. L. On Life's Stairway 143 

Knox, J. J. History of Banking in the U. S. . 13 
Koch, T. W. Catalogue of Cornell Dante Collection 18 
Krausse, Alexis. Story of the Chinese Crisis . . 46 
Lang, A. Animal Story-Book Reader .... 273 

Lark Classics, The 82 

Latimer, Elizabeth W. Last Years of 19th Century 111 
Lay, William, and Hussey, C. M. Globe Mutiny 238 
Leavitt, J. McD. Reasons for Faith .... 305 
Lee, Albert. King Stork of the Netherlands . .111 
Lee, Guy Carleton. World's Orators . . 148, 405 
Lee, Sidney. Shakespeare's Life and Work . . 22 

Lee's Automobile Annual, 1901 346 

LeGallienne, Richard. Sleeping Beauty ... 79 
Leroy-Beaulieu, P. Awakening of the East . . 44 
Levy, Florence N. Art Annual for 1900-1901 . 51 
Lewis, C. M. Beginnings of English Literature . 21 
Lewis, E. H. Second Manual of Composition . 50 
Leyland, John. The Shakespeare Country . . 148 
Liddell, Mark H. Selections from Chaucer . . 240 
Lillie, Arthur. Buddha and Buddhism . . . 267 

Lincoln, Abraham, his Book 115 

Lincoln, Abraham, Religion of 22 

Lincoln, David F. Sanity of Mind 237 

Link, S. A. Pioneers of Southern Literature, Vol. II. 1 15 

Lloyd, Henry D. Newest England 15 

Loeb, Jacques. Comparative Physiology of the 

Brain 139 

Lynch, Hannah. French Life 272 

MacLaren, J. H. Put up Thy Sword . . . .114 
Mahan, A. T. The Problem of Asia .... 44 
Mallock, W. H. Lucretius on Life and Death . 82 

Markham, Violet R. South Africa 77 

Marshall, Beatrice. Emma Marshall .... 113 
i Marshall, Nina L. The Mushroom Book . . . 195 



Martin, E. S. Lucid Intervals 82 

Martin, William A. P. Siege of Peking . . . 148 
Maryon, Maud. How the Garden Grew . . . 196 
Mason, D. G. Poems of Philip Henry Savage . 50 
Mason, E. G. Chapters from Illinois History . 266 
Mason, R. Osgood. Hypnotism and Suggestion . 342 
Mathews, Shailer. The French Revolution . . 272 
Matthews, Brander. French Dramatists of the 

19th Century 309 

Matthews, Brander. Notes on Speech-Making . 149 
Matthews, Brander. Philosophy of the Short-Story 149 
Matthews, Brander, and Button, Lawrence. Edwin 

Booth, new edition 22 

McCrackan, W. D. Rise of Swiss Republic, 

second edition 274 

McCrady, Edward. South Carolina in the Revo- 
lution 345 

McVey, Frank L. Government of Minnesota . 239 
Mees, Arthur. Choirs and Choral Music . . . 272 
Meurice, Paul. Love-Letters of Victor Hugo . 344 

Mifflin, J. Houston. Lyrics 51 

Mifflin, Lloyd. Fields of Dawn 141 

Mitchell, P. Chalmers. Thomas H. Huxley . . 20 
Mitchell, S. Weir. Dr. North and his Friends . 196 
Moody, William V. Masque of Judgment . . 365 

Moody, William V. Poems 367 

Moore, Aubertine W. For My Musical Friend . 108 
Moore, Charles Leonard. Ghost of Rosalys . . 71 
Moore, E. Dante's Divina Commedia . . . .115 
Moore, E. M. Spoil of the North Wind . . . 206 
Moore, F. Frankfort. Conscience of Coralie . . 269 
Moore, R. W. History of German Literature . 231 
Moore, Willis L. Meteorological Almanac, 1901 83 
Moorehead, W. K. Prehistoric Implements . . 49 
More, Paul Elmer. Benjamin Franklin ... 18 
Morrah, Herbert. Literary Year-Book, 1901 . 347 
Morris, Henry C. History of Colonization . . 373 
Morrison, J. M. Poems of Leopardi .... 115 
Moulton, R. G. Introduction to Literature of the 

Bible 239 

Mowbray, J. P. A Journey to Nature .... 333 
Mttller, F. Max. My Autobiography .... 260 

Mumford, John K. Oriental Rugs 137 

Musgrave, G. C. In South Africa with Bnller . 77 
National Educational Association, Proceedings of 

Annual Meeting of 1900 50 

Nettleton, G. H. Specimens of the Short Story . 406 
Newcomb, Simon. Elements of Astronomy . . 83 

Nicholson, Meredith. The Hoosiers 138 

Norton, A. J. Hand-Book of Havana and Cuba 148 
Oppenheim, M. Helps's Spanish Conquest, Vol. I. 51 
Pain, Barry. Another Englishwoman's Love- 

Letters 378 

Painter, F. V. N. Lyrical Vignettes .... 143 
Parker, B. S., and Heiney, E. B. Poets and Poetry 

of Indiana 138 

Parry, E. A. Love Letters of Dorothy Osborne 274 
Parsons, W. B. An American Engineer in China 45 

Paterson, Arthur. Oliver Cromwell 80 

Payne, E. J. Hakluyt's Voyages, second series . 51 
Payne, Joseph F. Thomas Sydenham .... 112 
Peabody, F. G. Christ and the Social Question . 306 
Peabody, Josephine P. Fortune and Men's Eyes 143 
Peddicord, W. J. Rndyard Reviewed .... 20 
Pennypacker, Isaac R. Life of General Meade . 394 
Pfleiderer, Otto. Evolution and Theology . 17 

Phelps, Charles E. Fal staff and Equity . . . 403 
Phillips, Stephen. Herod 187 


Pier, Arthur S. The Sentimentalists .... 268 
Plumbe, G. E. Daily News Almanac, 1901 . . 83 

Poe's Tales, Selections from 239 

Pollard, A. W. Library of English Classics 51, 239 
Pond, J. B. Eccentricities of Genius .... 40 

Pooler, C. K. Translations 146 

Pott, F. L. Hawks. The Outbreak in China . . 45 
Prescott, F. C. Selections from Swift .... 240 

Private Life of King Henry VII 270 

Qniller-Couch, A. T. Oxford Book of English 

Verse 193 

Rait, R. W. A Royal Rhetorician 147 

Raleigh, Walter. Milton 197 

Ralph, Julian. An American with Lord Roberts . 341 
Ralph, Julian. War's Brighter Side .... 376 
Rambaud, Alfred. Expansion of Russia ... 18 
Rand, Benjamin. Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury 68 
Rand, T. H. Treasury of Canadian Verse . . 342 
Rawnsley, H. D. Memories of Tennyson ... 48 

Raymond, G. L. The Aztec God 194 

Reed, Myrtle. Later Love Letters of a Musician 21 

Reinold, H. W. Atkinson's Ganot 309 

Robertson, J. M. Introduction to English Politics 338 
Robinson, Albert G. The Philippines .... 190 

Rosebery, Lord. Napoleon 404 

Rosebery, Lord. Questions of Empire .... 205 

Rostand, Edmoad. L'Aiglon 187 

Rountree, J., and Sherwell, A. Temperance Prob- 
lem and Social Reform, seventh edition . . 401 
Rupert, W. W. Famous Geometrical Theorems 22 
Russell, C., and Lewis, H. S. Jew in London . 401 
Salmon, Lucy M. Domestic Service, second ed. 346 
Sanderson, Edgar. Hero-Patriots of 19th Century 237 
Sangster, Margaret E. Winsome Womanhood . 114 
Sawyer, F. H. Inhabitants of the Philippines . 190 
Sayce, A. H. Babylonians and Assyrians . . . 147 
Schenck and Giirber. Outlines of Human Physi- 
ology 237 

Schuyler, Eugene. Italian Influences .... 184 

Schuyler, Eugene. Selected Essays 184 

Scoble, John, and Abercrombie, H. R. Rise and 

Fall of Krngerism 78 

Seelye, W. J. New Greek Method 83 

Self-Pronouncing Bible Dictionary 379 

Shaler, N. S. The Individual 48 

Shakespeare's Hamlet, Sothern acting version . . 273 
Shakespeare's Henry V., Mansfield acting version 73 
Shakespeare's Works, " Hudson " edition . . . 239 
Sharpe, R. Bowdler. White's Selborne ... 304 
Shaw, G. Bernard. Plays for Puritans .... 343 

Sheehan, P. A. Cithara Mea 145 

Shields, C. W. Scientific Evidences of Revealed 

Religion 305 

Sireaton, Oliphant. English Satires .... 197 

Smith, George H. Logic 405 

Smith, G. Gregory. The Transition Period . . 21 

Smith, Harry B. Stage Lyrics 239 

Smith, J. R. Earliest Lives of Dante .... 379 
Smith and Thomas. Modern Composition and 

Rhetoric 274 

Sonnichsen, Albert. Ten Months a Captive . . 342 
Sparks, E. E. Expansion of American People . Ill 
Sparks, E. E. Men Who Made the Nation . .111 
Spencer, Herbert. First Principles, revised ed. . 51 
Spofford, A. R. Book for All Readers . . . .149 

Starr, Frederick. Strange Peoples 309 

Stead, W. T. Life of Mrs. Booth 238 

Stearns, F. P. Four Great Venetians .... 239 



Stedman, E. C. and T. L. Pocket Guide to Europe, 

1901 309 

Steevens, G. W. Glimpses of Three Nations . .113 
Stephen, Leslie. The English Utilitarians . . 396 

Stevensoniana 346 

Stevenson's .32s Triplex, " Merrymount " edition . 273 
Stillman, W. J. Autobiography of a Journalist . 225 
Stockton, F. R., Works of, Shenandoah " edtion . 21 
Stoddard, Anna M. Elizabeth Pease Nichol . . 81 
Strong, Josiah. Religious Movements for Social 

Betterment 402 

Sturgis, Russell. Dictionary of Architecture . . 302 

Sutherland, Howard V. Jacinta 142 

Suzuki, Teitaro. Acvaghosga's Discourse . . . 268 

Swift, Benjamin." Nude Souls 269 

Tarbell, Ida M. Life of Napoleon, revised edition 374 
Tarr, R. S., and McMurry, F. M. Geography of 

Europe 379 

Taylor, H. O. Classical Heritage of Middle Ages 378 

Temple Primers 22, 239, 273 

Tennyson, Love Poems of 405 

Thatcher, Lucy W. The Listening Child ... 50 

Thaw, Alexander B. Poems 143 

Thode, Henry. Frangipani's Ring 227 

Thomas, W. H. The American Negro . . . .262 

Thompson, J. S. A Day's Song 145 

Thorndike, A. H. Influence of Beaumont and 

Fletcher on Shakespere 274 

Thorpe, F. N. Constitutional History of the U. S. 331 
Titchener, E. B. Experimental Psychology . . 402 
Toller, T. N. Outlines of History of English 

Language 83 

Tolman, Herbert C. Art of Translating . . .148 
Tolstoy, Leo. Slavery of Our Times .... 401 


Tuck well, W. Reminiscences of Oxford . . .102 
Turner, F. S. Knowledge, Belief, and Certitude . 377 
Van Dyke, Henry. Poetry of the Psalms ... 19 
Waite, C. B. History of Christian Religion, 5th 

edition 347 

Wallace, A. R. Studies, Scientific and Social . .376 
Walker, Williston. The Reformation . . . .147 
Walter, H. E. and Alice H. Wild Birds in City 

Parks 240 

Walton, Joseph. China and the Present Crisis . 45 
Warr, George C. W. Oresteia of ^schylus . . 196 

Watson, John. Doctrines of Grace 18 

Watson, Thomas E. Thomas Jefferson . . .112 
Weber, W. L. Selections from Southern Poets . 205 
Webster, Richard. Elegies of Maximianus . . 346 
Wells, B. W. Modern German Literature, re- 
vised edition 309 

Welles, Charles S. The Lute and Lays . . .143 
Whitman, Sidney. Life of Emperor Frederick . 236 

Who's Who, 1901 115 

Wilkin, Anthony. Among the Berbers .... 75 
Wilkinson, Spencer. Lessons of the War ... 77 
Williams, H. S. Story of 19th Century Science . 376 
Williams, J. R. Philip Vickers Fithian . . .301 

Willoughby, W. W. Social Justice 400 

Wilson, H. L. Adam Duncan 82 

Wilson, James H. China, third edition . . . 273 
Winship, G. P. Cabot Bibliography . . . .236 
Wirth, Albrecht. Volkstum und Weltmacht . . 378 

Wister, Owen. Ulysses S. Grant 112 

Worcester, D. C. Philippine Islands, new edition 240 

World's Work, Vol. 1 378 

Young, William. Wishmakers' Town, new edition 405 
Zangwill, I. The Mantle of Elijah 269 


Anti-Slavery Literature, Some Neglected Material 

in. Alfred Mathews 68 

Authors of the Century, Ten Great. Jackson Boyd 36 
Authors of the Nineteenth Century, Nine Great. 

Alexander Jessup 100 

Besant, Sir Walter, Death of 393 

Chicago Evening Post, Separation of from the 

Times-Herald 206 

County Library, The First, in the United States. 

A. L. Day 184 

Dailies, Our Great, A Much-Needed Reform in. 

Joseph Jastrow 182 

Etruscan Archaeology, A Discredited Museum of. 

F. B. Tarbell 8 

Hall, Fitzedward: An Appreciation. Ralph Olm- 

sted Williams 131 

Hall, Fitzedward, Death of 149 

Japan, Grand Old Man of. Ernest W. Clement . 224 
Library Privileges for Rural Districts. E. /. 

Antrim 36 

"Library Privileges for Rural Districts." A 

Further Word. W. T. Porter 223 

" Library Privileges for Rural Districts." A 

Final Word. E. I. Antrim . . . 259 

Library Statistics, Misleading. Purd B. Wright 258 
Literary Folk-Lore, Our. George Morey Miller . 327 
McClurg, Alexander Caldwell, Death of ... 294 

Misquotation, A Distressing. S 68 

"Misquotation, A Distressing." Edmund C. Stedman 131 

Mother Tongue, The. Carolus 224 

Poe and the Hall of Fame. Kate W. Beaver . . 8 
Poe, The Editing of. A. G. Newcomer . . .183 
Public Libraries, Our: A Suggestion. Duane Mowry 132 
Pyle, Howard, and the American Farmer. Mary 

Farnsworth Ames 36 

Shakespeare as a Duty. Hiram M. Stanley . . 9 

Stanford University, The Case at 7 

Tennyson, Variations in. W. J. Rolfe . . . .327 
Tragedy, Concerning. Elizabeth Woodbridge . . 295 

Tyler, Moses Coit, Death of 22 

Wendell's " Literary History of America," Some 

Questions Suggested by. Oscar Lovell Triggs 100 
Wendell, Barrett, Professor Triggs on. Gardner 

Teall 132 

"Wendell, Barrett, Professor Triggs on." A 

Reply. Oscar Lovell Triggs 183 

Yonge, Charlotte M., Death of ...... 232 

Youmans, William Jay, Death of , . 274 



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Vol. XXX. 




. . 5 

. 1 


Foe and the Hall of Fame. Kate W. Beaver. 
A Discredited Museum of Etruscan Archaeology. 

F. B. Tarbell. 
Reading Shakespeare as a Doty. H. M. Stanley. 



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. 15 

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On this first day of the twentieth century 
there can be no subject more suitable for dis- 
cussion in the pages of a literary journal than 
that of the famous books produced during the 
century just ended. The subject is one that 
has already received a certain amount of atten- 
tion in other quarters, and that will doubtless 
be handled by many sorts of pens during the 
coming months. It is a subject of deep and 
enduring interest, because it affords one way, 
at least, and probably the most important way, 
of determining what the nineteenth century has 
done for civilization. We propose to confine 
our attention, in the present article, to the 
books of thought as distinguished from the 
books of art, and to enumerate, with some sort 
of brief accompanying comment, some of the 
works of the century that may fairly be char- 
acterized as epoch-making ; the books, in a 
word, that have opened men's eyes to a deeper 
view of scientific or philosophical truth, and 
have made permanent changes in the current 
of human thought. 

Considered in this respect, the book of the 
century, beyond any possibility of a successful 
challenge to its preeminence, is " The Origin 
of Species," by Charles Darwin. The influence 
of this book ranks it with the treatises of Co- 
pernicus and of Newton, with the " Contrat 
Social " and the " Wealth of Nations." It is 
doubtful if any other book, in all the history of 
modern thought, has been so far-reaching in 
its influence, or productive of such immense 
intellectual results. There is a difference, not 
merely of degree but almost of kind, between 
the intellectual processes of the men who lived 
before Darwin and those who have grown to 
manhood during the period in which the evo- 
lutionary leaven has been working in men's 
minds. We no longer think in the same terms 
as of old, and we see that the true measure of 
the power of the great thinkers of the past is 
to be found in the extent to which their work 
foreshadowed or anticipated the evolutionary 

It is because the influence of Darwin has 


[Jan. 1, 

thus extended far beyond the biological field 
in which his work was done that his most 
famous book stands thus preeminent. Among 
the books that have proved epoch-making in 
more restricted fields of thought, we may men- 
tion Lyell's " Principles of Geology," Helm- 
holtz's " Tonempfindungen," Froebel's " Edu- 
cation of Man," Ruskin's " Modern Painters," 
and Maine's "Ancient Law." The science of 
comparative philology, which hardly existed 
before the nineteenth century, dates from the 
publication of Bopp's " Comparative Gram- 
mar " ; and the scientific pursuit of historical 
scholarship, whose ideals are very different 
from those of the eighteenth century histo- 
rians, although Gibbon did much to anticipate 
them, really began with the publication of 
Niebuhr's " Romische Geschichte." Dalton's 
" New System of Chemical Philosophy " laid 
the foundations for atomic chemistry, and the 
"Mecanique Celeste" of Laplace provided a 
firm mathematical basis for the nebular theory, 
previously outlined, it is true, by Kant, but 
lacking in the confirmation that was brought 
to it by the masterly analysis of the French 
astronomer. Here is also the appropriate place 
for mention of the researches of Pasteur, which 
have proved so immensely fruitful in the do- 
main of bacteriology, and upon which, more 
than upon the labors of any other investi- 
gator, the new science is based. To the 
work of Pasteur and his followers we owe 
the first rational theory of disease and its 
treatment that has ever been formulated, a 
somewhat surprising fact when we consider 
the paramount importance of the subject to 

What were once supposed to be the founda- 
tions of religious belief have, during the cen- 
tury just ended, been sapped and mined by 
many agencies. The study of ancient civiliza- 
tions has proved to be the merest fables many 
things that the credulous' earlier ages accepted 
without question. The new scientific view of 
man and nature has also brought about a silent 
transformation in many matters of opinion 
once thought to be indissolubly connected with 
religious belief, but now seen to have little or 
nothing to do with it. As far as religion is a 
question of the interpretation of the Scriptures, 
the historical methods that have dealt so effect- 
ively with Greek and Roman tradition have 
also made an enduring impression upon the 
traditions of the Hebrew people and of the. 
Christian church. The "higher" criticism, 
which means simply the new historical criti- 

cism of sources and ideas, has triumphed so 
completely that little in the way of superstition 
is left for it to slay. Many men have fought 
valiantly in this cause, and it is difficult to 
specify individual scholars. But if our test 
be that of direct influence upon great numbers 
of people, it is probably true that the " Leben 
Jesu " of Strauss and the " Vie de Jesus " of 
Ren an have been the most important popular 
agencies in bringing about a restoration of the 
Christian religion to its proper place in the 
perspective of general history. 

In the domain of economics, the most influ- 
ential book of the century has probably been 
one whose teachings are repudiated by those 
who have the best right to speak in the name 
of this science. The propaganda of socialism 
has become so marked a feature in the political 
life of most of the civilized nations that it can- 
not be ignored in any survey of the tendencies 
of nineteenth century thought, and credit must 
be given to the book which, more than any 
other, has been responsible for this movement. 
That book, it need hardly be added, is the 
" Kapital " of Karl Marx ; and its force is 
not yet spent. Indeed, we are inclined to 
think that fifty years hence it will loom 
even larger than it now does among the writ- 
ings that have most profoundly influenced the 
thought of modern times. For the socialist 
experiment has not yet worked itself out, and 
it will not be discredited until civilization has 
suffered some very rude shocks. Mill's 
" Political Economy," on the other hand, 
while it has profoundly influenced the real 
thinkers in this field, and has an absolute value 
far exceeding that of " Das Kapital," falls 
short of being an epoch-making book for the 
simple reason that, instead of setting new 
ideas in motion, its energy was devoted to 
clarifying the old ones, and to setting them 
forth in logical arrangement. It is still the 
best single treatise on political economy that 
has ever been written, and for this, at least, it 
deserves an honorable place in any review of 
the intellectual history of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. We are inclined to give a place in this 
connection to the writings upon political and 
social subjects of the great apostle of Italian 
unity, Guiseppe Mazzini. It is not merely 
because they brought about the political regen- 
eration of his own country that these writings 
are of the highest importance although that 
would suffice to justify the estimate but 
rather because they brought the element of 
spirituality into the discussions with which 



they were concerned, and supplemented the 
conception of the rights of man, of which 
something too much had been made during 
the period that followed the French Revolution, 
with the hitherto neglected conception of the 
duties of man, thus giving an ethical turn to 
the general movement of European emancipa- 
tion, and allying it with something higher and 
finer than merely material interests. The 
teaching of Mazzini, enforced by the singular 
purity and nobility of his devoted life, has had 
a widespread influence upon political thought, 
and has given it an ethical impulse that would 
be difficult to overestimate. 

Turning last of all to the philosophers, that 
is, to the men who, as far as may be, take all 
knowledge for their province, and seek to sys- 
tematize the various results of special intel- 
lectual activity, we find the names of Humboldt, 
Hegel, Schopenhauer, Comte, and Mr. Herbert 
Spencer to be the conspicuous names of the 
nineteenth century. The " Kosmos " of 
Alexander von Humboldt marks, in a sense, 
the end of the period of general scholarship 
and the beginning of the period in which 
specialization has held full sway. Never 
again can anyone hope to master the scientific 
knowledge of his time in the sense in which 
Humboldt mastered it ; even the magnificent 
achievement of Mr. Spencer falls short of that 
ideal and shows the futility of any further en- 
deavor in that direction. We owe to Mr. 
Spencer the most thorough-going application of 
the conception of evolution to history that has 
ever been made, and that is glory enough for 
one man ; but we cannot read his " Synthetic 
Philosophy " without at the same time realizing 
that there are gaps in his knowledge and de- 
fects in his philosophical comprehension. We 
have the same feeling in more marked degree 
when we read Comte ; and in his case, while 
recognizing his great influence, we must admit 
that it is an influence no longer active. Even 
the eloquence of Mr. Frederic Harrison cannot 
galvanize the " Cours de Philosophic Positive " 
into any semblance of the life that left it a 
generation ago. Nevertheless, it will always 
be reckoned among the most influential books 
of the century just ended. Taking philosophy 
in the stricter sense, as primarily concerned 
with the ultimate problems of thought, the 
names of Hegel and of Schopenhauer stand 
preeminent in the history of the nineteenth 
century. The " Logic " of the one and " Die 
Welt als Wille und Vorstellung " of the other 
have been the chief metaphysical forces of the 

period, although now, at the end of the period, 
we see that the foimer is a waning influence, 
while the latter is an influence still to be taken 
into account in any study of the forces which 
still sway the minds of thoughtful men. It 
supplies, better than any other metaphysical 
system yet produced, the needed corrective for 
that material view of the universe which would 
seem to be the outcome of modern science, and 
enforces the fundamental teachings of the 
philosophers of Plato, and Spinoza, and 
Berkeley, and Kant in the terms of the 
modern intellect, and with a cogency that is 
irresistible to the logical mind. We are 
inclined to believe that if the " Origin of 
Species " is approached in its influence upon 
nineteenth-century thought by any other one 
book, " Die Welt als Wille und Vorstel- 
lung " is that book. 


The recent case of alleged "interference with 
the freedom of academic teaching " at Stanford 
University has called oat a range of discussion and 
criticism that seems to us disproportionate to the 
importance of the case. It was, of coarse, to be 
expected that the matter would be made the most 
of by sensation-seeking newspapers, and those of 
California in particular seem to have improved 
their opportunities without much regard to the finer 
equities or to the injury they might be doing the 
institution and those who have made it one of the 
chief glories of their State. Into the details of the 
affair we do not now propose to go. Broadly 
viewed, it seems less a question of academic free- 
dom than of academic common-sense. It appears 
that an instructor was asked to resign his position, 
as he claims, on account of some sentiments, altered 
by him in a public speech, which were objectionable 
to the founder of the University ; as the other side 
claims, on account of an antagonism of long stand- 
ing, aggravated by some offensive reference s to the 
family of the founder, the instructor questioning in 
his class-room the legitimacy of the fortune by 
which the University had been established, while 
not scrupling to accept a portion of the same for- 
tune in payment of his professorial salary. Now 
if these things were true, or Mrs. Stanford believed 
them to be true, her resentment was natural and 
inevitable : and in any event, it seems to us that 
such generous devotion and boundless liberality as 
she has shown to the institution whose welfare lies 
so near her heart might fairly have entitled her to 
more considerate and more kindly treatment than 
she has received from some quarters. We do not 
believe, from all we know of this case, that the 



[Jan. 1, 

principle of freedom in teaching is in any serious 
danger at Stanford University. It certainly could 
not suffer at the hands of President Jordan, who 
was sufficiently well known both for character and 
scholarship before he went out to make Stanford 
University one of the greatest civilizing influences, 
and himself one of the greatest individual forces 
for good, on the Pacific Coast. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The list of the first twenty-nine immortals chosen 
for the " Hall of Fame for Great Americans," inaugu- 
rated by the New York University, does not include 
the name of Edgar Allan Poe. This time, who hath 
done it ? 

A body of one hundred electors, composed of twenty- 
five university or college presidents, twenty-six profes- 
sors of history and scientists, twenty-six editors and 
authors and publicists, and twenty-three supreme court 
judges, State and National " representing the wisdom 
of the American people," these are the jurymen who 
have failed to find a place for Poe in an American 
Hall of Fame. 

Literary England, and particularly Mr. Edmund W. 
Gosse, would doubtless question that " wisdom " which 
shows itself in undervaluing Art. Mr. Gosse regards 
Poe as our most perfect, most original, and most 
exquisite poet, and says that were he an American Ire 
would consider the nation's failure to appreciate him 
extraordinary, sinister, and disastrous. 

THE DIAL'S symposium on " The American Rejec- 
tion of Poe," a year or two ago, brought out many 
warm defenders of the poet, one of whom wrote : " Poe, 
in my judgment, was the greatest intellect America 
has produced assuredly the best artist. His tales 
seem to me the third collection in point of merit in 
literature the other two being the Arabian Nights 
and Boccaccio." And another: " Of all the American 
poets of the day, Poe alone fades not. The rest have 
lost color. They worked in daguerreotype; he painted 
in oil." And still another: " One great good thing in 
a poet like Poe is that he shows what art for art's sake 
can do. We in America need no incitement to value 
literature for its practical worth. We do not need 
to be told that thought is important, for we know it. 
But we do need to be told that art, or style, is of 
value, for as a rule we are not so much on the lookout 
for that." 

Why are these defenders of the poet silent now in 
'the face of this fresh injustice to his memory ? 

In imagination, creative faculty, analysis, and origi- 
nality, Poe has but one rival in American literature. In 
musical poetry in the marvellous use he made of the 
power which the great god Pan blew into him " none 
sing so wildly well." To undervalue him because he 
left behind him no Emersonian rules of life and conduct 
because the glory of his matchless rhyme does not 
lie in " teaching men how to live well " is as absurd 
as it would be to undervalue Chopin because he did not 
write the Sonatas of Beethoven. 

As the " Hall of Fame " is a private enterprise, its 

final significance may perhaps be questioned; but as it 
is the only thing of its kind we have or may for some 
time have in America, its meaning to the American 
people will grow in importance with the years, and it 
is as well to treat it seriously. 

Resolution Six of the rules adopted by the Univer- 
sity Senate relating to the nomination of candidates 
states that " Any nomination by any citizen of the 
United States that shall be addressed to the New 
York University Senate' shall be received and con- 
sidered by that body." 

Why should not all lovers of Poe avail themselves of 
the opportunity therein afforded to place his name in 

nomination ? ... 


San Francisco, December 15, 1900. 


(To the Editor of THB DIAL.) 

A recent pamphlet by a young Italian excavator, 
Sig. Fausto Benedetti, treats of matters which, though 
of immediate importance to only a small group of 
specialists in Etruscan archaeology, are indirectly of 
interest to a much wider public. For they affect the 
scientific standing and the official honor of Comm. 
Barnabei, who was lately Director of Antiquities and 
Fine Arts for the kingdom of Italy, and is reported to 
be seeking reinstatement in the same position; and no 
cultivated visitor to Italy, no friend anywhere of Italian 
art and antiquities, can afford to be indifferent to the 
manner in which that office is administered. 

In 1888 a museum was established in the Villa 
Ginlia, situated a half mile or so outside the Porta del 
Popolo, and this museum has been stocked chiefly with 
objects found in the territory of the ancient Falerii, 
the necropolis of Narce having furnished a large share 
of the material. This material is professedly arranged 
according to tombs, the contents of each tomb by 
themselves; and this separation is all-important for 
scientific purposes, inasmuch as the tombs belong to 
different epochs of Etruscan civilization. The objects 
from Narce have been elaborately described and dis- 
cussed in Volume IV. of the " Monumenti Antichi," 
the sumptuous archaeological periodical issued by the 
Accademia dei Lincei. So far as appearances went, the 
arrangement in the museum and the publication in the 
" Monumenti Antichi " were controlled by a scientific 
rigor worthy of all praise. But disquieting charges in 
regard to this point have for some time been current; 
and now, on the heels of a whitewashing report made 
by a governmental commission, there comes a convincing 
attack from the hand of Sig. Benedetti, who conducted 
the excavations at Narce as a private enterprise of his 
father's and his own. The title of his pamphlet is 
" Gli Scavi di Narce ed il Museo di Villa Ginlia " 
[The Excavations at Narce and the Villa Ginlia 
Museum]; and it is published in Turin by Loescher, 
and in London by Mr. David Nutt. 

The author was only fifteen years old when, in 1889, 
he began his work at Narce. He has presumably had 
but little education, and the wonder is that he writes 
as well as he does. He tells his story calmly, with 
every appearance of frankness and with full recognition 
of his own limitations. Moreover, he quotes extensively 
from documentary evidence which it is impossible to 
regard as falsified. So far as the present reviewer 



can make ont from the evidence before him, Sig. Ben- 
edetti completely establishes his case. 

It appears that the museum in the Villa Ginlia has 
been managed with the grossest laxity and falsity. No 
pains were taken to secure adequate records of the 
excavations, and such information as the young exca- 
vator was able to supply was disregarded and his 
memoranda were actually destroyed. The plans of the 
various cemeteries and of the individual tombs pub- 
lished in the " Monumenti Antichi " are inaccurate or 
wholly imaginary, and the contents of the various 
tombs have been hopelessly confused. With good 
reason may Sig. Benedetti write (page 44): "My 
labor has been lost, and the loss can never be recov- 

It is a deplorable story, but it is better that the 
truth should be known. If the injury done is beyond 
repair, at least it is to be hoped that the present 
Minister of Public Instruction in Italy and his suc- 
cessors may see to it that no such scandal in the De- 
partment of Antiquities and Fine Arts shall again be 
possible. F. B. TARBELL. 

University of Chicago, December SO, 1900. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Apropos of Mr. Anderson's remarks, in the last issue 
of THE DIAL, on my expression, " We read Shakespeare 
as a duty," in the previous number, I may be permitted 
to explain that " we " does not implicate my critic nor 
others. However, I suspect that most educated people, 
if they were frank to confess, would acknowledge that 
while they enjoy Shakespeare's dramas as acted the 
true test of the drama they do not find them special 
favorites as read. Though Shakespeare is said by many 
critics to be equally adapted to the stage and the closet, 
yet, as a matter of fact, he is rarely read save per- 
functorily by college instructors and classes and by 
some precieuses. In short we are growing beyond the 
Shakespeare idolatry period, just as we are growing 
beyond the period of the idolatry of the Grseco- Roman 
classics. Like Milton and the Bible, Shakespeare lies 
unopened in most cultivated homes from one year's end 
to another, at least as far as spontaneous pleasurable 
reading goes. If an honest census were made of those 
who, daily, weekly, or even monthly, turn to the read- 
ing of Shakespeare " with delight," their number would 
be found to be amazingly small. For those few, how- 
ever, I have admiration and even envy; but I am un- 
willing to admit them as the sole representatives of the 
children of light, and the saving remnant from Philis- 
tinism in this generation. HlRAM M STANLEY. 

Lake Forest, 1U., December 25, 1900. 

EARLY this year will be published Prof. A. Campbell 
Fraser's new edition, in four volumes, of the Complete 
Woris of Bishop Berkeley, all arranged in chrono- 
logical order. Professor Fraser has thoroughly revised 
and recast his previous edition of the Works, published 
in three octavo volumes at the Clarendon Press in 1871, 
and now out of print. The Introductions and Notes 
have been practically re-written; and a brief new 
biography will be prefixed. All fresh materials that 
have come to light within the last thirty years have been 
incorporated throughout ; and this may be regarded as 
the final Oxford edition of the great Irish Philosopher. 




Now and then there crops up in print a new 
collection of letters, like Fitzgerald's or Smeth- 
am's or Stevenson's, good enough to set review- 
ers of the sanguine sort to hailing cheerfully a 
revival of the long-mourned-as-lost art of letter- 
writing. Such is the case with the two trim 
volumes now before us, the Letters of Thomas 
Edward Brown ; and it should be said, and 
noted as a favorable sign, that the marked stir 
of interest caused by them is the result of the 
intrinsic and generally unlooked-for merit of 
the letters themselves, and not of the celebrity 
of the writer, Brown's public, even in his 
own country, not having been a large one. 

An author of no wide vogue at home, Brown 
has been, we think, even less known in Amer- 
ica : and hence a word or so about him now, 
a statement of the main facts in his not very 
eventful career, prefatory to the foretaste we 
propose giving through quotation of his cer- 
tainly remarkable letters, may not come amiss. 
He was born in the Isle of Man in 1830, and 
died in 1897. His father, the Rev. Robert 
Brown, Vicar of Kirk Braddan, near Douglas, 
was a writer and preacher of something more 
than local repute a sort of Grandison of the 
pen (as we gather from the notice of him by 
the editor of the Letters), who was so nice in 
his notions of literary deportment that he used 
to " make his son read to him some fragment 
of an English classic before answering an in- 
vitation." At fifteen Brown went to King 
William's College, where he distinguished him- 
self in verse composition, Greek, Latin, and 
English, and developed that distaste for math- 
ematics so often coupled with the literary gift. 
An old schoolfellow, Archdeacon Wilson, 
thus speaks of him : 

" I can well remember, as a small boy of eleven, just 
placed in the fifth class at King William's College, 
having Brown pointed ont to me, not without awe. He 
was said to ' know more than any master! ' and to have 
written the best Latin prose that the University exam- 
iners had ever seen! ' . . . Of course he never saw or 
spoke to a youngster like me." 

The " of course " can only be appreciated by 
those who know from some experience what 

"Fo'c's'le Yarns." Edited, with Introductory Memoir, by 
Sidney T. Irwin. In two volumes. New York : E. P. Dutton 
ft Co. 

THE COLLECTED POEMS or T. E. BROWS. With portrait. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

the " head boy " of an English school is to his 
cringing and reverential juniors, who are only 
too glad to blacken his boots, and fetch and 
carry for him like so many spaniels. The drop 
from this high estate of " head boy " to the 
quasi-menial one of a servitorship at Christ 
Church, Oxford, whither he went in 1849, was 
a trying one for Brown, as is bitterly indicated 
in an article on the position of a servitor at 
Oxford in his time, which he wrote years after 
for " Macmillan's Magazine." But to Oxford 
he went, and his academical career there is 
described as a peculiarly brilliant one. He not 
only won a double First Class in 1853, but 
found himself, in 1854, " in the proud position 
of a Fellow of Oriel " as Dr. Fowler records 
with academic unction. 

The life of an Oxford Fellow was not, how- 
ever, one to Brown's liking. He had no wish, 
he said, to " fatten on a Fellowship," nor did 
a Tutorship attract him ; so after a few terms 
with private pupils he returned to the Isle of 
Man, and became Vice-Principal of King 
William's College. Then he went to the Crypt 
School, at Gloucester, where his friend Mr. 
W. E. Henley was his pupil. After a brief 
stay at Gloucester he was asked to take the 
Modern Side at Clifton College, Bristol ; and 
there he remained as a master for thirty-six 
years, leading a life outwardly uneventful but 
intellectually rich, and productive of work of 
which the world has taken too little notice. All 
his published poems were written, and most of 
them were published, while he was at Clifton 
" Betsy Lee," in 1873 ; Fo'c's'le Yarns " 
(including "Betsy Lee"), in .1881, and in 
1889; "The Doctor and Other Poems," in 
1887 ; " The Manx Witch and Other Poems," 
in 1889 ; and " Old John and Other Poems," 
in 1893. These works have now been gathered 
into a rather thick volume of Collected Poems, 
which comes to us almost simultaneously with 
the Letters. 

A former pupil at Clifton, Mr. H. F. Brown 
(the author, if we remember rightly, of an ad- 
mirable book on Venice), writes as follows of 
the impression he retained of his old master's 
strong and somewhat rugged personality : 

" He never spoke to me out of school, and I never 
knew him at all privately or socially at that time, but 
his personality made a great impression ; his slow sort 
of urgent walk, like Leviathan, his thick massive figure, 
above all his voice. I used to see him in the distance on 
his lonely strolls about the downs, and his figure seemed 
to belong to and to explain the downs, the river, the 
woods, the Severn, and the far Welsh hills. I remem- 
ber him walking in the rain, and looking as if he liked 

it, as I did. Personally, at that time I was afraid of 
him; but he stirred fancy, curiosity, imagination. I 
should say that his educational function lay in ' widen- 
ing.' He was a ' widener.' He made one feel that 
there was something beyond the school, beyond success- 
ful performances at lessons or at games; there was a 
whiff of the great world brought iu by him." 

Brown's letters, as selected for publication 
by Mr. Sidney T. Irwin, the editor of these 
volumes and long a colleague of Brown's at 
Clifton, extend chronologically from 1851, or 
the period of the author's undergraduateship, 
to 1897, the year of his death. Whatever 
faults may have been ascribed to Brown in his- 
lifetime, no one ever thought of calling him 
commonplace. His mind was one of quite un- 
usual turn and content ; and he gave it free- 
rein in his letters. He liked, as he said, " to- 
please his friends "; and when he took pen in 
hand to write to a friend he poured out with- 
out stint the best he could say or fancy of the 
topic in hand. He did not " keep his best for 
the printer," for he was singularly indifferent 
to general recognition, and had no need of 
slaving for that difficult and fickle taskmaster 
and patron, the public. The not too wide circle 
of his chosen friends was the public he served 
by choice, and the one whose approval he valued 
most. His love of nature was profound, and 
sought frequent expression in word-paintings^ 
a little rhapsodic at times, but often of marked 
power and beauty, as in the following picture 
of the Jungfrau : 

" So the Jungfrau vis-a-vis-es you frankly through 
the bright sweet intervening air. . . . One evening our 
sunset was the real rose-pink you have heard of so 
much. It fades, you know, into a death-like chalk- 
white. That is the most awful thing. A sort of spasm 
seems to come over her face, and in an instant she is a 
corpse, rigid, and oh so cold! Well, so she died, and 
you felt as if a great soul had ebbed away into the 
Heaven of Heavens: and thankful, but very sad, I went 
up to nay room. I was reading by candle-light, for it 
gets dark immediately after sunset, when A. shrieked 
to me to come to the window. What a Resurrection 
so gentle, so tender like that sonnet of Milton's about 
his dead wife returning in a vision! The moon had 
risen; and there was the Jungfrau oh, chaste, oh, 
blessed saint in glory everlasting! Then all the ele- 
mental spirits that haunt crevasses, and hover around 
peaks, all the patient powers that bear up the rocky 
buttresses, and labor to sustain great slopes, all streams,, 
and drifts, and flowers, and vapors, made a symphony, 
a time most solemn and rapturous. ... A young Swiss 
felt it, and with exquisite delicacy feeling his way, as. 
it were, to some expression, however inadequate, he 
played a sonata of Schumann, and one or two of the 
songs, such as the Friihlingsnacht." 

That Brown had in a high degree the artist's 
love of expression for its own sake is more 
evident in the following characteristic notelet : 




" Last night I had a ramble which it would be hard 
to describe. I went round aud round something ; 
probably myself. One point there was upon the cir- 
cumference a spark a ship working her way up 
channel against wind and tide. The ship was invisible 
in the gloom, but the light what intense yearning ! 
and what pluck and energy too ! It was like a red 
diamond, if there be such a thing, boring into black- 
ness. I could almost hear the rip-rip of the severing 
sheets of darkness; or perhaps, rather, a delicate hum 
of the gritty grating stuff through which she had to 
pass. But no, I return to the first idea. The borer, 
the red diamond piercing the black marble." 

To many readers not of the now ruling 
generation the following note (1881) on Car- 
lyle's death will be gratefully intelligible : 

" And True Thomas ' is gone. What has he not 
been to men of my generation ? And the younger men 
come and ask one What was it? What did he teach ? 
and so forth ; and, of course, there is nothing to be said 
in that direction. And, if one mumbles something be- 
tween one's teeth (impatiently, rather like a half- 
chewed curse) something about a Baptism of fire 
my graceful adolescents look shocked, and, for the 
most part, repeat the question, ' Yes, yes, but what did 
he teach? ' To which (I mean when repeated) there is 
no possible reply, but the honest outspoken ' 1) .' " 

The note on Carlyle naturally leads up to 
the following amusing dissertation on genius, 
evidently in reply to a friend's plaint of a par- 
ticular instance of the proverbial seamy side 
of the man of genius. 

"A genius! that's it. And they are all like that, 
almost all. Those little falsetti, and affectations, and 
posings, and putting the best foot foremost; those 
cravings for appreciation, the egotism, the self-con- 
sciousness (go ahead!), all characterize the genius. You 
must take him with them take him or leave him 
alone. But you seem to seek a portent! a man of 
genius and a man of hard practical common-sense 
knocked into one. The world has produced half a 
dozen such men. They are tremendous. But 
Heaven help us! you must be content with some- 
thing less than this, or Nature will never get her men 
off her hands. ' Sell me a genius,' say you. Here 
.you are,' says Nature, handing over a lot, ' plenty of 
choice : marked in figures ; read Byron, Shelley, 
Keats, Coleridge ' ' Oh, I want ' Well, what do 
jou want? ' ' A strong, powerful, healthy intellect, and 
genius as a dooragh.' * ' Oh, thank you for nothing! 
We don't make them. You had better try the shop 
over the way, or give a special order, and we can try, 
provided you are willing to wait a thousand years or 
o!' . . . This 'rift within the lute' of genius is the 
inseparable accident ... I have no doubt that to 
many of us it were better if we never got to know men 
of genius privately. You may depend upon it that, 
throughout the history of literature, they offended their 
contemporaries by their airs and their bosh, their petti- 
uess aud their asinine conceit. Never mind! The world 
has taken its hat off to these men, and so must we. 
We need not stroke the quills on the ' back of the 
fretful porpeutine '; let us avoid coming into too close 
contact. Perhaps some of them had better be kept in 

* I. e., "genius to boot." 

cages. But chance may domesticate you with one; 
you may, for instance, marry one. Poor Mrs. Carlyle! " 

On the following somewhat satirical passage 
from a letter of 1895, comment were superfluous. 

" Have you seen Mat. Arnold's Letters * I hear of 
a Penny Mat. Arnold published by Stead ( / / ). Is that 
possible? And to be followed by a Penny Clough ! 
Did yon ever ? Is he publishing them in penny num- 
bers ? the whole to cost a lot ? Or, positively, can we 

have Mat. the whole nnmntilated Mat for a 

penny ? And by Stead f Wonders will never cease. 
Fancy Mat., from that fair heaven which now holds his 
dainty ghost, stooping to sniff, etc. . . . Still, one has 
the consolation of thinking that he must be amused 
when he beholds waving a censor in his temple such a 
high-priest as Stead amused yes, and note the 
shrinking nostril, how it curves! " 

The foregoing quotations should suffice to 
show the general tone and the genre of Brown's 
letters, and to establish the point, at least, that 
commonness is the last quality to be predicated 
of them. Their diversity, their rich allusive- 
ness, their swift spontaneity, their protean 
mutability of mood, their odd humor, we have 
but faintly indicated. All in all, they seem to 
us to form one of the richest and most original 
collections of the kind of recent years. Mr. 
Irwin has done his editing well and helpfully, 
in the main ; but for some inscrutable reason 
the volumes were issued without an Index, 
which they especially need. This omission we 
trust to see supplied in the forthcoming second 
edition of the Letters, already called for. The 
volumes are well printed, though not without 
an occasional slip in the spelling, for in- 
stance, " Olnet " for Ohnet, on page 220, and 
" Cuddie " for Caddy, on page 208. 

The popularity of Brown's letters will doubt- 
less send people to reading, or re-reading, his 
poems ; and hence the convenient volume of 
" Collected Poems of T. E. Brown " recently 
issued by the Messrs. Macmillan comes with 
especial timeliness. The not very poetic Manx 
dialect with which not a few of these earnest 
but somewhat rugged productions are plenti- 
fully sprinkled may prove an obstacle to some 
readers ; and we should think that a taste for 
Brown's poetry must in general be something 
of an acquired one. But once acquired it will 
be likely to abide, and to prove a source of no 
small joy and profit of the high sort that genuine 
poetry alone, with a strain of broad human 
sympathy in it, can give. The volume contains 
736 compact pages, and is the latest number 
of its publishers' admirable series of Uniform 
Editions of the Poets, including such masters 
as Tennyson and Browning. A fine portrait of 
the author forms the frontispiece. E. G. J. 



[Jan. 1, 


In these days of easy authorship and half- 
matured production, it is a strengthening of 
faith in the survival of learning to take up two 
large volumes that show research and investi- 
gation requiring many years of patient labor. 
To attempt even a cursory examination of the 
multitude of myths and legends on the rela- 
tions between the Old and the New worlds 
prior to Columbus is a task that might dissuade 
any save a scholar who works under the in- 
centive of religious zeal and writes from a fixed 
purpose. Fifteen pages of closely-printed 
bibliography reveal a searching investigation 
that extends backward from the " moneron " 
of Darwin to the voyages of Columbus. In 
addition to the printed authorities, two pages 
of manuscripts and archives, mostly in the 
Vatican, are included. The Bible, Humboldt's 
JExamen Critique, and Herrera's Historia 
General are most frequently cited. Such an 
exhaustive list of authorities on the relations 
between the two hemispheres prior to Columbus 
is rarely met with. 

Rejecting, on religious grounds, the theory 
of evolution, which he terms " the fashionable 
school of science sprung up during the latter 
half of our century," as also the suggestion 
that the American aborigines were pre- Adam- 
ites, the author proceeds to examine the Cave 
Dwellers and the Mound Builders as types of 
people separate from the Indians of Columbus, 
and possessing a higher civilization, whose 
origin must be accounted for. Such advanced 
state is also indicated by ruins in Central 
America, California, Peru, and Brazil. Simi- 
larity between the traditions of the aborigines 
and the descriptions of the Old Testament 
forms further proof of a pre-Christian civili- 
zation. As a means of crossing the waters, 
the author seems to accept Plato's Atlantis, as 
nearly as he expresses a definite opinion on 
any point raised. Seeking the peoples by whom 
this civilization was brought from the Old 
world to the New, he rejects the Phoenicians, 
Jews, pre-Christian Irish, Romans, and Afri- 
cans, and, by the law of elimination, is " in- 
clined to believe " that these traditions were 
" brought into America by the nearest descen- 
dants of the patriarch Noe, who had taken 
their course in an easterly direction, landing 

to documents and approved authors. By P. De Roo. In 
two volumes. Philadelphia : The J. B. Lippincott Co. 

in America, either at Behring Strait, or, after 
sailing through Polynesia, on the western 
coast of Central America and Peru." Accord- 
ing to this hypothesis, Christianity becomes 
America's " second civilizer." 

Finding here his real thesis, the author an- 
nounces the apostle St. Thomas as the agent 
who brought Christianity to early America, 
although that St. James or St. Paul came is 
not " an unreasonable induction." Anticipating 
the objection that human agencies were wanting 
in those days for such journeys, the writer 
takes refuge in the superhuman or the miracu- 
lous. " Is not the whole establishment of 
Christianity one single great miracle too little 
noticed ? " Discussion of this point resolves 
itself into the old controversy between the 
Spanish church which claimed the credit for 
the evangelization of America, and the other 
Roman Catholic nations which objected to such 
a monopoly. 

An examination of the rites of the western 
savages further strengthens the hypothesis of 
a pre-Columbian Christianity. Crude forms 
of the confessional are found, as well as baptism, 
the eucharist, convents, monasteries, and celi- 
bates. Penance is not uncommon ; but when 
penance becomes self-torture, it ceases to be a 
church function, according to the author, and 
becomes one of " Satan's rites." Numerous 
witnesses are found to testify to the finding of 
the crucifix among so-called heathen emblems j 
of the representation of a man fastened to a 
cross ; of the expectation of a Messiah, and 
even his birth from a virgin. 

The people of Ireland seem the most likely 
agents who disseminated this knowledge of the 
church in America. That no trace of them 
remains is due to their relapsing into barbar- 
ism. Traditions of the Welsh in America, 
the delightful crux of our scientific ancestors, 
are explained by a similar appearance and 
disappearance of that people. The claims of 
the Scandinavians are examined through the 
sagas, indubitable evidences of them being 
found all along the Atlantic coast from New 
York to New Foundland. Between these 
Norsemen and Columbus, the author finds a 
host of daring men who crossed the " great 
Sea of Darkness," thus enabling him to pro- 
claim with evident satisfaction his summing; 
up, that " knowledge and not genius directed 
the voyages of Columbus." 

Beginning by chance his inquiries among 
the archives of the Vatican, the author could 
not avoid a pardonable pride in the early 




achievements of his church and a resulting ten- 
dency to favor her claims. Of this fact he is 
confessedly conscious in his introduction. He 
has " kept a steady eye on the religious par- 
ticulars "; he admits the " religious trend " of 
his work ; but at the same time he has made 
it his " duty to hear the testimony of dissent- 
ing and infidel authors." He apologizes for 
quoting so frequently H. H. Bancroft and 
W. H. Prescott, " two authors whose religious 
ideas are either extremely vague or absolutely 
null when not inimical to Christianity." 

Quite naturally the author's conclusions on 
a majority of the questions concerning primi- 
tive days are based upon the Scriptures. For 
instance, after examining the opinions of a 
multitude of scientists as to the probable time 
of the appearance of man on the earth, and 
summing up their widely divergent opinions, 
the author refuses to steer his "exploration 
bark " by their figures, and decides " for pru- 
dence to seek safety in the harbor opened to 
us by that venerable book," etc. Similar dis- 
crepancies existing among Bible students upon 
this point he easily disposes of by the state- 
ment that if we knew more about the Scrip- 
tures we could the better explain them. 

Aside from the criticism that the work is 
more of a Middle Age church disquisition than 
a modern historical essay, one must note the 
difficulty that always attends such obsolete 
methods the impossibility of rendering by 
them a verdict upon any mooted question. 
The mind is lost in uncertainty between the 
legendary and the authentic. Only when 
resting upon Scriptural ground does the 
author venture beyond the highly probable. 
In general, he rarely states a fixed opinion. 
Thus, of the texts of the Scriptures he finds 
that " which one is right and which wrong will 
most likely ever remain a matter of dispute "; 
the time and circumstances of the disappear- 
ance of the so-called Mound Builders are 
" involved in as deep mystery as those of their 
first appearance "; while concerning the sup- 
posed evidences of the Norsemen in Massachu- 
setts, "explanation strictly historical is now 

On the other hand, it should be said that no 
previous work has disclosed to the general 
reader so many disquisitions on the possible 
Christianization of the Western world before 
Columbus, nor made so full a compilation of 
the many opinions on this vexed question. The 
volumes will be read with interest even by 
those who lament that the author did not con- 

fine himself to a narrower field and a less 
pre- judged attitude. Mention should be made 
of the several charts accompanying the descrip- 
tive matter. In closing, the author announces 
a similar work upon the spread of Christianity 
in America after Columbus. 



The compiler of a history of banking in the 
United States is confronted at the outset by a 
difficulty inherent in the material with which 
he has to deal. Should the treatment be chro- 
nological? or should the subject-matter be 
divided into histories of banking in each of 
the States, with a separate section for banks 
chartered by the Federal government ? The 
latter plan is the one followed by Mr. Knox 
in the work before us. This plan facilitates 
the tabulation and orderly arrangement of the 
vast array of details which defy all attempts 
at condensation ; but on the other hand it 
makes the coordination of the material a prac- 
tical impossibility and precludes the compre- 
hensive view that is essential to complete 
understanding. The aim of the author was to 
gather all the information possible " upon 
every phase of banking in every State of the 
Union." This work, left unfinished at his 
death in 1892, has now been revised and 
brought up to date under the editorship of 
Mr. Bradford Rhodes and Mr. Youngman of 
the " Bankers' Magazine," with the assistance 
of " a corps of financial writers " who have 
furnished sketches of banking history in the 
several States. The result is a stout octavo 
volume of eight hundred and eighty closely 
printed pages, which, although it contains 
much information not elsewhere accessible, is 
not so much a connected history as a collection 
of material for one. To a certain extent the 
book has the advantage of being the work of 
a banker of training and ripe experience, who 
had, moreover, during his long service as 
Comptroller of the Currency, exceptional op- 
portunities for familiarizing himself with the 
varied details of his subject ; nevertheless, it 

the late John Jay Knox ; assisted by a corps of financial 
writers in the various States. Revised and brought np to 
date by Bradford Rhodes and Elmer H. Youngman. New 
York : Bradford Rhodes & Co. 

CLEARING HOUSES : Their History, Methods, and Admin- 
istration. By James Q. Cannon, Vice- President of the 
Fourth National Bank of the City of New York. New York : 
D. Appleton & Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

is on the whole disappointing. The desire of 
the editors (it is impossible to determine the 
extent of Mr. Knox's authorship) to chronicle 
the facts without bias may be assumed to be 
the reason why all statement of basic princi- 
ples and explanation of events by reference 
thereto is, as far as may be, omitted. This is 
somewhat like the play of " Hamlet " with 
Hamlet left out. 

Strange as it may seem, the principles of 
sound banking have never been well under- 
stood in the United States, even by bankers 
themselves. As a consequence there has been 
nothing in the nature of progressive develop- 
ment with gradual addition of desirable fea- 
tures and elimination of defective ones. 
Instead, we have but a sorry record of the 
practical trial of almost every conceivable 
theory in regard to banking and credit. No 
other country has been the field for such a 
variety of foolish legislation upon the subject. 
Good banking systems in some of the States 
and bad systems in other States have existed 
side by side, yet seemingly with little or no 
comprehension, on the part of bankers, legisla- 
tors, or the public generally, of what consti- 
tuted the vital difference between them. At no 
time has a thoroughly sound, well-considered, 
and comprehensive system, adapted in all 
respects to the needs of the country, been in 
operation. The National Banking Law brought 
order out of the chaos which preceded its en- 
actment, and has many excellent features, yet 
it is far from creating an ideal system. Its 
very success in protecting the note-holder from 
loss is responsible for the prevalence of erro- 
neous ideas in regard to the true character of 
the note-issuing function. This function has 
always been one of the chief stumbling-blocks 
in the way of an understanding of banking 
principles. Ignorance of these principles led 
to the enactment of laws in some of the States, 
of which unscrupulous men were quick to take 
advantage, and " wildcat banks " and " stump- 
tail currency " were the logical sequence. 
Even in the States in which the note issues 
were on a sound basis, the volume in circula- 
tion was regulated more by accident as, for 
example in New England, through the develop- 
ment of the Suffolk Bank redemption system 
than as the result of a clear conception of the 
governing principle. This principle, stated 
briefly, is that no bank should pay out over its 
counter other bank notes than its own, and 
that provision should be made for daily 
redemption in all the commercial centres. In 

this way only can true " elasticity " be secured 
and the volume of the currency be automatic- 
ally adjusted to the needs of the community. 

In a book more than half of which is made 
up of articles by some twenty-seven different 
authors, consistent exposition in the light of 
any one view of what is the true explanation 
of the occurrences described, is not to be ex- 
pected ; and it is not surprising, therefore, to 
find effects attributed to entirely different 
causes, as on page 458, where one author 
thinks the panic of 1857 was due to the low 
tariff then in force ; while another writer, on 
page 512, expresses the opinion that inflation 
of the currency was the cause. Such differ- 
ences of opinion are perhaps inevitable in a 
work by so many hands. The editors, how- 
ever, must be held responsible for not elimi- 
nating, so far as possible, the jargon of " the 
street " and adopting a scientific terminology 
in its place. To speak of " money," when 
" free loanable capital " is the correct phrase, 
may be sufficiently intelligible to the man who 
borrows or the banker who lends the capital ; 
but the use of such language in a history is in 
the highest degree misleading. What wonder 
is it that when people are informed that 
" money is scarce " they should jump to the 
conclusion that the volume of the circulating 
medium is inadequate ? Yet the simple truth 
is that it is not money but loanable capital 
that has become scarce, because the free cap- 
ital of the country or the locality which free 
capital may consist either of money or credit 
is in use owing to increased business activity, 
or is locked up through apprehension on the 
part of its owners. It is true that money and 
capital and credit are, under some circum- 
stances, interchangeable terms ; but that need 
not here be taken into consideration, this not 
being the place for extended discussion of the 
relation between them. 

Comment in detail upon the many topics 
treated in this volume would expand these 
remarks far beyond the limits of available 
space. As a storehouse of information, it is a 
welcome addition to banking literature. Many 
of the separate articles are ably written and 
are worthy of separate reviews. Much pains 
appears to have been taken to secure accuracy 
of statement. While there are occasional 
slips as, for instance, on page 192, where it 
is a little surprising to read that the Metro- 
politan National Bank of Chicago failed in the 
year 1888, such mistakes are remarkably 
few for a work of such magnitude. 




The utility of the Clearing House as a labor- 
saving and time-saving device in banking is 
well understood. Curiously enough, 


although the idea of offsetting mutual demands 
against each other and settling them by pay- 
ment of the resulting balances only, is sim- 
plicity itself, the methods by which it is put 
into practice vary widely. Mr. Cannon has 
performed a service which bankers will appre- 
ciate, in setting forth in detail, in his book on 
44 Clearing Houses," the machinery in use for 
this purpose in the different cities in the United 
States, and also in London, in Canada, and in 
Japan. The work is that of a banker thor- 
oughly familiar with his subject and careful 
in his presentment of it. 

Clearing Houses in their inception were the 
outgrowth of a practical necessity. The same 
consideration has led most of these institutions 
in the United States to assume functions other 
than the primary one for which they were 
established. Many have become to a greater 
or less degree a medium for united action on 
the part of their members. Rales regulating 
collection charges, rates of interest on deposits, 
banking hours, and other matters, have been 
adopted in many cities. The most important 
of the added functions is the pooling of 
resources in times of financial stress through 
the issue of Clearing House loan certificates. 
This contrivance, the most ingenious which 
has been evolved from the banking methods in 
vogue in the United States, affording as it 
does a partial remedy for the lack of elasticity 
in our currency, is discussed at length by Mr. 
Cannon. While pointing out the great benefit 
which has accrued from the resort to such cer- 
tificates in critical times, he omits to indicate 
the disadvantage which their use implies. 
There can be no doubt that the issue of loan 
certificates by the New York banks in 1893 
relieved the acuteness of the distress then 
prevalent ; but it is true also that it intensified 
the currency famine and subjected bankers 
and merchants throughout the country to a 
heavy tax by causing an abnormally large dis- 
count on New York exchange. Alone among 
banks in the leading commercial centres, the 
Chicago banks have never made use of this 
device. There are many reasons for this ; 
among them, the certainty of inducing a 
scarcity of currency, which could not fail to 
bear with severity upon the great market-place 
for products always bought and sold for cash, 
has ever been a potent consideration. 

Mr. Cannon very justly criticises the custom 

which obtains among the Boston banks of 
lending to each other the credit balances aris- 
ing from the clearing. In commenting upon a 
somewhat similar practice in Chicago, he does 
not appear to note the important distinction 
that the Chicago banks trade their balances 
merely as a matter of convenience and to avoid 
the risk of carrying large sums of money 
through the streets. The necessity of being 
always prepared to make cash settlements is 
not in the least done away with. Such settle- 
ments are liable to be insisted upon at any 
time, and especially in periods of stringency. 


In some glowing words concerning his coun- 
try, an American poet sings : 

" Here the last stand is made. 
If we fail here, what new Columbus bold, 

Steering 1 brave prow through black seas unafraid, 
Finds oat a fresh land where man may abide 

And freedom yet be saved ? " 

And the answer comes with no uncertain voice 
in the new book by Mr. Henry Demarest 
Lloyd, an amplification of his recent "Country 
without Strikes," and entitled, ' Newest En- 
gland, Notes of a Democratic Traveller in New 
Zealand, with Some Australian Comparisons." 
To those unfamiliar with the practical accom- 
plishments of the statesmen guiding the desti- 
nies of the English-speaking people in the 
antipodes, the book will be a surprise ; to all 
idealists and believers in human perfectibility 
it will be a delight ; and to evolutionists gen- 
erally it will be in a sense a stumbling-block. 
At the same time it is reasonable proof that 
many things we in the United States have been 
dismissing as Utopian dreams are eminently 
practical in unselfish hands, requiring nothing 
more abstract than leaders of the people who 
have the welfare of the people first at heart, 
with intelligence enough to know where that 
welfare lies. 

In 1890 the people of Australasia found the 
world slipping beneath their feet. A huge 
strike, extending through the Australian con- 
tinent and its tributary islands, had been com- 
pletely overthrown and the labor element left 
gasping with defeat. Concurrently, financial 
dishonesty and monetary stringency had par- 
alyzed capital, so that in victory it was no 

* NEWEST ENGLAND : Notes of a Democratic Traveller in 
New Zealand, with Some Australian Companions. By Henry 
Demarest Lloyd. New York : Donbleday, Page & Co. 


[Jan. 1, 

happier than its opponent in rout. In this 
emergency, as Mr. Lloyd tells us, there arose 
in New Zealand a small body of men, themselves 
the sons of the people, but sons who had not 
forgotten their upbringing, who stepped into 
the gap. The Bank of New Zealand, whining 
patriotism while it plundered rich and poor 
alike, was taken out of a slough of despond 
into which its managers had plunged it, and 
the country was thereby enabled to weather 
the financial storms which all but wrecked the 
sister colonies. This accomplished, a series 
of reforms was set on foot, the end of which 
is not yet. It is with these that Mr. Lloyd is 
chiefly concerned, and they are already so 
numerous that little more than a summary of 
them can be given. 

First of all, the New Zealand government, 
recognizing tramps, paupers, and workless 
laborers as symptoms of a disease infecting the 
body politic, was wise enough to regard it as 
only one of several symptoms, among which 
were also to be counted millionaires when made 
by turning over to private individuals any of 
the powers of government for the sake of 
private gain. The system of taxation was 
therefore reversed. The tax which bore most 
heavily on the improvements of land, and so 
on enterprise and thrift, was taken off, and 
the burden thrown on vacant land. If the 
holdings were large, the tax was proportion- 
ately larger ; if owned by an absentee, larger 
still ; and the right to purchase any given 
estate at a ten per centum advance on the 
valuation given in for purposes of taxation 
was legalized a measure which has given 
relief to scores of New Zealand families by 
enabling them to leave the overcrowded cities. 
Leases in perpetuity, with occupancy as an 
essential, make it impossible for the land to 
return again into the hands of the few. " No 
man now dreams," an eminent New Zealander 
is quoted as saying, " of founding a great 
landed estate in New Zealand." 

In the public works, beginning with road- 
making and extending thence to bridge-build- 
ing and even to the erection of public edifices, 
it has been found possible by the rulers of 
these islands to dispense altogether with the 
services of the middleman, to give the work 
directly to the workmen, and to give it in such 
a way that the weaker and less efficient among 
the workmen are fully secured in their chances 
of earning such a living as they are capable of 

Recognizing that in trades unions the only 

efficient ally of the State against the greed of 
employers is to be found, the one bulwark 
against the wholesale manufacture of men of 
broken wills and hopeless futures, the govern- 
ment set about restraining the power of both 
employers and employees for ill, passing a com- 
pulsory arbitration law which at a single move 
made strikes and the attendant abuses of public 
rights impossible, but limiting its beneficence 
to members of trades unions alone. A strike 
is not legally impossible in New Zealand, but 
a strike by organized labor the only form of 
strike which has proved effective is impos- 
sible. So a lockout by employers, singly or in 
combination, is not legally impossible, but may 
take place only when their employees have 
failed to join themselves to some labor organi- 
zation. It is significant that both sides not 
only welcome this innovation upon what some 
economists style natural rights, but refuse to 
avail themselves of the recommendation of the 
court below, the powers of which are limited to 
conciliation, and carry their cases to the point 
where a compulsory decree of the court of last 
resort ends the litigation by final adjudication. 

The railroads, prime cause of many great 
fortunes through partiality and private con- 
tract elsewhere, already belonged to the state 
in New Zealand, yet had been administered by 
a board remote from the popular will. The 
management was placed directly in the govern- 
ment, which is fully amenable to the will of 
the people as expressed at the polls. As a re- 
sult, the rates are fixed regardless of the wealth 
of the shipper or the value and quantities of 
his shipments, and the poor farmer and the 
rich manufacturer have exact equality in get- 
ting their wares to market. A single policy is 
declared that of cheaper rates. 

The government itself, without the interven- 
tion of a banker, advances money on lands for 
purposes of the improvement thereof, and the 
mortgage shark has disappeared with the rack 
renter. Not only this, but the government finds 
a market in London for the products of New 
Zealand industry, and advances money on con- 
signments, as of agricultural products, in its 
hands and inspected. The wild dream of the 
Western and Southern populist, which would 
have had the American government issue de- 
bentures based upon wheat and other grain in 
governmental warehouses to the farmer, is in 
New Zealand an accomplished fact. 

Women vote in New Zealand, and every 
needy individual who reaches the age of sixty- 
five is given a state pension of five dollars a 




week, the moneys for this purpose being secured 
by a progressive income tax. 

All these things have been " made to pay," 
as Mr. Lloyd is at pains to prove. Within 
the short time they have been operative they 
have been profitable to the country, and taxa- 
tion has decreased. It is not pretended that 
all abuses have been rectified. A highly pro- 
tective tariff still exists, for example ; but 
there is a perfect recognition on the part of 
the government that the effect of such a meas- 
ure is to enrich the rich and deplete the purses 
of the poor, and compensating taxation is ar- 
ranged for in view of that fact. 

Nor is the country standing still. The pro- 
gramme of the future contains such items as 
state fire insurance ; zone rates on railroads ; 
nationalized steamship lines, mines, and land ; 
in expensive law courts; state banking; and many 
more things of the sort, all of which seem 
to grow naturally out of existing conditions. 

As will be seen, the book is of the greatest 
interest to all students of existing social con- 
ditions. It is written in Mr. Lloyd's simplest 
and best manner, and is, within certain limits, 
convincing. Yet there is too little stress laid 
on the fact that only ten years have elapsed 
since the beginning of these reforms was made 
a mere second of time in sociology as in 
geology ; that the New Zealand statesman is 
as exceptional in training and ambitions as in 
achievements ; that " fraternalism," however 
different initially from " paternalism," still 
spells much the same thing ; and that the pro- 
posed Australasian confederation places an 
entirely new aspect on the whole case. 



The volume entitled " Evolution and Theology " 
is made up of a series of articles published at vari- 
ous times. It is vigorous, aggressive, and suggestive. 

Otto Pfleiderer, D.D. Edited by Orello Cone. New York : 
The Macraillan Co. 

New York : Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 

Askwith, M.A. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE SOUL OF A CHRISTIAN. By Frank Granger. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

New York : McClure, Phillips & Co. 

York : Harper & Brothers. 

WHENCE AND WHITHER. By Paul Cams. Chicago : The 
Open Court Company. 

The author occasionally pushes bis view to a point 
that is self-destructive. Thus, he says : " If it is 
the methodic cardinal proposition of the science of 
to-day that we have to explain every condition as 
the causally determined development out of a pre- 
ceding one, this excludes the appearance of any 
condition, event, action, or personality, which is 
not explicable out of tbe factors of the preceding 
conditions and according to tbe laws of genesis 
in general" (page 9). This assertion leaves no 
standing-ground for human thought as a free, self- 
directed process. All mental activity sinks to a 
series of causal events, each series on the same foot- 
ing as every other series. The earth-worm leaves 
a shiny trail on the flag it traverses. The direction 
it pursues has no significance, has no rational 
basis. Tbe movement, at its highest and its lowest 
expression, is merely an obscure fact with no quality 
in the realm of truth. 

" The Religion of a Gentleman " the religion 
of a man is admirable in purpose and in execu- 
tion. Tbe author is possessed of strong spiritual 
susceptibilities, ruddy life, and quick intellect. His 
aim is to unite these human endowments in one 
coherent self-sustaining whole. The book will be 
helpful to all who are struggling for such a recon- 
ciliation, and find themselves embarrassed by ob- 
trusive irrational elements in religion. With sound 
common-sense, tbe author grasps at once tbe inner 
substance of faith. 

" Tbe Christian Conception of Holiness " is an 
effort to unite Christian doctrine and evolution in 
one harmonious conception. The intermediate 
thought by which this is done is " the gospel of 
creation," the development of a higher form of 
spiritual life. " God is a being whose every thought 
is love." " Creation is one great unselfish thought, 
the bringing into being of creatures who can know 
the happiness which God himself knows." The 
author has a vigorous hold upon his subject, and 
scatters light freely along the discussion. One who 
gladly accepts this general line of reconciliation 
will still be inclined to go farther, or less far, in the 
details of presentation, according to the degree in 
which he has worked out similar lines of inquiry. 
It is a bold region, full of various and captivating 
views. The manner of thought and expression is 
so isolated as to detract somewhat from the popular 
value of the discussion. 

" Tbe Soul of a Christian " is a book quite of its 
own order, and well deserves attention. The 
writer states bis object in his first sentence in this 
wise : " It is the purpose of this essay to describe 
the Christian life, as far as possible, in tbe terms, 
and with the methods, of psychology." The 
method pursued is discursive. The chapters have 
no very close connection, and the discussion in each 
is free. It is a book that offers itself to a piece- 
meal perusal, and rewards it by many flashes of 
light. It cannot fail to help us to a better under- 
standing of the connection of nervous and spiritual 



[Jan. 1, 

The fourteen chapters on " The Doctrines of 
Grace," though not offered as sermons, have the 
proportion and independence of pulpit discourses. 
They are characterized by a warmth of feeling, 
quickness of intellect, and common-sense which 
should make them acceptable not only within but 
beyond the circle of assent to the doctrines involved 
in them. 

"The Riddle of the Universe" seems to be a 
misnomer as a title, for the author makes no riddle 
whatever of the world, denying most of that which 
others regard as mysterious. Professor Haeckel 
has been from the beginning, and still remains, a 
very flat-footed empiricist. Mental phenomena 
with him are simply a phase of physical phenomena. 
Rarely is a man so destitute of all the instruments 
and insights of spiritual knowledge as Professor 
Haeckel. If one with no better furniture of 
powers were to give himself to science, he would 
be regarded simply as a charlatan. The Professor 
has this merit : he is no way afraid of his own 
conclusions, and puts them unreservedly in lan- 
guage appropriate to them, without the disguise of 
a phraseology that belongs to a higher philosophy. 
The book is a loose statement of opinions, his own 
and others, on a variety of spiritual and quasi- 
spiritual themes. 

"Whence and Whither" is, like the previous 
volume, an effort to answer great questions out of 
meagre resources. Empirical monism is largely 
logomachy. It regards very diverse relations as 
alike because it has applied to them similar lan- 
guage. Its explanations are verbal, not real. 
At bottom, it is most utterly unempirical, since a 
spiritual experience is wholly wanting or boldly 
thrust aside. Listen to this explanation of memory, 
and depart being fed: "Memory is nothing but 
the psychical aspect of the preservation of physio- 
logical form. Some sense-impression or its reaction 
has left a trace which in the general metabolism 
preserves its form, for every particle discarded is 
replaced in the very same mode of grouping by 
another particle of the same kind, so that the 
structure remains the same in spite of the change 
of the material, and possesses the capability of 
producing the same kind of feeling" (page 20). 
In noticing a book, it may be one's duty to give 
some intimation of what persons would probably 
be pleased with it. We have no more convenient 
phrase at hand than that of Lincoln : Those who 
like this sort of thing will find this the sort of 
thing they will like. JoHN BASCOM. 

WHEN " The International Monthly " was established 
a year ago, the announcement was made that many of 
its articles would be reprinted in book form. The first 
fruits of this promise appear in the shape of a volume, 
now issued, which contains Senator Rambaud's schol- 
arly monograph upon " The Expansion of Russia." The 
volume bears the imprint of the International Monthly, 
Burlington, Vermont, since the Macmillan Co. no 
longer act as the publishers. 


Some notable A trul y noble P iece of bibliographical 
bibliographical work is the " Catalogue of the Dante 
work on Dante. Collection" presented by Professor 
Willard Fiske to the Cornell University Library. 
This catalogue, the work of Mr. Theodore Wesley 
Koch, is now complete in two volumes containing 
an aggregate of over six hundred large double- 
columned pages. A first part, covering " Dante's 
Works," was issued over two years ago ; the remain- 
ing section (which is five or six times the larger of 
the two), is a bibliography of "Works on Dante," 
and has just now appeared. It is a work of amazing 
industry, including references to a great mass of 
fugitive material, and even to critical reviews of the 
more important modern works. The complete cata- 
logue includes more titles than have ever before 
been brought together in any work of Dante bibli- 
ography. Not the least interesting feature of this 
work is the introductory chapter written by Pro- 
fessor Fiske, in which he tells how the collection 
was brought together, and makes some extremely 
interesting statements by way of comparison be- 
tween Dante and the other world-poets. It seems 
that as regards editions, translations, and commen- 
taries, Dante occupies a higher place than Homer, 
Shakespeare, or Goethe. His fama mondiale has 
resulted in more than seventy distinct translations 
into English, French, German, Spanish, Dutch, 
Greek, and Latin, with perhaps a dozen more into 
other languages and dialects. In this comparative 
reckoning, Homer has about fifty versions, and 
Shakespeare hardly more than thirty. During the 
present century alone, there have been about four 
hundred and forty Italian editions of the " Divine 
Comedy." The Cornell Dinte Collection now num- 
bers seven thousand bound volumes, besides other 
material, and more than twenty-five thousand cards 
are needed for its catalogue. These facts we take 
from Mr. Koch's pamphlet on "The Growth and Im- 
portance of the Cornell Dante Collection," published 
simultaneously with the " Catalogue." Another 
pamphlet by Mr. Koch, also just published, is a 
hand-list of the framed portraits and other Dante 
pictures in the same collection. There is a thor- 
oughness about the way in which all this work has 
been done that commands our admiration, and Cor- 
nell University is certainly to be congratulated both 
upon its Dante library and the accomplished cus- 
todian thereof. 

The " Riverside Biographical Series " 
is inaugurated by Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Company with three en- 
tertaining volumes one on Andrew Jackson by 
Mr. William Garrott Brown, one on James B. 
Eads by his grandson Mr. Louis How, and one on 
Benjamin Franklin by Mr. Paul Elmer More. Mr. 
Brown's account of the hero of New Orleans is a 
rarely impartial account of a career which, as he 
observes, has always made stanch friends or bitter 

Short lives of 
three, great 




a Tramp 
in England. 

enemies, leaving the reader, it may be, with a con- 
fused sense of Jackson's proper place in the hearts 
of his countrymen, even while it stimulates him to 
form an opinion of his own upon the data abun- 
dantly brought forth. From Jackson to Eads is a 
long step, from whatever point of view ; and Mr. 
How has found a congenial and pious task in 
extolling the virtues of his kinsman with consid- 
erable and pardonable enthusiasm and some little 
skill in seeking and disclosing the critical momenta 
of his long and most useful life. The St. Louis 
Bridge and the New Orleans jetties have made 
Eads's fame secure, and are sufficiently well known; 
Mr. How rescues an account of his services to his 
country at the outbreak of the war between the 
States as well, though a more detailed history of 
his building of the Western flotilla of ironclads 
would have been welcome. A complete change of 
style is to be noted in Mr. Move's account of 
Franklin, a certain lightness of touch and thorough 
appreciation of the real homely humor with which 
Goodman Richard's life is so fully seasoned per- 
vading his pages. The books are small and the 
lives are correspondingly brief ; but they are all 
worthy the men they celebrate. Portraits add 
to their value in each case. 

The name of Mr. J. H. Crawford is 
not much known in English letters, 
but his "Autobiography of a Tramp " 
( Longmans, Green, & Co.), with its delightful flavor 
of out-of-door life and freedom from town miseries, 
will serve to make subsequent works from his hand 
something to be looked for. The hero of the story 
is a little English boy, and his tramping is done in 
his native island. It is interesting to see how like 
the most conventional of human beings this wan- 
dering lad was bred. He learned his lessons with 
the same sorrow and forced perseverance which 
most of us are called upon to pay as the price of 
education ; his father and mother loved him quite 
as much and expressed it quite as unsuccessfully as 
other parents, and his smiles and tears were no 
more common and no further apart than those of 
the most respectable urchin that ever hated the 
taste and feeling of soap. The pictures are quite 
as realistic as the text, bat far less artistic, being 
reproduced from photographs derived from vari -us 
and not always congruous sources. The book will 
be most pleasant to read in the season when snow 
has covered the ground and mist-gray clouds 
the sky. 

Mr Beam'* ^ n ^* 8 volume of " Sbadowings " 

"Shadowing*" (Little, Brown, & Co.), Mr. Laf- 
o/ Japan. cadio Hearn has given us an inter- 

esting if not deeply significant study of Japanese 
thought and feeling. In the dedication (to Pay- 
master Mitchell McDonald of the U. S. Navy) he 
says, "Herein I have made some attempt to satisfy 
your wish for a few more queer stories from the 
Japanese ' " ; and the purpose is one which the book 
fulfils. The stories are told with an effective direct- 

Tale* of a 

ness which gives the impression of artless simplicity, 
an impression serving to heighten the sense of 
reality in them. For those who love to have the 
grotesque and the fanciful made real, and who find a 
charm in credulous sincerity, the book will have a 
distinct fascination. There is in it no direct attempt 
to explain Japanese civilization ; it is a volume to 
be read for pleasure rather than for information, 
yet the reader cannot help gaining from it a clearer 
notion of some of the elemental things in Japanese 
feeling and character. The long chapter on ''Jap- 
anese Female Names " is full of suggestions of the 
fundamentally poetic nature of Japanese thought, 
and the chapter on "Old Japanese Songs" may 
well serve to give suggestions to English poets. 
The strange iterations, the naive baldness, have an 
air of originality that is strikingly effective. The 
book ends with a group of studies and stories writ- 
ten by Mr. Hearn himself, having much of the 
same misty and dreamy character of those he merely 
reproduces. Mechanically the book is very at- 

There was a time, not very remote, 
when the works of the Rev. J. G. 
Wood were the sources of popular 
information concerning all that was interesting and 
curious in the life of animals. In much the same 
vein and for the same purpose that this author 
wrote his " Man and Beast, Here and Hereafter," 
Dr. Thomas G. Gentry privately published his 
" Life and Immortality," which now appears in a 
new edition nnder the title " Intelligence in Plants 
and Animals " (Donbleday, Page & Co.). The book 
contains a very extensive assortment of instances 
of curious and remarkable activities in plants and 
animals, which in the author's opinion indicate a 
higher order of intelligence than that usually cred- 
ited to them. This so-called intelligence is the basis 
upon which the author founds his arguments, scien- 
tific and scriptural, for the immortality of all forms 
of life. He details his own observations and those 
of others very freely, but withal not very critically. 
While in the main the facts reported will be ac- 
cepted, the terminology employed in the argument 
and the conclusions reached will meet with objec- 
tions. Notwithstanding the somewhat pronounced 
views of the author, the book is very interesting 
and will be a valuable addition to the literature of 
animal lore. Some excellent photographs from 
nature, by Mr. Dagmore, supplement the numerous 

In "The Poetry of the Psalms" 
(Crowell) Dr. Henry van Dyke has 
given us a serviceable " Introduction 
to the study of the Psalms in English, as poetry." 
While the work contains little that is really new, 
yet we know of nothing quite like it in the way of 
a brief popular hand-book to the English Psalter. 
Dr. van Dyke dwells on the inadequacy of any 
translation, then proceeds to speak of the parallel- 
isms and the various kinds of lyrics. In the greatest 

The Ptalmt 
a* poetry. 



[Jan. 1, 

"A Garden 
of Simples. 1 

psalms he finds " deep and genuine love of nature," 
" a passionate sense of the beauty of holiness," " an 
intense joy in God." He seems not to have used 
the opportunity to emphasize the contrast, which 
many besides Matthew Arnold have observed, be- 
tween the poetic fervor of the King James Psalter 
and the utterly flat, stale, and wearisome monotony 
of our modern hymnology, which shows too little 
improvement over the Bay Psalm Book. We hope, 
too, the time will soon come when it will be deemed 
unnecessary to show that to study the Bible as lit- 
erature does not injure it as " a rule of faith and 
conduct." There is no good reason for not indent- 
ing paragraphs, the failure to do so often causing 
obscurity. Otherwise the volume is typographically 


In the old days, Mrs. Martha Bocke'e 
Flint reminds us, it used to be the 
custom to administer tea made from 
the burrs of the Virginia stickseed (echinospermum 
Virginicum} for otherwise incorrigible cases of 
forgetful ness. Her whole book serves the same 
purpose, for no one can fail to retain such impres- 
sions as he gains from even glancing at the old- 
fashioned binding and paper label of " A Garden 
of Simples " (Scribner). It is such a book as 
Jeffery taught us to love, filled with all the delicate 
spirituality which Nature wears when seen with 
loving eyes, and imbued throughout with the charm 
of an elder day. The interests are often confes- 
sedly literary, as in the chapters on " A Posy from 
Spenser," or the " Flowers of Chaucer's Poems." 
From that they wander to delicately material 
things, such as honey, most poetic of human 
aliments, or " The Secrets of a Salad," no light 
topic to those who know. The history of America 
is not to be neglected in so eclectic a work, as little 
essays on " Liberty Tea " and " Indian Plant 
Names " attest. We can hardly imagine a pleas- 
anter gift to a charming woman, nor a more 
charming woman than she to whom such a book 
makes its full appeal. 

A recent volume in the " Leaders in 
Science " series (Putnam) is Mr. 
P. Chalmers Mitchell's life of the 
great English evolutionist and agnostic, Thomas 
H. Huxley. The perspective in which the author 
views his subject enables him to present a compre- 
hensive and well proportioned account of the life 
of this leader of the modern school of biologists. 
The author is himself an investigator of some note, 
and he renders a popular account of Huxley's most 
important contributions to the sciences of vertebrate 
and invertebrate anatomy, and of palaeontology, as 
well as to the development hypothesis. With equal 
clearness and fulness he relates Huxley's public 
services, and defines his position as the opponent 
of materialism and the exponent of agnosticism. 
His attitude on theological questions, as well as his 
ethical ideals, are clearly stated. The book does 
not aim to be an intimate biography. It is a sym- 

Huxley as 
a leader 
in Science. 

pathetic but unbiased and just appreciation of 
Huxley's life and work, in concise form ; and it is 
a worthy compeer of the other books of the series 
to which it belongs. 

Recently the lines of Mr. Rudyard 
Ki P lin g 8eem n< >t to have fallen in 
pleasant places. Mr. W. J. Peddi- 
cord writes, and publishes at his own expense, 
" Rudyard Reviewed," seemingly actuated by Mr. 
Kipling's dislike of America and Americans. At 
least, the critic does not attack the poet and trav- 
eller on aesthetic grounds in the ordinary accepta- 
tion of the term, but rather because the Anglo- 
Indian did not see in America all that her more 
devoted children would have him see. We think 
Mr. Peddicord has wasted both time and energy, 
and his residence in Oregon we take to be an en- 
couraging sign that regions nearer the East are 
largely indifferent to the expressed prejudices of a 
young man however distinguished. Miss Marie 
Corelli takes stronger ground in her " Patriotism 
or Self-Advertisement" (Lippincott), devoted to 
the excoriation, as a whole and in all of its parts, of 
that jingle so widely known as " An Absent-Minded 
Beggar." The punishment doubtless fits the crime ; 
but it makes us feel a little sorry for the criminal, 

The charm of a pleasing personality 

tlea^ffancie,. rUQS thl>OU g h the b ef Copters of 

Mrs. Alice Dew-Smith's " Diary of 
a Dreamer " (Putnam), and gives a color of reality 
to what might otherwise be but " trifles light as 
air." With a bright abandon to the mood of the 
moment, the author tells us her experiences with 
tortoises and cats, with her husband's dictionaries 
and writing-desk, and with the problems that con- 
front one in building a house and furnishing it. 
The themes are often inconsequential and the expe- 
riences not particularly dramatic, but they furnish 
occasion for much vivacious comment upon the 
every-day affairs of life. The book is to be read 
in moments of relaxation when the reader is willing 
to be entertained without any stirring appeal to the 
imagination. Any single chapter of the forty-five 
can be read in ten minutes, and each is interesting in 
itself apart from the others, and leaves its distinct 
impression. On the other hand, the dream atmos- 
phere is not always compelling, and at times leaves 
one with the feeling that we have when over the 
breakfast-table a friend tells us a fantastic sleep 
experience of the night. 

The third volume in the series en- 
titled " Nature's Miracles " (Fords, 
Howard & Hulbert) is the continua- 
tion of Professor Elisha Gray's popular account of 
modern science, devoted particularly to the subjects 
of electricity and magnetism. Professor Gray is 
of course thoroughly at home in this field, and his 
account is a most interesting and instructive one, 
the story of wireless telegraphy, and the results of 

A new volume 
of " Nature's 
Mir octet." 




the electrical exploitation of Niagara Falls, reading 
like a fairy tale. Especially entertaining is the 
chapter on " Some Curiosities," devoted largely to 
the strange properties of selenium. 

Each recurring Holiday season has 
Views of the o f j ate b roa orht with it some unique 

Grand Canon. . . . , . \ 

specimen of book-manufacturing in- 
genuity from the press of Mr. Frank S. Thayer, of 
Denver. The series began, as we remember, with 
a collection of photographic views of stuffed wild 
animals in their native lairs, the negatives for which, 
we were given to understand, had been secured at 
great peril and through years of patient waiting by 
a mighty hunter of the region who had been per- 
suaded or bribed to substitute a camera for his rifle 
in furtherance of the enterprise. This season Mr. 
Thayer's contribution is an album of fifteen photo- 
graphic reproductions in color, collectively entitled 
" Glimpses of the Grand Cafion of the Colorado," 
which we have inspected with caution. The plates 
are showy and effective, and are neatly mounted 
on ash-colored paper, and encased in flexible dec- 
orated covers. The pictures selected are represen- 
tative, and convey a good idea of the remarkable 
scenery of the region. 

A vein of delicate sentiment, a grace- 
ful and refined fancy, and the ability 
to realize vividly for the reader bits 
of landscape with their proper atmosphere, make 
Miss Myrtle Reed's " Later Love Letters of a 
Musician " (Putnam) a book to be enjoyed for its 
artistic charm. The letters, of which there are 
nearly thirty, each preceded by an appropriate 
phrase of music set alone on the page, are largely 
the expression of artistic responsiveness to the 
moods of nature or to some of the suggestive expe- 
riences of a musician's life. The book is very art- 
istically printed, and is one to be enjoyed for more 
than the first reading, a thing that cannot be said 
of many a more pretentious volume. 

Love Letter* 
of a musician. 


" The Transition Period " is a new volume in the 
" Periods of European Literature " (Scribner), edited 
by Professor Saintsbury. It is the work of Mr. G. 
Gregory Smith, and fills the gap between Mr. Snell's 
" Fourteenth Century " and the editor's forthcoming 
discussion of " The Earlier Renaissance." The author 
has brought much learning and no little animation to 
his somewhat thankless task of dealing with the most 
barren period of modern literature, a period which in- 
cludes Villon and Malory, the Scotch group of poets, 
the " Morgante Maggiore," the " Coplas " of Manrique, 
the " Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles," " Till Eulenspiegel," 
the " Imitation," the ballads, and the beginnings of the 
drama in France and England. 

Miss Estelle M. Kuril's little book on Sir Joshua 
Reynolds forms a welcome and pictorially attractive 
number in the "Riverside Art Series" (Houghton). 

The volume is apparently meant to be in some sort a 
text-book, or an elementary manual for the teacher, 
and hence its style is simple and its information mainly 
rudimentary. There is an introductory outline of 
Reynolds's life, together with some general appreciation 
of his work; but the text is largely a running com- 
mentary on the pictures, of which there is about one 
to each chapter, making seventeen in all. These are 
well chosen and handsomely reproduced. 

Fifty pages of introduction, a hundred pages of notes, 
and three hundred pages of extracts are, roughly speak- 
ing, the contents of the volume of " Selections from the 
Poetry of Lord Byron " which Dr. Frederick I. Car- 
penter has prepared for the series of " English Read- 
ings " published by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. This is 
one of the best books of the admirable series in which 
it appears, and was rather more needed than any of the 
others. No one to-day wants the whole of Byron, and 
a book which will help us to keep in mind the best of 
him does a real service to literature. The estimate 
made by the editor is sympathetic, yet carefully dis- 
criminating, and the judgments expressed are in the 
main temperate and sound. 

With the appearance of Volume XVIII. (containing 
the remainder of the short stories) the " Shenandoah " 
edition of the novels and stories of Mr. Frank R. 
Stockton which has been in course of publication by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons during the past year, 
reaches temporary completion. Like all of Messrs. 
Scribner's well-known subscription sets, the mechanical 
form of the " Shenandoah " edition could hardly be 
improved upon. Mr. Stockton may well be envied the 
distinction conferred upon him by his publishers, for it 
is not often that an author has the satisfaction of seeing 
his work presented in so beautiful a form. The set 
should take a prominent place on the shelves of every 
admirer of Mr. Stockton's peculiar and inimitable 

"The Beginnings of English Literature," by Mr. 
Charlton M. Lewis, is a small volume published by 
Messrs. Ginn & Co. " Its purpose is to give to those 
who do not, for the present at least, require an intimate 
acquaintance with Old and Middle English authors, 
such a knowledge of their characteristics and historical 
relations as may serve for an introduction to the study 
of the Elizabethan and later periods." It offers a com- 
promise between the very elementary books and those 
which are made unduly repellant by being crammed 
with minor names and facts. It includes many extracts, 
and is altogether a readable and useful little book. 

Professor J. Scott Clark's "Study of English and 
American Poets " (Scribner) is a companion volume to 
the author's " Study of English Prose Writers," pub- 
lished over two years ago. The method is the same 
in both volumes. Each author treated is given a biog- 
raphy, a page or two of references to critical apprecia- 
tions, and something like thirty or forty pages of clas- 
sified excerpts from the best critics, together with 
illustrative passages from the poet himself. Twenty 
poets are considered altogether, six of them being 
Americans. We have great confidence in the value of 
this method of studying literature, and believe that 
teachers will find these volumes by Professor Clark a 
useful adjunct to their work. 

Mr. Stopford Brooke's erstwhile "Primer," later 
known by the simpler title of " English Literature," has 
just made a third appearance, with an additional chap- 



[Jan. 1, 

ter by the author, and two supplementary chapters on 
American literature by Mr. George Rice Carpenter 
(Macmillan). Praise has long since been exhausted in 
dealiug with this little book, which, considering its lim- 
ited scope, is as good as could well be imagined. Speak- 
ing of Mr. Brooke's added chapter, however, we are 
bound to take exception to the statement that Morris 
and Rossetti and Mr. Swinburne have remained " out 
of sympathy with modern life." The poets of " Jenny " 
and " Poems by the Way " and " Songs before Sunrise " 
need no defence against such a charge, and it is sur- 
prising indeed that Mr. Brooke should have expressed 
such an opinion of them. 

Having exhausted the bibliographical possibilities of 
the longer novels of Charles Dickens in a volume issued 
some two or three years ago, Mr. F. G. Kitton has 
turned his attention to the " minor writings," and the 
results of his work in this field are contained in the 
latest volume of the " Book-Lover's Library " (A. C. 
Armstrong & Son). The amount of labor necessary 
to identify the numerous periodical contributions and 
miscellaneous papers of the novelist cannot easily be 
estimated, but Mr. Kitton's unfailing enthusiasm for 
his subject has prevailed over all difficulties. Taken 
together, the two volumes form as complete and exact 
a bibliographical record of the literary productions of 
Charles Dickens as could be desired. 


" The Book of Daniel," edited by Dr. S. R. Driver, 
is a volume of " The Cambridge Bible for Schools and 
Colleges," published by the Macmillan Co. 

" A Reader in Physical Geography for Beginners," 
by Professor Richard E. Dodge, is a recent educational 
publication of Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

" Springtime Flowers," by Miss Mae Ruth Norcross, 
is a book of " easy lessons in botany " for very young 
children, published by Messrs. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

" The Civilization of the East," by Dr. Fritz Hommel, 
and " Plant Life and Structure," by Dr. E. Dennert, are 
the latest of the "Temple Primers," published by the 
Macmillan Co. 

" A Hero and Some Other Folk," being a volume of 
essays by Mr. William A. Quayle, has reached a third 
edition, and bears the imprint of Messrs. Jennings & 
Pye, Cincinnati. 

Mr. Samuel Usher, of Boston, publishes a memorial 
address, by Dr. R. S. Storrs, upon the late Professor 
Edwards Amasa Park, of Andover. The book may be 
obtained from Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The American Book Co. publish a " Higher Algebra," 
by Professor John F. Downey. They also send us an 
41 Elementary Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene for 
Higher Grammar Grades," by Dr. Winfield V. Hall. 

In addition to their collective edition of the writings 
of Count Tolstoy, the Messrs. Crowell publish, in a 
form of its own, a new volume of " Essays, Letters, 
and Miscellanies," the translations by Mr. Aylmer 
Maude and others. 

"The Cocktail Book," further described as "A 
Sideboard Manual for Gentlemen," is a recent publica- 
tion of Messrs. L. C. Page & Co. It is a very small 
book indeed, but its dimensions are by no means 
proportioned to its usefulness. 

44 Shakespeare's Life and Work," by Mr. Sidney Lee t 
as now published by the Macmillan Co., is an abridg- 
ment of the author's " Life " of the poet, prepared 
chiefly for the use of students. It retains all the es- 
sentials of the larger work, although reduced to some- 
thing like half its compass. 

44 Kant's Cosmogony," as embodied chiefly in hi 
44 Natural History and Theory of the Heavens," is given 
us in an English version by Dr. W. Hastie, who has- 
not only made the translation, but has also supplied it 
with an introduction and other editorial apparatus. 
The work is issued in this country by the Macmillan Co. 

44 Famous Geometrical Theorems and Problems " is 
the subject which Mr. W. W. Rupert has undertaken 
to discuss, for the instruction and entertainment of 
mathematically-minded persons, in a series of four 
pamphlets, published by Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 
Other monographs in this series will follow, all under 
the general editorship of Mr. Webster Wells. 
f* "Edwin Booth and his Contemporaries" (Page), ed- 
ited by Brander Mathews and Lawrence Hutton, is a 
new edition of a work first published about fifteen years 
ago. It is a collection of chapters, by various hands, 
upon the English and American actors and actresses 
who have been prominent during the last half-century, 
and is furnished with an interesting series of portraits. 

The Macmillan Co. announce that they have acquired 
the publication rights of Mr. James Ford Rhodes's 
" History of the United States from the Compromise 
of 1850," hitherto issued under the imprint of Messrs. 
Harper & Brothers. A new edition of the work, em- 
bodying a few minor changes and typographical correc- 
tions, will be issued at once. 

Two interesting speeches shortly to be issued in 
printed form by Messrs. T. Y. Crowell & Co. are 
Lord Roseberry's " Questions of Empire " and Hon. 
Joseph H. Choate's " Abraham Lincoln," both of which 
were delivered in November last the former before 
the students of the University of Glasgow and the lat- 
ter before the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution. 

"The Story of American History for Elementary 
Schools," by Mr. Albert F. Blaisdell, is a first book 
of our national history published by Messrs. Ginn & 
Co. A still more elementary work is " America's 
Story for America's Children," by Miss Mara L. Pratt, 
published by Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. There are 
to be five parts of this work, forming a series of 
graded reading-books. 

Professor Moses Coit Tyler, of Cornell University, 
died on Dec. 28 at his home in Ithaca. Professor 
Tyler's career was a most active and distinguished one. 
He was born in Griswold, Conn., in 1835, was graduated 
from Yale in 1857, from 1867 to 1881 was Professor 
in the English department of the University of Michi- 
gan, and from 1881 to his death was Professor of 
American history at Cornell. He was author of many 
books, a frequent writer in the periodicals, and was a 
contributor to THE DIAL from the beginning of the 

" The Religion of Abraham Lincoln," a pamphlet 
published by the G. W. Dillingham Co., reproduces a 
correspondence that passed some years ago between 
Colonel R. G. Ingersoll and General C. H. T. Collis. 
The purport of it is to refute the charge that Lincoln 
was essentially a Voltairean in his religious attitude; 
but the documents prove little either way. Lincoln 
and Voltaire were about as far apart as possible in 




temperament, bat in the matter of their fundamental 
convictions there is much to be said for Ingersoll's 

" Patriotic Eloquence Relating to the Spanish- 
American War and Its Issues " (Scribner) is the title 
of a compilation made by Messrs. Robert L. Fulton 
and Thomas C. Trueblood. The selections range all 
the way from the pinchbeck rhetoric of Senator 
Beveridge and the platitudes of Senator Depew, to the 
genuine oratory, inspired by patriotism of the old- 
fashioned sort, of such men as Mr. Carl Schurz, Dr. 
Henry van Dyke, Senator Tovrae, and Senator Hoar. 


January, 1901. 

Adventure, A Wonderful. Chalmers Roberts. World" 1 * Work. 
Advertising Disfigurement. A. R. Kimball. Scribner. 
Armies in China, Comparison of. T. F. Millard. Scribner. 
Athens, Modern. George Horton. Scribner. 
Australian Commonwealth, The. H. H. Lusk. Rev. of Revs. 
Bernhardt in her 'Teena. Albert Schinz. Lippincott. 
Caucasus of Russia, The. Henry Norman. Scribner. 
Civil Service Reform. Purpose of. H. L. Nelson. Forum. 
Clubs, Odd. Lucy Monroe. Lippincott. 
College Graduate, Is he Impracticable? R. E. Jones. Forum. 
Colonies and Nation. Woodrow Wilson. Harper. 
Confederacy, Last Days of. Sara M. Handy. Atlantic. 
Congressional Apportionment, New. Henry Gannett. Forum. 
Davis, Cnshman Kellogg. S. G. Smith. Review of Reviews. 
District of Columbia in its Centennial Year. Forum. 
East London Shadow and Sunlight. Walter Besant. Century. 
Education, A Gap in. H. D. Sedgwick. Jr. Atlantic. 
Electors and Coming Election. Albert Shaw. Rev. of Revs. 
Empress Dowager, The. R. Van Bergen. Atlantic. 
Exploration, A Century of. C. C. Adams. World" 1 * Work. 
Fig-Growing Industry in California. L. 0. Howard. Forum. 
Friars, Filipinos, and Land. J. B. Rodgers. Rev. of Revs. 
Oilman, President, at Johns Hopkins. N. M. Butler. R.ofR. 
Government, Cost of. Carroll D. Wright. Century. 
Hamlet's Castle. Jacob A. Riis. Century. 
Immigration, New Problems of. P. F. Hall. Forum. 
Japan, My. Ponltney Bigelow. Harper. 
Liberal Party in England, The. Forum. 
Missions, Foreign, in 20th Century. E. F. Merriam. R. of R. 
Miiller, Max. A. V. Williams Jackson. Forum. 
Nature's Beauty, Trust to Protect. S. Baxter. Rev. of Revs. 
New Century, Great Tasks of the. World's Work. 
New Orleans, Old Cabildo of. Grace King. Harper. 
Panama and Nicaragua Canals Compared. A.Davis. Forum. 
Park Making as National Art. H. B. Merwin. World's Work. 
Patent Office, The U. S. E. V. Smalley. Century. 
Pekin, Fall of. Gilbert Reid. Forum. 
Peking, Besieged in. Cecil E. Payen. Century. 
Phillips, Stephen. Edmund Gosse. Century. 
Pittsbnrg, A Glimpse of. W. L. Scaife. Atlantic. 
Poetry, American, Century of. 0. L. Triggs. Forum. 
Polar Work, Present and Future. World's Work. 
Public Expenditures, Growth of. C. A. Conant. Atlantic. 
Publishing, New Tendencies in. A Publisher. World's Work. 
Reconstruction of Southern States. Woodrow Wilson. Atlan. 
Rio Grande, Canons of the. R. T. Hill. Century. 
Roberts, Lord. Winston Spencer Churchill. World's Work. 
Robinson, Rowland E. Julia C. R. Dorr. Atlantic. 
Rodin, Augnste. W. C. Brownell. Scribner. 
Smokeless Cannon Powder. Hudson Maxim. Forum. 
Snow-Plough, Work on a. H. H. Lewis. World's Work. 
Soil, Going Back to the. J. P. Mowbray. World's Work. 
Time-Spirit of the 20th Century. Elizabeth Bisland. Atlantic. 
Villard. Henry, Reminiscences of . Murat Halstead. R.ofR. 
Washington: A Predestined Capital. Anne Wharton. Lipp. 
Wealth and Morals. Wm. Lawrence. World's Work. 
Winchelsea, Rye, and *' Denis Duval." Henry James. Scrib. 
Yale, The New. H. A. Smith. World's Work. 


[The following list, containing 125 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


Memories of the Tennysons. By Rev. H. D. Rawnsley. 
11 lus. , 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 252. Macmillan Co. $2.25. 

Military Reminiscences of the Civil War. By Jacob 
Dolson Cox, A.M. In 2 vols., with photogravure portraits, 
large 8vo, gilt tops, uncnt. Scribner's Sons. $6. net. 

Orestes A. Brownson' s Latter Life, 1856-1876. By Henry 
F. Brownson. With portrait, large 8vo, pp. 629. Detroit : 

. H. F. Brownson. $3. 

Verbeck of Japan, a Citizen of No Country : A Life Story 
of Foundation Work Inaugurated by Guido Fridolin Ver- 
beck. By William Elliot Griffis. Illus., 12mo, pp. 376. 
F. H. Revell Co. $1.25. 

Edwards Amasa Park, D.D., LL.D. : A Memorial Address. 
By Richard Salter Storrs, D.D. Large 8vo, pp. 71. For 
sale by Charles Scribner's Sons. 50 ets. 


The History of Colonization from the Earliest Times to 
the Present Day. By Henry C. Morris. In 2 vols., 8vo, 
gilt tops, uncut. Macmillan Co. $4. 

The Transit of Civilization from England to America 
in the Seventeenth Century. By Edward Eggleston. 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 344. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

Cabot Bibliography. With an Introductory Essay on the 
Careers of the Cabots, Based upon an Independent Exam- 
ination of the Sources of Information. By George Parker 
Winship. Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 180. Dodd, Mead& Co. 

The Spanish Conquest in America. By Sir Arthur Helps. 
New edition, in 4 vols., edited by M. Oppenheim. Vol. I., 
with maps. 12mo, pp. 369. John Lane. $1.50. 

Voyages of the Elizabethan Seamen to America: Select 
Narratives from the " Principal Navigations " of Hakluyt. 
Edited by Edward John Payne, M.A. Second Series ; 
illns., 12mo, uncut, pp. 298. Oxford University Press. 

The Frigate Constitution : The Central Figure of the Navy 
under Sail. By Ira N. Hollis. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, 
pp. 263. Honghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.50. 

The Expansion of the American People, Social and Ter- 
ritorial. By Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph.D. Illus., 12mo, 
gilt top, pp. 461. Scott, Foresman & Co. $2. 

History of the People of the Netherlands. By Petrus 
Johannes Blok ; trans, by Ruth Putnam. Part Hi., The 
War with Spain. With maps. Urge 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 539. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50. 

Thrilling Days in Army Life. By General George A. For- 
syth. U. S. A. ; illus. by Ruf ns F. Zogbaum. 12mo, 
pp. 197. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 

The Civilization of the East. By Dr. Fritz HommeL 
Illus., 24mo, pp. 141. " Temple Primers." Macmillan Co. 
40 cts. net. 

An Englishwoman's Love-Letters. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 322. Donbleday, Page & Co. $1.50 net. 
Sharps and Flats. By Eugene Field ; collated by Slaaonr 

Thompson. In 2 vols., 12mo, gilt tops, uncut. Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $2.50. 
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31 5&rau*fH0ntf)lg Journal of literary Criticism, Discussion, atrti JEnformatimt. 

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JAN. 16, 1901. Vol. XXX. 


THE NOVEL AND THE PLAY. Charles Leonard 

Moore 33 


Mr. Howard Pyle and the American Farmer. Mary 

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The most aggravating of all critics is the critic 
who asserts and gives no reasons. A writer in a 
recent number of THE DIAL tells ns that the novel 
is a finer art-form than the play, and practically the 
only reason he offers to back his opinion is that the 
first form is contemporary and the second archaic. 
Archaic ! What great art has not been archaic at 
the time of its production? Gray remarks, in one 
of his letters, that the language of poetry is never 
the language of the age or of common life. Shake- 
speare's speech was undoubtedly strange to the 

Elizabethans. The well-Ian guaged Daniel " was 
the scholarly type of that day, and Daniel is as 
modern as Sir Edwin Arnold. The same is true of 
thought and character. If either is great, it cannot 
possibly conform to accepted conventions. What 
can we suppose that even the Athenians made of 
the Prometheus or the Agamemnon or the Persian 
ghost of .ZEschylus ? As we can see in Aristophanes, 
these were rather musty fables to them. The dis- 
play of the Panathenaic festival, or the riot of the 
Eleusinian mysteries, were much more to their 
minds. Alleyne, the theatrical manager of Shake- 
speare's time, has left it on record that he made 
the greater part of his fortune by showing bears. 
The Spaniards tolerated Calderon as an appanage 
of the Inquisition, but their real joy was in the 
burning of heretics. The auto da fe was doubtless 
to them a sweet contemporary thing. Goethe and 
Schiller, by the expenditure of infinite labor, built 
up a theatre in Weimar. They forced great tragedy 
and comedy, the use of verse and the right reading 
of it, down the German throat. But was their 
patient grateful to them ? Not a bit Goethe was 
forced to resign the directorship of the theatre by 
a performing dog. 

I hope the writer referred to will pardon me if I 
offer him some reasons why the novel might be a 
finer art than the play. In the first place, it has a 
larger canvas. The average novel has from five to 
ten times more words in it than the average play. 
If there is anything in big battalions, Xerxes ought 
always to overwhelm Leonidas. In the second 
place, the novel, though a hybrid, may possibly in- 
herit the qualities of its various ancestors. It may 
have the pure emotional gush of the lyric, the orb- 
icular sweep of the epic, the intensity of the drama. 
In the third place, it is gifted with omniscience, a 
power which the epic shares with it, but which is 
denied to other art forms. In the fourth place, it 
can perform the offices of the scene-painter, the 
actor, the gas-man, the usher in the body of the 
theatre, and the critic in the next day's print. And 
lastly, it requires no such attention on the part of 
the reader as does the more abstract form of the 
play, which, especially if written in verse, is the most 
concentrated work of the human mind. In reading 
a novel, we sit at feast like a Persian King, and have 
one servant to cut our food, another to put it in our 
mouths, and a third to work our jaws for us. 

I am not mocking. These advantages the novel 
possesses, and they in great part account for its 
popularity. But for the final result of greatness 
they are fallacious and break down. The immense 
expenditure of words in a novel is a solution of con- 
tinuity and defeats the purpose of an art-work to 
grasp and body forth a definite conception. Each 



[Jan, 16, 

tidal wave of words washes out the record of its 
predecessor. And the mixture of forms in the 
novel is an element of weakness rather than of 
strength. An olla podrida is neither as good for 
the digestion nor as tempting to the palate as a 
course dinner where the flavor of every dish is con- 
served. And the all-embracing view of the novelist 
carries with it a quality of vagueness, so much so 
that the epistolary and biographical forms of the 
novel, in which this power is resigned, are perhaps 
the most vivid and intense. And the combination 
of services which the novelist offers to perform for 
us tends to distraction ; it is ruinous to total effect. 
The actors get in the way of the plot, the scene- 
painting interferes with the dialogue, and the lyrical 
or didactic effusions of the author in person spoil 
the illusion. Most serious of all, the ease with which 
a novel can be read weakens the mind. A good 
play, though so much shorter than a novel, demands 
a far greater amount of attention, and so tends to 
fasten itself upon the brain. 

In general, the question between the play and 
the novel is a question of law or liberty, discipline 
or license. I like to image the play as a troop of 
Spanish cdbelleros or conquestadores, mounted on 
the steeds of inspiration, armored with verse, armed 
with thought, and moving in instinctive obedience 
to one will; while the novel is a vast, lawless, dis- 
organized mass of Mexican or Inca barbarians, 
howling and hurling itself on the compact body of 
iron-clad men. The mob may submerge the few 
for a time, but it must eventually be beaten back 
and reduced to submission and slavery. 

We learn from the article already cited that the 
play tends to base itself on the novel. Certainly. 
It has always done so. The plays of the Greek 
tragedians were based on the cyclic poems which 
were the novels of antiquity, and which have per- 
ished. Shakespeare and his circle based their art 
on Italian novella, many of which were as good 
fiction as is written to-day. The order of life is for 
the soul to ascend from the body. The instinct of 
mankind is not satisfied until the pure kernel of an 
art-work is disengaged from its mixed and impure 
mass of wrappings and enfoldments. 

Though the writer I am considering regards the 
novel as a finer art-form than the play, he does not 
assert that his greatest typical novelist is superior 
to the typical dramatist. He only insists on a cer- 
tain equality between the two. He is willing to 
concede that Shakespeare was a respectable sort of 
a person who did good in his day, though he is 
hardly up to our modern standards of democratic 
art. Personally, I feel disposed to light a hecatomb 
of expiation to Shakespeare for bringing him, even 
for defense, into competition with Balzac. But this 
is a wrong feeling. Shakespeare must stand his 
trial like any other author. Every generation sum- 
mons the favorites of the past to the bar of its 
opinion, questions them as to their birth and con- 
dition and present means of livelihood, and judges 
and sentences them after its own sweet will, 

judging itself at the same operation. And this 
is necessary and right. Literature in Mortmain, 
literature held in the dead hand, is as dangerous 
as literature of new-born bounce and bluster. So 
let us on to the comparison. 

Those who have done me the honor to read my 
notes on literature published in THE DIAL will not 
suspect me of holding a brief for style. Not that 
I do not in my own mind worship style, but I hold 
it a result, not a means. I believe it follows the 
accumulation of thoughts, and the kindling concep- 
tion of character. But when it so arrives, it is the 
final stamp of greatness. Now, as the previous 
writer practically admits, there is in this respect 
no possible parallel between Shakespeare and Bal- 
zac. Balzac in style is plebeian, is home-made, 
is humdrum. In a nation of graceful writers, he 
is the dancing bear of prose. Shakespeare, with 
a great many people, is mainly and above all 
the master, the magician of words. He may be 
slightly less clear and faultless than the Greeks, 
but he is infinitely more gorgeous in color and 
varied in carving, and there is more of him that 
is good than there is of all the Greek poets put 
together. This matter of wealth of expression in 
Shakespeare is very little realized. Because each 
of our greater English poets has some distinctive 
quality of his own, we are apt to think of them as 
inferior indeed to Shakespeare, but still to some 
extent comparable. As far as expression is con- 
cerned, they could almost all of them be quarried 
out of Shakespeare. The peak of Teneriffe is a 
striking enough object in its isolation, but transport 
it to the Andes or the Himalayas and it would sink 
to a mole-hill lost in the vastnesses about it. The 
matter of expression, therefore, to many people the 
most important of all, is settled for Shakespeare 
against Balzac. 

Most great poets are philosophers as well. They 
justify the ways of God to man, or defend the 
ways of man to God. Dante is the final expression 
of the Catholicism of the Fathers ; Calderon of the 
Catholicism of the Inquisition ; Milton of Calvin- 
ism. Goethe gave full literary form to the new 
scientific method and thought of Bacon and Frank- 
lin. His philosophy is the philosophy of egotism 
and utility. It must be admitted that when we 
come to assess the philosophy of Shakespeare, it is 
difficult to put one's hand on his central thought. 
He unquestionably imbibed Pyrrhonism from 
Montaigne, and Pyrrhonism is not constructive. 
But he is always thinking of the mighty problems 
of the soul, of the destinies of humanity. He wan- 
ders around the walled chamber of the world like 
a mightier Hamlet stabbing the arras everywhere 
to find out what is beyond. As for Balzac, he can 
hardly be said to have any thought at all except 
the ever-pressing one to get and spend as much 
money as possible. He wrote in " The Alchemist " 
about the research into the Absolute. But the 
Absolute has mighty little to do with the book, 
which is mainly concerned with the physiognomy 




of an old bouse and the fate of a lot of old furni- 
ture. When Balzac was well through his " Human 
Comedy," he seemed to have felt that there was 
something wanting to it. He was like the architect 
who left the staircase out of his house and had to 
add it on the outside. Balzac wrote " Louis Lam- 
bert." An American editor of this hook has read 
into it marvellous and immeasurable meanings. 
Any hook can become a fetish if one gives one's 
mind up to it and shuts out all other sources of 
information. Wilkie Collins, in one of his novels, 
has an old butler who has made a Bible of "Rob- 
inson Crusoe," and finds in it the most amazing 
oracles for every event. To me " Louis Lambert " 
seems a vague rehash of Swedenborgian or Hindoo 
philosophy crammed for the occasion. It utterly 
lacks the value which hard, original thinking, in 
whatever method to whatever end, possesses for 
the human mind. " The Angels are white," says 
Lambert, and that is about his most valuable con- 
tribution to vision or thought. On the whole, then, 
Balzac as a thinker is of no class whatever ; whereas 
Shakespeare wears the imperial purple. 

There remains the presentation of reality by the 
two the reproduction of the aspects of Nature 
and Art, and the creation of human figures. It 
may be noted that Shakespeare is almost all out-of- 
doors ; whereas Balzac is ever confined to the 
rooms of mansion or cottage to the streets and 
alleys of towns. Pretty much the whole of Nature 
is in Shakespeare, but little of the art or handiwork 
of man. Balzac has a real point of superiority in 
his architecture and interiors, in which he surpasses 
everybody. As for the human crowds of the two, 
what shall I say ? In making a comparison here, I 
can only do like the critic I have been criticising, 
offer assertions unbacked by reasons. For it is 
almost impossible to give reasons for the love or 
the affections which rise within us. If anyone 
thinks Eugenie Grandet superior to Juliet, or 
Mudeste Mignon to Imogen ; if he likes Caesar 
Birrotteau better than Dogberry, and believes old 
Grandet a better drawn figure than Shylock, 
why, one can only avert one's eyes, turn down the 
first crossing, and let him go his misguided way 
alone. But I think I may assert that Balzac's 
people are all book folk. They never have had 
cut the umbilical cord which binds them to the 
printed page. They do not stray out into real life 
and become our friends and loves, as do the char- 
acters of even lesser men than Shakespeare Scott 
and Dickens, for instance. One forgets them in 
their multitude until one takes the book up again, 
when the skill, the science, the power of the author 
bring them back. And another thing may be 
asserted : they are all small, figurines rather than 
statues. Balzac never created one of those typical 
human figures that sum up a race, or resume once 
for all some abstract quality of life. Molie're and 
Old Dumas are tbe most Shakespearean souls of 
France. Alceste and Tartuff are eternal, and 
D' Ai tagnan is the incarnation of the Gallic spirit 

He is as much the human symbol of France as 
Don Quixote is of Spain, Hamlet of Germany, or 
Robinson Crusoe of England. The typical figure 
of America is What shall I say ? Mr. Barnes 
of New York. 

A writer may be greater than his age, but, even 
unconsciously, he is apt to render in his work the 
lineaments of his time. It is important, then, that 
the age has something of splendor or greatness to 
give him. Shakespeare came at the culminating 
period of the young manhood of the English race. 
His age was the age of new-born liberty, of revo- 
lutions in thought and discovery in the world. It 
was the age that beat back the Armada. Balzac's 
age was wearied with the excesses of the Revolution 
and the Napoleonic era ; it was an age of galvanized 
monarchy and scarecrow empire. It was weak and 
futile and corrupt. It was the age which fell at 

Balzac's gift is the modern gift, the scientific gift, 
the gift of observation. Lord Bacon claimed that 
his method did away with the necessity of genius 
in philosophy, that it opened the paths of science 
to the average intelligence. The same can be said 
of the scientific method in literature. Anyone can 
sit down with a note book before a given quantity 
of life and record and report it. But the art so 
produced is open to the charge which Plato mis- 
takenly brought against all poetry that it is an 
imitation of an imitation, reality at third remove. 
Only where the poet aereates the mass of material 
given him from without with the inspiration which 
comes to him within, where he glimpses the uni- 
versal through the actual, do we get an art product 
which is valid and valuable for all time. 

Perhaps the best way to get at the value of any 
large art-work is to estimate the sum-total of emo- 
tion it produces. What is our final impression of 
Balzac's work ? Do we not feel, when we are done 
with it, as though we had wakened from an all-night 
debauch, with a headache and a bad taste in our 
mouths? Do we not feel as though we had been 
moving through some mighty marsh clothed with 
fantastic vegetation, with fetid exhalations rising 
from it as incense to expiring suns ? Do we not say 
to ourselves, ' What is the use? 'T is a sick and a 
sordid and a sorry world. Let 's cut our throats." 
On the other hand, what is our legacy of impression 
from Shakespeare? Is it not that we have been 
living in a land of sunlight and wooded shade, co- 
equal heirs with men of mighty ardor and women 
of holy flame? That thunder-storms might come, 
indeed, and seem to wreck our world, but that 
everything would spring fresher from their passing; 
that our minds would leap to their shock, our 
muscles brace with their tension, until we would 
feel that we were seventeen feet high and of Achil- 
lean form and visage, until we would want to 
climb to the summits of the earth and shake our 
fists in the face of fate ? Which is the mightier 
artist, which is tbe better gift to mankind? 




[Jan. 16, 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In some brief comments on Mr. Howard Pyle's illus- 
trations for the holiday volume of Mr. Markham's 
poems, a writer in your issue of Dec. 1 shows a fine 
appreciation of the artist's strong elemental treatment 
of the subjects ranged for his pencil, and a correct con- 
ception of art values. Noting this breadth of view upon 
one side, it is surprising to find what appears to be a 
somewhat narrow range of sympathy upon another. 
The critic assumes, apparently, that in the " pictorial 
allegory " which forms the frontispiece of the volume 
in question, the artist had in mind the American farmer, 
and that the effect was decidedly unflattering to this 
worthy citizen. To refute this idea seems an exegesis 
of the obvious. It is, at the outset, hardly reasonable 
to suppose that the poem, written avowedly in com- 
mentary upon Millet's picture of the same name, could 
refer to any American working-man, except in so far as 
he like any other had become a type of degraded labor. 
The Millet peasant is not even a type of the ordinary 
French laborer, but only of the toiler brutalized by ex- 
cessive and unrelieved toil. He is a man who has had 
no inlet of joy, no outlet of delight, in his labor. As 
Mr. Markham himself has said, " ' The Man With the 
Hoe ' is, in a large way, the type of any man who has 
forgotten to grow, who has forgotten that man does not 
live by bread alone." This overworked drudge, who 
will have to be born again many times to get out of 
the basement strata of life into the height of " the 
upper chamber opening toward the sky," does exist 
amongst us. He sweeps our streets ; he bakes our 
bread; he digs our coal; he may even write our law 
briefs, or preach our sermons. Civilization will not be 
civilization till somehow he is made his best, whether 
by educating his grandfather in order that he, the de- 
scendant, may have a will to do and dare, or by edu- 
cating the man himself, and giving him time, like 
Browning's hero, to get all the gain there is from hav- 
ing been a man. 

Mr. Pyle, like Mr. Markham, sees in the Man with 
the Hoe, not the American farmer, though possibly a 
" farm hand," slaving from dawn till long past dark, 
might represent the type. He sees only the bended back 
that has borne the heat and burden of the day down 
through the ages; he sees that the Man with the Hoe 
is the type of industrial oppression in all lines of labor, 
the man shapen (or misshapen) by the pitiless ten- 
dencies and injustices of our civilization. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., January 6, 1901. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

On the first of January, 1901, there occurred in the 
town of Van Wert, Ohio, county-seat of Van Wert 
county, an event whose significance the future alone 
will reveal: the dedication of America's first county 
library. Most of the cities and many of the larger 
towns and villages of our country have their public 
libraries; it remained for this Ohio county to inaugurate 
a movement that may eventually bring library privileges 
where they are most needed, viz., to the rural districts. 

The library is named The Brumback Library, in 

honor of its founder, the late J. S. Brumback, a prom- 
inent and wealthy citizen. A special law made pos- 
sible by the Brumback heirs was passed by the Ohio 
legislature, providing for the maintenance of the library 
by the county, and this was almost unanimously favored 
and approved by the people throughout the county 
concerned. The library building is one of the most 
substantial and beautiful in the country. It has a 
capacity of 100,000 volumes, represents a value of 
$50,000, and under the new decennial appraisement 
will have an annual income of $8,000. 

Under the stimulus already given, Cincinnati has ex- 
tended its field of library work to all parts of Hamil- 
ton county, and several other counties have been dis- 
cussing the advisability of imitating the example of 
Van Wert county. The movement was fully discussed 
and heartily endorsed at the recent annual meeting of 
the Ohio Library Association. 

Two thoughts which were especially emphasized in 
the dedicatory exercises may be worth repeating here: 
First, we have in the bequest of a county library one 
of the few philanthropies that tend to benefit all the 
people, country as well as town. Our philanthropy 
has heretofore directed its efforts chiefly to the eleva- 
tion of the city or town only. Second, the recent 
census, which shows how great during the past decade 
has been the migration from county to city, is an appeal 
to American citizenship to look in the future more to 
the welfare and enlightenment of our great rural pop- 
ulation, the bone and sinew of our national life. 


Van Wert, Ohio, January 8, 1901. 

(To the Editor of THB DIAL.) 

One of the greatest authors of all time is Jeremy 
Bentham. He is the father of Utilitarianism, and to 
him more than to anyone else do we owe a rational 
system of jurisprudence. Bentham has furnished more 
ideas to legal writers than any other man of the century. 

Arthur Schopenhauer is the greatest metaphysician 
that ever lived. His " World as Will and Representa- 
tion " is the best solution of the World Riddle ever 
offered. He is the father of Wagner in music. He 
originated a system of philosophy Pessimism. He 
was one of the greatest scholars of the century; the 
only man who ever made metaphysics popular. 

Auguste Comte was one of the greatest men that 
ever lived. He originated the science of Sociology; 
and it is to his impetus that we owe the great social 
evolution now going on. His conception of Humanity 
is the grandest ever originated; his conception of the 
destiny of man the truest. He knew more about Re- 
ligion than any man in the nineteenth century. He is 
one of the least appreciated men of his age. He did 
for Sociology what Darwin did for Biology. 

Charles Darwin's was the most argumentative mind 
of the century. He discovered the most useful law 
ever known to science, and he proved it to an opposing 
public. The race will remember him as one of her 
great men for all time. He revolutionized the science 
of Biology all science. It is to him that the true 
theory of things is possible in the twentieth century. 

What Darwin did for Biology, Herbert Spencer did 
for Psychology. Besides, he has systematized all 
science in his Synthetic Philosophy. He is the greatest 
Individualist of the race, and the last great one. 

Karl Marx is one of the master-minds of man. He 




is the father of Socialism, the making of the race 
into one class, with equal rights, equal opportunities, 
the realization of that better life hoped for by all and 
sought after by so few. His conception of the iniqui- 
ties of modern society will be used as an indictment by 
reformers from now on till the millennium. Of all men, 
he is the common man's best friend. He was one of 
the greatest scholars that ever lived. 

Lester F. Ward is the most practical philosopher the 
century has produced. His Dynamic Sociology com- 
pleted the science Comte began. His psychic factor in 
civilization shows wherein Darwin's great law does not 
hold good in society. But Ward came so late that his 
real influence will be in the twentieth century. 

The great trouble with light literature in the last 
century is that it is almost without exception time- 
serving, not serving all time. George Eliot is the only 
writer of light literature who has any claim to real 
greatness. She has attempted to apply the great con- 
cepts of Bentham and Comte and Spencer to every-day 
life. She has been called, not inappropriately, a female 
Shakespeare. She will be better appreciated in the 
new century. 

Guy de Maupassant is the most artistic story-teller 
the world has ever produced; Count Leo Tolstoi the 
most artistic novelist. Both are masters. Maupassant 
cared nothing for philosophy or morality. His one 
object was to tell his story. Tolstoi is so intent on 
giving his art its highest moral motive that he overlooks 
the intellectual, the chief merit of George Eliot. It 
will take the twentieth century to appreciate Tolstoi's 
high art. 

These are the preeminent authors of the nineteenth 
century. JACKSON BOYD. 

Greencastle, Ind., January S, 1901. 


The multifarious interest of the two thick 
volumes containing Mr. Basil Champneys's 
Memoirs of Coventry Patmore goes far to make 
up for their somewhat disproportionate size. 
The work forms a readable though rather 
rambling account of Patmore, his relatives, his 
three household " Angels," his literary friends, 
which one may open at random with the assur- 
ance of finding something at least mildly inter- 
esting ; but we should have preferred a close- 
knit, comparatively concise biography, showing 
the figure of its hero clearly and in the due 
perspective though of course Mr. Champ- 
neys has adhered to his own view of Patmore's 
proportional importance. 

Outwardly Patmore's career was uneventful, 
and its main features may be briefly sketched. 
He was not a University man, and indeed the 

MORE. By Basil Champneys. Two volumes, illustrated in 
photogravure, etc. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

two years he spent at the College de France, 
St. Germains, formed the only period of his 
life during which he was under regular tuition. 
As a boy he showed great precocity and a 
marked literary bent which his father, who was 
at once his companion and preceptor, industri- 
ously fostered. Authors were the heroes of his 
boyhood, and he used to tell later of his pil- 
grimage at sixteen to the house of Leigh Hunt, 
whose devoted admirer he then was. 

"... After I had waited in the little parlor at 
least two hours the door was opened and a most pic- 
turesque gentleman, with hair flowing nearly or quite 
to his shoulders, a beautiful velvet coat and a Vandyck 
collar of lace about a foot deep, appeared, rubbing his 
hands and smiling ethereally, and saying, without a 
word of preface or notice of my having waited so long, 
1 This is a beautiful world, Mr. Patmore! ' I was so 
struck by this remark that it has eclipsed all memory 
of what occurred during the remainder of my visit." 

Encouraged by his father, and fired by the 
appearance of the Tennyson volume of 1842, 
Patmore launched, in 1844, a little volume of 
poems which, being as full of promise as they 
were vulnerable, came in for both exaggerated 
praise and exaggerated contempt at the hand 
of the reviewers. " The Critic " kindly said of 
Patmore : 

" But if nature hath forbidden him to be a poet, the 
sooner he finds out his incapacity the better for himself 
and his friends; for it may save to society a valuable 
worker in some other field, while it spares to critics the 
irksome toil of fault-finding, to himself the pain of be- 
ing compelled to hear unwelcome truths, and to his 
friends mayhap the cost of maintaining a lank-ribbed 
author and a bare-footed family." 

"Maga," of course, fell foul of the new 
" cockney " poet in its usual style, the reviewer 
ending his diatribe against the " school " in 
general, and its alleged latest exponent in par- 
ticular, as follows : 

" This is the life into which the slime of the Keatses 
(sic) and Shelleys of former times has fecundated. 
The result was predicted a quarter of a century ago in 
this magazine nothing is so tenacious of life as the 
spawn of frogs the fry must become extinct in him. 
His poetry (thank Heaven) cannot corrupt into any- 
thing worse than itself." 

On the other hand, as we have said, Pat- 
more's initial volume was warmly praised in 
some of the reviews, and it was, as may now be 
noted, even rapturously received by a band of 
young men, themselves convention-breakers, 
who were then springing into prominence 
the Prae-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Possibly 
these young painters recognized a certain sim- 
ilarity of aim in their own productions and the 
verses of the new poet. At all events they used 
to carry the little volume about with them, and 



[Jan. 16, 

"to read it at every moment of leisure." 
William Rossetti writes : 

" We admired the poems enormously, and I daresay 
that in the course of a couple of years we had read 
every one of them through 20 or 30 times. Gabriel 
was certain to talk about them to fellow-students at the 
R. A., etc., and more especially to Hunt, Millais, and 

It was some years later that Patmore became 
personally known, through Woolner, to the 
Millais-Rossetti circle, who claimed him, it 
seems, as the representative in poetry of their 
principles, and got him to write for " The 
Germ," to the first number of which he sent a 
short poem, "The Seasons," which was later 
reprinted in " Tamerton Church Tower." Of 
his intercourse with the " Brotherhood " Pat- 
more says : 

" I was intimate with the Prse-Raphaelites when we 
were little more than boys together. They were all 
very simple, pure-minded, ignorant, and confident. . . . 
They could not even have printed the ' Germ ' without 
(pecuniary) assistance. I well remember Millais tri- 
umphantly flourishing before my eyes a cheque for 
150 which he got for ' The Return of the Dove to the 
Ark.' Once I was at a gathering of the Brethren and 
their friends, when Holman Hunt produced forty 
sketches, and said that any one might have them for a 
pound apiece. . . . Hunt attracted me personally more 
than any of the Pra-Raphaelites. He was heroically 
simple and constant in his purpose of primarily serving 
religion by his art, and had a Quixotic notion that it 
was absolutely obligatory upon him to redress every 
wrong that came under his notice. . . . Rossetti was 
in manners, mind, and appearance completely Italian. 
He had very little knowledge of or sympathy with En- 
glish literature; and always gave me the impression of 
tensity rather than intensity." 

When twenty-two or thereabouts Patmore 
felt for a time the unaccustomed pinch of want, 
he and his brother having been suddenly thrown 
upon their own resources through their father's 
failure and subsequent flight to the Continent. 
For a time the brothers struggled on in Grub 
Street fashion, managing to scrape together, 
through translations and chance hack-work, 
the few indispensable shillings from twenty- 
five to sixteen a week. At one time Coventry's 
finances were reduced to three and sixpence, 
which sum he seems to have recklessly spent on 
ices. This period of eclipse was ended through 
the kindly intervention of Monckton Milnes, 
who procured for Patmore a place in the Brit- 
ish Museum. Of Milnes's first encounter with 
Patmore a pleasant story was told by Mrs. 
Procter, which we quote in Mr. Gosse's words : 

"After a dinner at her house in 1846, Monckton 
Milnes said to her in the drawing-room, And who is 
your lean young friend in the frayed coat-cuffs ? ' ' Oh, 
Mr. Milnes,' she replied, you would not talk in that 

way if you knew how clever he is and how unfortunate. 
Have you read his " Poems " ? ' Milnes took them 
away in bis pocket, and wrote to her next morning, 
' If your young friend would like a post in the Library 
of the British Museum, it shall be obtained for him, if 
only to induce you to forget what must have seemed 
my heartless flippancy. His book is the work of a true 
poet, and we must see that he never lacks butter for 
his bread.' " 

From the end of 1846 till the beginning of 
1866 Patmore worked steadily at the Museum, 
a diligent but not, from the librarian's point 
of view, a particularly able assistant. He 
could never, he used to say, resist the temp- 
tation to look into and taste the flavor of every 
book that passed through his hands ; and it is 
interesting to note that the net result of these 
tests was that at the end of his long term of 
service he reached the depressing conclusion 
that, of the forty miles of shelves in the 
Museum, forty feet would contain all the real 
literature of the world. How much of the 
forty miles of shelving was, in Patmore's opin- 
ion, devoted to conserving real rubbish we are 
left to conjecture. On his retirement in 1866 
Patmore was awarded a pension (of the cu- 
riously precise sum of .126, 13s. 4d. a year) 
which he drew until his death. 

The circumstances of Patmore's conversion 
to Roman Catholicism (1864) are not perhaps 
generally known, and would seem indeed to 
have been to some extent misrepresented, or 
misunderstood. That his formal change of 
creed was at least accelerated by his desire to 
remove the insuperable obstacle to his union 
with the lady who became his second wife, 
Mr. Champneys seems to admit. The notion 
that Patmore deliberately turned Catholic 
because he thought the lady in question (as 
Henry IV. thought Paris) " well worth a 
Mass," is of course as cruel as absurd, and 
that anyone could have broached it bears out 
Mr. Lecky's philosophical conclusion that there 
is much more pure malevolence in the world 
than people think. However, the facts in the 
case were as follows : In 1864 Patmore, still 
outwardly of the Anglican faith, journeyed to 
Rome where he made the acquaintance of a 
Miss Byles, an English convert to Romanism. 
Miss Byles was a woman of cultivation and 
some personal charm, who, as a girl, had been 
a pupil of Archdeacon (afterwards Cardinal) 
Manning, whose second wife it was believed 
with good reason she might in time have 
become. Any such prospect was of course 
brought to an end when Manning took orders 
in the Roman Church ; but his influence over 




his pupil continued, and two years after his 
secession Miss Byles, to the consternation of 
her friends, followed the example (and probably 
the counsel) of her former preceptor. She 
used to relate afterwards with some humor, 
when the sting of the slights once put upon 
her by her antipapistical friends and relatives 
had disappeared, how an Anglican clergyman, 
calling at the house shortly after her conver- 
sion, refused for some time to notice her at all, 
until, on leaving, he kindly asked her " when 
she might be expected to turn Mohammedan ? " 

Patmore, then, met Miss Byles at Rome in 
1864, and it was she, we may conclude, who 
finally turned his footsteps, already wavering 
at the parting of the ways, into the path to the 
Vatican. Patmore records in his religious 
autobiography his early impression of his 
future wife : " I had never before," he says, 
" beheld so beautiful a personality, and this 
beauty seemed to be the pure effluence of the 
Catholic Sanctity." The pair were married 
in July, 1864 (a year after the death of Pat- 
more's first wife), at Bayswater, Cardinal 
Manning performing the ceremony, despite his 
disappointment at his fair convert's " sacrifice 
of her vocation," for Miss Byles, it seems, had 
contemplated taking the veil. Patmore's second 
wife, whose influence on his religious views 
and writings Mr. Champneys thinks was con- 
siderable, died some sixteen years after her 
marriage, and her place was promptly filled by 
Harriet Robson, the third " Angel in the 
House," for the " poet of nuptial love " tolerated 
no long break in his facilities for the imme- 
diate study of his chosen theme. 

Patmore's inbred mystical bent, and the 
completeness of his surrender to the primitive 
spirit of the old faith, are attested by his pil- 
grimages to Lourdes with two of his children, 
for whose bodily ailments he hoped for a mir- 
aculous cure at the shrine. For the partial 
blindness of one eye of his son Henry, in par- 
ticular, great things were hoped ; but, alas ! 
Our Lady of Lourdes proved no better than 
the London oculist, for the sight of the offend- 
ing eye was soon totally lost. Patmore wrote 
to his wife from Lourdes : 

"... We are offering our Masses for Henry and our 
hopes of him are increased by a miracle we were lucky 
enough to come in for yesterday. A peasant girl, with 
the most exquisite look of innocence and gratitude, had 
just come from the bath entirely cured of a paralysis 
of three years' standing. We had some talk with her 
and her mother as she was walking off with no touch 
of lameness, and the limb, which had been hitherto en- 
tirely insensible, restored to feeling and full strength. 

There could be no mistake about it. Rachel could not 
have acted the part." 

Patmore's faith in the virtues of the holy well 
was as entire as that of the Catholic students 
cited by Paul Bert, who, before presenting 
themselves for their examination for the " bac- 
calaureat," piously put drops of Lourdes water 
into their ink-bottles, in order that they might 
" pass " with distinction ; and his faith was in 
no wise shaken by the failure in his son's case 
of the mystic fluid as an eye-water. 

Mr. Champneys's first volume contains, be- 
sides the story of Patmore's life, separate chap- 
ters on his father, on each of his three wives, 
on his relations with Tennyson, and concludes 
with three chapters of personal recollections. 
In Volume II. Patmore's religious and philo- 
sophical opinions are rather elaborately dis- 
cussed in three chapters, and these are followed 
by the account Patmore wrote at the instance 
of his wife and a clerical friend, of his conver- 
sion to Romanism ; two-thirds of this volume 
are devoted to the letters, and regarding these 
we are of opinion that Mr. Champneys's rever- 
ence for great names has led him to include 
some writings that are hardly worth reprinting. 
But the correspondence on the whole is in- 
teresting, and the list of correspondents is 
imposing, including such names as Tennyson, 
Ruskin, Carlyle, Aubrey de Vere, Cardinals 
Manning and Newman, Holman Hunt, R. W. 
Emerson, Browning, etc. Carlyle's robust ex- 
pression of contempt for reviewers we are 
tempted to quote : 

" Unhappily the reviewer too is generally in the exact 
ratio of his readers, a dark blockhead with braggartism 
superadded; probably the supreme blockhead of block- 
heads, being a vocal one withal, and conscious of being 
wise. Him also we must leave to his fate: an inevitable 
phenomenon (' like people, like priest '), yet a transitory 
one, he too." 

But why, then, make so angry a coil over the 
doings of so small a creature ? 

Let us conclude our notice of these beauti- 
fully manufactured volumes with a verse of 
Patmore's written by him just after a great 
battle of the Franco-Prussian war, when Ger- 
man Te Deums were going up in thanksgiving 
to Him who was supposed to have presided 
over the slaughter of the French. Patmore 
used to call it " the most popular poem he ever 
wrote "; and our readers may discern in it a 
certain present appositeness : 

" This is to say, my dear Augusta, 
We ' ve had another awful buster : 
Ten thousand Frenchmen sent below ! 
Thank God from whom all blessings Sow ! " 

E. G. J. 



[Jan. 16, 


For thirty-five years, Major James B. Pond 
has been the foremost lecture manager in this 
country. During that time he has managed 
practically all the famous men and women who 
have spoken from American platforms. Most 
of these have been his warm personal friends, 
and have written to him familiarly and charm- 
ingly. He has gathered many of their letters 
together and included them in a book entitled 
" Eccentricities of Genius," and we are given 
glimpses of their idiosyncrasies, their foibles, 
and their virtues, in a series of personal ob- 
servations and reminiscences. The wit, the 
wisdom, the anecdote, the talk of famous men 
and the talk about them, the strangeness and 
vivacity of many of the incidents, the singu- 
larity and eminence of the characters, combine 
to render his volume fascinating, interesting, 
and instructive. 

In speaking of the " lecture bureau," its 
sphere and its origin, he says : 

" The lyceum platform stands for ability, genius, 
education, reform, and entertainment. On it the greatest 
readers, orators, and thinkers have stood. On it reform 
has found her noblest advocates, literature her finest 
expression, progress her bravest pleaders, and humor 
its happiest translation. Some of the most gifted, most 
highly educated, and warmest-hearted men and women 
of the English-speaking race have in the last fifty years 
given their best efforts to the lyceum, and by their 
noble utterances have made its platform not only his- 
toric, but symbolic of talent, education, and genius. 
Until the Redpath Lyceum Bureau was founded by 
James Redpath in Boston, in 1867, lecture committees 
were in the habit' of applying to lecturers and readers 
direct. These committees were usually made up from 
the leading citizens of the town, with a view to securing 
the services of the ablest men and women of letters 
for the entertainment of the public. The fee was gen- 
erally nominal, but sufficient to cover the actual ex- 
penses of the star and furnish a small honorarium." 

Among those who were brought before the 
public under these early conditions were Ed- 
ward Everett, Ralph Waldo Emerson, John 
B. Gough, Wendell Phillips, George William 
Curtis, James Russell Lowell, Edward Everett 
Hale, Bayard Taylor, Henry Ward Beecher, 
Julia Ward Howe, Susan B. Anthony, Anna 
E. Dickinson, and Mary A. Livermore. The 
four great readers who could attract attention 
year after year were George Vandenhoff and 
James E. Murdoch famous Shakespearean 
actors of the day Professor Churchill of 
Andover, and Charlotte Cushman. Mr. Shil- 
laber ("Mrs. Partington " ) as a humorous 

* ECCENTRICITIES OF GENIUS: Memories of Famous Men 
and Women of the Platform and Stage. By Major J. B. 
Pond. Illustrated. New York : The G. W. Dillingham Co. 

lecturer was also very popular. Major Pond 
notes the change that has come over the spirit 
of " the lecture course " during later years. 
Given at first to discussions of the leading 
issues of the day, the demand then was for 
entertainment by traveller and humorist, bring- 
ing us to the present, in which audiences are 
demanding the presence of the best in the lit- 
erary and scientific world, and the story of 
great exploits or discoveries. 

Major Pond admits that he " drifted " into 
the lyceum business. It was while associated 
with the "Salt Lake Tribune" the first 
Gentile paper in Utah that he became ac- 
quainted with Mrs. Ann Eliza Young. This 
was shortly after she apostatized. One evening 
it was arranged that she should tell the story 
of her life to the guests of the Walker House, 
where she had taken refuge under the protec- 
tion of the officials of the territory Governor 
Woods and Chief Justice McKean. She told 
her story one of the most interesting and 
thrilling ever rehearsed. Her speech was 
telegraphed to the Associated Press, and the 
next day she received many telegrams from 
various persons asking her to lecture. One 
was from P. T. Barnum, and another from 
James Redpath. It was conceived that if she 
could tell her story in Washington, the state 
of Utah, instead of being neglected as it was, 
would get some attention and legislation. 
Major Pond proposed a lecture tour, and she 
accepted ; it was then that he undertook his 
first managerial contract. Two days later she 
did tell her story in Washington. Forty-eight 
hours afterwards the Poland bill for the relief 
of the oppressed in Utah was a law. 

It is not surprising to learn that the great 
triumvirate of lecture kings consisted of John 
B. Gough, Henry Ward Beecher, and Wendell 

" Gough was one of the heroes of the nineteenth 
century. The incalculable good he did his fellow men 
can never be known. It is no idle statement when we 
say that he was the direct means, under God, of raising 
tens of thousands from degradation. . . . He was a 
charming man personally modest, unassuming, kind- 
hearted, and sincere." 

Wendell Phillips is accredited with being the 
most polished and graceful orator our country 
has ever known. The author's recollections 
of Beecher extend over many pages. 

" He had, as I can bear witness, the power of ab- 
straction by which he could put away all thoughts of 
care and trouble, and rise to a higher atmosphere where 
the heavens were unclouded, while his eyes and ears 
were closed to all lower considerations. To those 
nearest to him at these times this power seemed almost 




superhuman. ... I remember saying to him one day, 
after I had seen him walking arm in arm with a man 
who had injured him, who had been abusing him, < I 
think you are carrying the doctrine of forgiveness too 
far.' He said: 'Pond, can we go farther than to bless 
those who curse us, and pray for those who despitefnlly 
use us? Ah, there is so little known of the spirit of Christ 
in the world that when a man is trying feebly and afar 
to follow Him even Christians do not understand it.' " 

Emerson called Charles Sumner " the 
whitest soul I ever knew." Men of whom 
such remarks may be made with absolute truth 
are rare in the public life of any .nation, and 
their careers should be kept prominently before 
each rising generation. But Sumner's faults 
of character are as well known as his public 
services he was unconciliating, egotistic, and 
dogmatic. Major Pond and his father were 
once on the same train with the " aristocrat." 
He was reading in the drawing-room car. 

" Father stepped up and said : ' The Honorable 
Charles Sumner? I have read all of your speeches. I 
feel that it is the duty of every American to take you 
by the hand. This is my son he has just returned 
from the Kansas conflict.' Honorable Charles Sumner 
did not see father nor his son, but he saw the porter 
and said : ' Can you get me a place where I will be undis- 
turbed ? ' Poor father! His heart was almost broken." 

The author's estimate of " Mark Twain " is 
lengthy, and naturally commendatory. Suffice 
to say that he considers him one of the greatest 
geniuses of our time, and as great a philosopher 
as humorist. The " eccentricities " of " Max 
O'Rell" he found unenjoyable. The history 
of professional humorists shows that they have 
turned their bright side to the world, have 
laughed and joked, and have so bubbled over 
with humor that they seem to have no serious 
side all this with a background of physical 
disease, or a personal sorrow, that made mental 
depression inevitable. " Bill Nye " kept alive 
his quaint humor in the face of bodily disabil- 
ity under which men of less courage would 
have succumbed at once. 

There is a pathetic strain in the account of 
Ralph Waldo Emerson's last appearance on the 
platform. A lecture was given to raise funds 
to save the Old South Church from being torn 
down. The venerable author faced as choice 
an audience of the blue blood of Boston as 
has ever assembled in that old chapel. 

" Mr. Emerson was introduced. As he began read- 
ing his lecture the audience was very attentive. After a 
few moments he lost his place, and his grand-daughter, 
sitting in the front row of seats, gently stepped toward 
him and reminded him that he was lecturing. He saw 
at once that he was wandering, and with a most charm- 
ing, characteristic, apologetic bow he resumed his place 
an incident that seemed to affect the audience more 
than anything else that could have occurred. A few 

moments later he took a piece of manuscript in his 
hand, and, turning around with it, laid it on a side 
table. Just then one of the audience said to me (I 
think it was Mrs. Livermore or Mrs. Howe), ' Please 
have the audience pass right out.' He had probably 
been speaking about fifteen minutes. The audience 
passed out, many of them in tears. I never read any 
account of it in the newspapers. I suppose it was out 
of love and veneration for the dear man that the inci- 
dent did not receive public mention, but there must be 
a great many still alive who were witnesses to that 
memorable scene." 

Mr. Israel Zangwill was one of the unique 
characters whom Manager Pond introduced to 
American audiences. He speaks of Mr. 
Zangwill's " indomitable assurance," adding : 
" Whatever he said was so because he said so, 
although I knew better at the time." Three 
pages are devoted to Mr. Hall Caine, who was 
greatly disappointed at his lack of success in 
America as author-reader. Zangwill and Caine, 
both smarting at their treatment by the New 
York papers, breakfasting together at the 
Waldorf, were " so chopfallen and dejected 
that they might have put pepper in their cof- 
fee instead of sugar without knowing the dif- 
ference." " Ian Maclaren " was as much 
surprised at his audiences as Mr. Caine was 

Sir Edwin Arnold was also surprised at the 
welcome tendered him in this country. Ameri- 
can audiences were amazed at the poet-editor's 
retentive memory. 

" One evening in my library Sir Edwin was reclining 
on a lounge. I was holding a rare volume of Shake- 
speare, which he had been admiring and had passed to 
me. ' Now, Major,' he said, ' give me the first line 
from any scene and I'll give you the whole scene.' I 
gave him a line from the least-known of the plays and, 
to my astonishment, he recited the entire scene. He 
told me afterward that he could recite Shakespeare 
from beginning to end." 

Speaking of the passage of our international 
copyright law, Sir Edwin humorously said : 
" Personally I was never a fanatic in the matter. I 
have always rather had a tenderness for those buc- 
caneers of the ocean of books who, in nefarious bottoms, 
carried my poetical goods far and wide without any 
charge for freight." 

It is impossible to do more than merely 
point out the sphere of the book under con- 
sideration. Upwards of a hundred persons 
all well known names in the world of science, 
literature, art, and theology are here treated 
in a gossipy, reminiscent manner. The author 
does not claim to be more than a story-teller, 
and his book is not more nor less than what 
he claims it to be. A little more indulgent 
appreciation of the right word in the right 
place would have added to the literary quality 



[Jan. 16, 

of the work ; but his veneration for the " aris- 
tocracy of genius " overbalances his respect for 
mere words. He has a keen sense of humor 
it is not every man who can carry a bon mot, 
and probably no man carries witticisms cor- 
rectly who has not himself a full comprehension 
of their point. In addition to this, his per- 
ception of character is acute, and he possesses 
the rare faculty of being able to single out traits 
which are peculiar to each person. It is not 
hard to read between the lines, that dealings 
with celebrities are not always as agreeable as 
might be hoped. Yet, in spite of the cases 
where bis subjects have been imbued with an 
exaggerated idea of their own greatness, Major 
Pond could hardly hesitate in saying, as Bos- 
well said to Lord Chatham : " I have the 
happiness of being capable to contemplate with 
supreme delight those distinguished spirits by 
which God is sometimes pleased to honor 
humanity." INGRAM A. PYLE. 


Another biography of Theodore Parker is 
welcome. Weiss's bulky and " chaotic " work, 
which appeared in 1864, was written too soon 
after the stormy life it portrayed had come to 
a close. It was, moreover, the work of one 
who was too much of a partisan of its hero. 
Yet withal it is a wonderfully interesting book ; 
we know an Episcopal clergyman who has read 
it three times. Dr. Frothingham, on the other 
hand, was in his earlier years a sympathizer 
with Parker's theological opponents, a fact 
which could hardly fail to leave its effect on 
even hismaturer judgment of the great preacher 
though Mr. Chadwick believes this effect 
was slight. The other biographies Seville's, 
Dean's, Altherr's, and the rest are either not 
readily accessible or not of prime importance. 
Mr. Chadwick, then, had the opportunity of 
producing a really desirable and timely book. 

Mr. Chadwick is, moreover, well qualified to 
write the story of Theodore Parker's life. He 
enjoyed a personal acquaintance with Parker 
and the members of the circle in which Parker 
lived. He is familiar with Parker's system of 
thought and its relation to the speculation of 
Parker's time in America and abroad ; he is 
fully in sympathy with the creed of Parker, at 
the same time appreciating the point of view 
of those whose opinions differed from Parker's 

John White Chadwick. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

excessively radical views. He possesses rare lit- 
erary gifts, especially in the field of biography. 
Naturally, then, we expect from him an ac- 
curate and vivid picture, if only in outline, of 
Theodore Parker and his times ; and such the 
book proves to be. The author has set himself 
the difficult task of compressing the story of 
Theodore Parker's life, for which Weiss (in- 
cluding, however, much correspondence) re- 
quired a thousand pages and Frothingham 
nearly six hundred, into four hundred small 
pages. He would have preferred, he says, to 
make a book even larger than Weiss's, draw- 
ing freely from Parker's works and correspond- 
ence ; or, within the limits of a work like the 
present, to introduce a more largely autobio- 
graphical element. But he has wisely refrained 
from either course. To our generation, the 
present book will be more really serviceable. 
In these pages Theodore Parker lives again 
^scholar and teacher, minister, heretic, theo- 
logian, leader of the enemies of slavery. The 
proportion of the book is good. We do not 
complain that Mr. Chadwick has laid too much 
stress on the side of the preacher, for we do 
not think he has. Parker, with all his multi- 
farious reading, book-reviewing, lecturing, and 
fighting of slavery, was first and last and always 
a preacher, with the sermonizing habit so firmly 
rooted that he could never shake it off. He felt 
" born for a pulpit if for anything." His othe*r 
activities, however, were marvellously diverse ; 
and these Mr. Chadwick has clearly set forth. 
In summing up Parker's traits and defining 
his present position in the public estimation, 
Mr. Chadwick differs from Frothingham con- 
cerning Parker's lack of " the atmosphere of 
devout feeling." The explanation of this lack 
Mr. Chadwick finds not in the predominance 
of Parker's intellectual power over his religious 
sensibility, he thinks Parker's religious sen- 
sibility was much greater than his intellectual 
power, but rather in his " exaggeration of 
Martineau's conspicuous defect, that of looking 
for the significance of religion too rigidly to 
its intellectual contents." He agrees with 
Frothingham, however, in calling Parker "the 
grandest theist of the time." Concerning 
Parker's philosophical and theological position, 
Mr. Chadwick, writing a quarter of a century 
later, naturally goes further than Frothingham, 
for in that interim great changes have come 
about, so great as to " make Parker's hetero- 
doxy seem antiquated, almost absurd, ortho- 
doxy." With skill he points out how much fur- 
ther orthodox critics have now gone than Parker 




thought of going, and how Parker's doctrine 
of ' the divine immanence in matter and in 
man " is now held by most Christian thinkers. 

But great as was the preacher in Parker, 
the humanitarian was greater. He is remem- 
bered to-day not so much by his sermons, now 
little read, as by his devotion to discouraged, 
doubting, and downtrodden humanity. The 
call to aid a fugitive slave was put above 
everything else. He must follow the flag of 
humanity. And to this part of the story Mr. 
Chadwick does full justice. The life of the 
anti-slavery leader and of the pastor of ten 
thousand souls, from Boston to Calcutta, he 
recounts vividly. 

The make-up of the book is good. Some 
minor corrections have already appeared in 
print ; in addition we may note (p. xix.) that 
the " National Review " article of 1860, which 
has been ascribed to James Martineau, ap- 
peared in volume x ; and (p. xiv.) that the 
discourse on Daniel Webster was not published 
till 1853. The bibliography is fairly full. 
References to Allibone and Poole for sup- 
plementary titles might have been added 
(cp. p. 379) ; and why confine the list to 
English books ? Mr. Chadwick was of course 
aware of Altherr's careful study (Theodor 
Parker in seinem Leben und Wirken darge- 
stellt, St. Gallen, 1894 ; see an appreciative 
review by M. Picard in Revue de IMstoire 
des religions xxx. 224227), and of the earlier 
and briefer work by H. Lang (Theodor 
Parker, Zurich, about 1880). The list might 
also have properly included Ziethen's transla- 
tion of some of Parker's works into German 
(five vols., Leipzig, 1854-61). But these are 
minor points. A good index makes the book 
doubly valuable. 



The third volume of Hastings's " Dictionary 
of the Bible " maintains the previous high 
standard of the monumental work. While it 
would hardly be true to say that its subjects 
are more important than those of Volume II., 
a book must be of first importance that treats, 
among other subjects, of Matthew, Mark, Luke, 
the Old and New Testament canons, Paul the 
Apostle, Law, Moses, Numbers, Mediator, 

A DICTIONAKT OF THE BIBLE : Dealing with its Lan- 
guage, Literature, and Contents, including Biblical Theology. 
Edited by James Hastings, M.A., D.D. Volume ILL, Kir- 
Pleides. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Miracle, Peter, Epistles of Peter, Passover, 
and Pharisees. 

The point of view of the authors of the 
articles in this volume is that of historical crit- 
icism, although in the case of certain contrib- 
utors there is to be seen a somewhat unexpected 
disregard of what has come to be accepted as 
probability. Yet even in so conservative an 
article as that of Dr. M'Clymont upon the 
New Testament, critical results are by no 
means disregarded. As a whole, the articles 
are of exceptional value, although one's pat- 
riotism leads one to feel that more work might 
well have been assigned to American scholars. 
It must be said, too, that some of the articles 
upon the New Testament are disappointing, 
and hardly of the same grade as those dealing 
with similar subjects in the Old Testament. 
That upon the New Testament Canon, for in- 
stance, is hardly more than a somewhat mod- 
ernized epitome of Westcott, a discussion 
of the external evidence of different books, 
which all but ignores the weighty matters of 
local, partial, and heretical canons, as well as 
the motives and causes leading to the final 
adoption of the canon in its present form. 
Similarly, the article upon the Messiah, al- 
though sufficient for the general reader, will 
disappoint the special student. Altogether 
admirable, however, are the articles of Pro- 
fessor Chase upon the Epistles of Peter, that 
upon the Second Epistle being a model of 
method and investigation. Professor Findlay 
has done characteristically careful work upon 
Paul the Apostle. Here again we have an 
illustration of the conservative progress of 
English New Testament scholars. Professor 
Findlay favors Lightfoot's view of Paul's 
" thorn in the flesh " as epilepsy, and holds 
to the second imprisonment of the Apostle, as 
well as the older chronological scheme of his 
life, while adopting the South Galatian theory 
of Ramsay. It is to be regretted that in its 
exposition of the Pauline thought the treat- 
ment should have been so much more system- 
atic than historical. Of the two articles by 
Dr. Fairweather upon the Maccabees, that 
upon the history of the family is hardly more 
than a brief statement of external events, and 
all but overlooks the great movements of 
thought and religion that characterized their 
epoch. Professor Kennedy has produced a 
most valuable study upon the money of the 
Bible, in which he follows the trend of recent 
numismatic work in refusing to accept any coin 
of the Maccabees earlier than John Hyrcanus. 



[Jan. 16, 

An equally valuable article is that of Professor 
McAllister upon Medicine. 

It is, however, quite impossible and almost 
impertinent to pass these ex cathedra judgments 
upon such serious and scholarly work as is 
contained in this volume. It would perhaps 
be better, in a short review, to be content 
with congratulating the general editor of the 
Dictionary, Dr. James Hastings, for his suc- 
cess, not alone in his selection of contributors, 
but also in the almost uniform justice with 
which the space is distributed. His work, 
representing as it does both caution and inde- 
pendence in the use of scientific methods in 
biblical study, is certain to have a permanent 
place and influence in the rapid development 
of a rational theology. 



The criticism of Mr. Chester Holcombe in " The 
Real Chinese Question" applies to nearly all of 
the books dealing with the weighty problem on 
which the future of the entire world may be said to 
hinge. Not the welfare of the Chinese, but that of 
the various nations of Christendom clamoring at 
the gates of the ancient empire, is the subject of 
their consideration. The talk is all of reparation 
and indemnity from the Chinese, with never the 
hint of a suggestion of indemnity or reparation to 
them for the wholesale atrocities visited upon them 
by the Allied forces. For the most part every 
author assumes that the European or American 
point of view, or the point of view of some one of 
the Christian sects, is the only one from which the 
present emergency can be grasped ; that the Chi- 
nese, even in their own country, are strange and 
inhuman, and that the solution of their problems 
lies with the statesmen of Christendom, to whom 

*THB AWAKENING OF THE EAST. By Pierre Leroy-Beau- 
lieu. New York : McClure, Phillips & Co. 

THE PROBLEM OF ASIA, and Its Effect upon International 
Policies. By Captain A. T. Mahan. Boston : Little, Brown, 

Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Company. 

New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Parsons. New York : McClure, Phillips & Co. 

THE OUTBREAK IN CHINA : Its Causes. By F. L. Hawks 
Pott, D.D. New York : James Pott & Co. 

New York : Cassell & Co., Ltd. 

THE STORY OF CHINA. By Neville P. Edwards. Phila- 
delphia : J. B. Lippincott Company. 

THE ATTACHE AT PEKING. By A. B. Freeman-Mitford, 
C.B. New York : The Macmillan Company. 

New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

plenipotentiary power must be granted. The very 
remedies proposed show the Caucasian to be a man 
of like passions with his yellow-skinned congener, 
and Shylock's outburst and plea for a common hu- 
manity comes into mind with every fresh revelation 
of the wish to place all the moral responsibility 
upon Chinese shoulders as a preliminary to doing 
something, ostensibly for his own good, but really 
for the good of his advisers. 

The book of M. Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu, "The 
Awakening of the East," is an honorable exception 
to this. Mr. Henry Norman writes an introduction 
for it, saying rightly that the three countries treated 
in the work, Siberia, Japan, and China, are those 
concerning which enlightenment is needed before 
the question of China alone can be discussed at all. 
The author is a Frenchman, and has travelled 
through the lands he describes. He gives us not 
only an account of the position of Russia, which 
seems to be less advantageous than Great Britain 
has generally been disposed to think, but a sympa- 
thetic survey of the advance of Japan, and an illu- 
minating comparison of Japan's condition forty 
years ago with that of China to-day. Other writers 
have seen in the laying off of one culture and the 
assumption of another, by the people of the Mikado, 
an evidence of instability and lack of moral convic- 
tion. With more insight, our author holds that 
Japan was touched at heart not at all by the Chinese 
civilization she is so rapidly discarding, and not 
much by the European garments in which she is 
clothing herself, her own national life lying calm 
and undisturbed below them all ; that it is the depth 
of this life, not its shallowness, which enables the 
astonishing change to be made. In China, on the 
other hand, the civilization of the people is the 
people itself, and a change is inconceivable except 
as a preliminary to national suicide. In Japan, too, 
the nation worked out its own salvation ; in China, 
a multitude of self-constituted counsellors are stand- 
ing about suggesting or dictating safety for them- 
selves. He sees in England, Japan, and the United 
States the only honest advocates of an open-door 
policy, and his advice to his countrymen is to secure 
for Europe in China such commercial concessions 
as have been wrested from Turkey. 

Captain Mahan is an excellent illustration of the 
writer whose only thought is one of enlightened 
selfishness ; and it is doubtful if a line in his " Prob- 
lem of Asia " has the good of the Chinese nation at 
heart, except in so far as unhappiness in that coun- 
try conduces to unhappiness for Christendom or to 
Christian disadvantage. " The propriety of non- 
interference," or " the conventional rights of a so- 
called independent state to regulate its own internal 
affairs," are outworn phantasies with him when 
Chinese affairs are under discussion. His advice, 
then, would be to prevent a preponderance of influ- 
ence in the East < s n the part of any one of the 
Powers, and to secure an open door, not in the 
commercial sense alone, but for the importation of 
our civilization, lest China, waxing fat under in- 




creased trade, shall not at the same time acquire 
" the corrective and elevating element of the higher 
ideals, which in Europe have made good their con- 
trolling influence over mere physical might " (using 
his own words). This is delicious : is it America 
in the Philippines, England in South Africa, Russia 
in Manchuria, France in Madagascar, or Germany 
in Liao-Tong, which is to set China the example of 
non-aggression a policy which has been Chinese 
since Egypt built the pyramids, and one to which 
her fabulous extent of national existence is unques- 
tionably due. For the United States, our man of 
war would have us " respect to the utmost the integ- 
rity of Chinese territory, and the individuality of 
the Chinese character in shaping its own govern- 
ment and polity," only " meddling" (his own word) 
with their national affairs when "they become in- 
ternationally unendurable." Poor China! 

The Reverend Doctor Condit's book, ' The China- 
man as We See Him," says little about the Mon- 
golian race in its own country, and a great deal 
concerning its conduct in America, particularly in 
San Francisco, where he has been laboring among 
the Chinese for years. Yet it deserves careful study 
by those who are shaping our national destinies. It 
proves by absolute demonstration that there are 
more points of resemblance than of difference be- 
tween the white and the yellow races ; and it holds 
up to view, with unsparing hand, the vices of the 
American and his government beside those of his 
Eastern brother. Especially significant, in view of 
what is to follow, is the denunciation of the British 
Opium War, and the consequent degradation of the 
pagan by the Christian nation. Few defenders of 
that atrocity are to be found to-day ; but Doctor 
Condit points out the damning fact that the English 
now have an annual revenue of forty millions of 
dollars from this international crime one which 
is beginning to react upon America in the spread 
of the opium habit among us. 

Mr. Joseph Walton's " China and the Present 
Crisis " is based upon observations made during 
eight months of travel in Japan, Corea, and China, 
during which time five thousand miles were passed 
over in the interior of the last-named country. It 
contains a summary of his knowledge delivered 
before the House of Commons on March 30 last, 
and follows this with a chapter dealing with more 
recent events, in which certain suggestions are 
made for a betterment of the situation. These 
suggestions are four in number, comprising a grant 
to the Chinese government to levy increased duties 
on imports, but only on these conditions (how long 
would the United States permit the outside world 
to dictate its tariff laws ?) : all other taxes on goods 
to be abolished, and a substantial share of the in- 
creased revenues to be given the provincial govern- 
ments ; all officials to be adequately paid ; all inland 
waterways in China to be opened to the world's 
commerce ; and all railways built with foreign 
capital to become the property of the Chinese gov- 
ernment upon due compensation being granted. 

These conditions are not wholly selfish, in the 
sense in which the Chinese will not profit by them 
at all ; but it is to be remarked that nothing but 
good will flow from them to Great Britain, while 
the assumption by foreigners of the inland com- 
merce of China would throw many millions of 
Chinese into starvation. 

To a great extent, the interest of Mr. William 
Barclay Parsons's " An American Engineer in 
China " lies in the account therein given of an ex- 
tended professional journey through Hu-nan, a 
practically unknown province of the empire. This 
expedition was undertaken as the result of an 
American concession for constructing a railway 
from Hankow to Canton, nine hundred miles, which, 
with the mining and other privileges appertain- 
ing, make it, in value and in national importance, 
second to no other concession granted by the 
Chinese Government." Four hundred miles of its 
line are to be contained within the " closed " prov- 
ince of Hu-nan, traversing its entire length, so that 
during more than half the author's tour he was the 
first white man ever seen by the resident natives. 
Three other men of European blood had been in the 
province, but only on its waterways ; and the in- 
formation given by Mr. Parsons is of real import- 
ance. The expedition was accompanied by soldiers, 
and was made at some little personal risk, more 
from the childish curiosity of the natives, however, 
than from any ill will. Mr. Parsons remarks that 
our country has the confidence of the Chinese to 
an extent unknown by other nations, because of its 
supposed freedom from international greed ; and 
this he thinks is worth retaining, on the principle 
that honesty is the best policy." Chapters deal- 
ing popularly with professional subjects, like archi- 
tectural and railway engineering, add to the value 
of the book, which is well illustrated. 

"The Outbreak in China " is due, as the Reverend 
Doctor Pott analyses the situation, to a round 
dozen of causes. Among these are listed the Ger- 
man seizure of Kiao-chao Bay, the forced lease to 
Russia of Port Arthur, the forced lease to England 
of Wei-hai-wei and the extension at Kowloon, the 
Italian demand for Sanmen Bay, the general ex- 
tension of the foreign settlements, the introduction 
of railways, the forced concessions to foreigners, 
the subsidizing of Chinese by foreign capital, and 
" missionary enterprise." These provoking causes, 
with others which come from the Chinese, are dis- 
cussed in detail and remedies are suggested. The 
reverend Doctor advises that " wherever there have 
been anti-foreign uprisings, punitive expeditions 
should penetrate, and the guilty, responsible for 
the massacre of innocent women and children, be 
made to pay the penalty for their barbarous cruelty. 
The arrogance and self-conceit of ages must be 
trailed in the dust." Doctor Pott advances argu- 
ments for and against a partition of Chinese terri- 
tory after China has been properly humiliated 
but nothing distantly resembling a moral concept 
can be discerned; he expresses the conviction that 



[Jan. 16, 

Russia, France, and Germany will continue their 
present aggressions ; and advises America to re- 
member that her part should " not he merely further 
laud-grabbing, or the increase of commerce, hut 
the advancement of Christian civilization in the 
Far East." 

Mr. Alexis Krausse, in spite of his un-English 
name, presents the case of Great Britain in " The 
Story of the Chinese Crisis," leading up to the 
present status by a justification of the Opium War, 
and setting forth the two serious mistakes of the 
British foreign office in dealing with China as lying 
in the seizure of Fort Arthur by Russia without 
effective protest, and the assumption of the throne 
by the Dowager Empress. He calls attention, as 
Mr. Walton did also, to the patent fact that the 
interests of the British in China are of vastly more 
consequence than those in South Africa, and that 
present preoccupation with the sturdy burghers is 
likely to result in a tremendous future loss in the 
East presumably a part of the price which Presi- 
dent Krueger said England would have to pay for 
South African subjugation. 

" The Story of China," by Mr. Neville P. Ed- 
wards, seems intended for the consumption of 
British jingoes exclusively. It deals with the 
question in a flippant and heartless way, setting 
forth the history of England in China with little 
regard to the facts involved, and displaying no 
capacity for dealing with the weighty problems of 
the hour. It is plentifully illustrated. 

The republication, after thirty-four years, of Mr. 
Freeman-Mitford's "The Attache' at Peking" is 
important for the curious proof it affords that his- 
tory repeats itself, and quite as much so for the 
preface just added to the book, which contains all 
the suggestions of experience and a point of view 
that is quite the author's own. He justifies the 
use of opium in a pipe, and quotes authorities in 
proof of its harmlessness ; he sets forth the virtues 
of the Jesuit missionaries in China with rare dis- 
passion ; and he proposes, as one step toward a 
settlement, that the capital be removed to Nanking, 
which enjoyed that honor during the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The entire book is informing and readable ; 
but the flying bats printed in gold upon its covers 
are a poor symbol of its general freedom from 

For an American reader, the most informing and 
satisfactory work of all is Mr. Chester Holcombe's 
"The Real Chinese Question." The author has 
had thirty years' experience in the Empire, half of 
it spent in an official connection with the American 
Legation at Peking and half in furthering various 
financial and commercial projects among the 
Chinese. Strange to say, after this wide experience 
he rather admires the people instead of hating 
them, and his book comes nearer disinterestedness 
than any of its fellows. The one important ques- 
tion before the world to-day in respect of China, he 
believes, is the conservation of the integrity of the 
Chinese government, a position in which he coin- 

cides with Sir Robert Hart's recently expressed 
views. To this end he proposes three reforms, 
which seem to possess a degree of practicality that 
is absent from most other suggestions. He would 
(first) have an imperial standard of weights and 
measures enforced by the Chinese themselves, pre- 
sumably as a step toward securing justice in 
(secondly) paying the Chinese officials an adequate 
salary with consequent inhibition of existing schemes 
for extortion, followed (thirdly) by denying official 
position to all persons found to be addicted to the 
opium habit, holding here, with Doctor Condit, 
that the opium-user is certain to become a moral 
alien, unable to distinguish between right and 
wrong. Throughout his interesting work, Mr. 
Holcombe never loses sight of the Chinese point of 
view, and has no hesitancy in laying bare to his 
readers' gaze some of the numerous infamies which 
Christian governments and their people have prac- 
tised upon the government and people of the 
Flowery Kingdom. 

Yet, at best, the ten books here reviewed leave 
little hope of a future which will make for the 
world's peace or for the continued prosperity of 
the Caucasian race as the conservator of high 
ethical ideals. Might, not right, sits in the high 
places, and the possible adoption by peaceful China 
of the militarism of Europe and the " land hunger " 
of America is indeed a "Yellow Peril" whose 
menace no one may now foretell. 


More chapter* 


Mr - Julian Corbett's study of the 
Tudor navy is brought to a close in a 
naval hittory. work Qn The Successors of Drake " 

(Longmans). This volume carries the reader 
through the period of hostilities with Spain which 
extended from the death of Drake in 1596 to the 
conclusion of the war at the accession of James I. 
For the most part, political histories of England do 
not expand the events of these years ; for with the 
defeat of the Armada the British navy achieved its 
greatest glory and is supposed to have crushed 
Spanish sea-power. With Drake's disappearance 
from the stage, much of the picturesque in English 
naval action is lost. Mr. Corbett's more thorough 
examination into the history of this period leads 
him to believe that the famous sea-fight, far from 
being a crowning victory, was but a prelude to 
more serious contests, and that it required ten more 
years to so strengthen the British navy that Philip 
would admit his inability to crush England. The 
dying Spanish king advised his son to make peace, 
but both king and nation were reluctant, and with 
the final peace Spain yielded nothing of the West 
Indian trade. These years were years of change 
and great development in maritime methods. The 
dash and recklessness of the earlier leaders, their 
strange mixture of puritanism and piracy, gave 




way to a business-like system of making war for 
df finite objects. Technical knowledge came to be 
regarded as essential for the command of ships. 
The result was ultimately a navy more powerful 
than any Spain could produce, acknowledging but 
one rival, the Dutch. Thus, while the romance of 
war departed with Drake, it was in the years that 
followed that a permanent British sea-power was 
created. History, says Mr. Corbett, has not justly 
appreciated the importance of this latter period. 
Still, the present volume treats of some characters 
and episodes surely picturesque, if not heroic. Essex 
and Raleigh strove to emulate the brilliant exploits 
of Drake and Hawkins, and in the capture of Cadiz 
came near the maik. Essex, indeed, until political 
intrigue had sapped his influence and exhausted his 
patience, is presented as a man of unusual attain- 
ments, and one unfairly treated by historians. 
Raleigh, on the other hand, has been over-estimated 
by writers. Secure in the Queen's favor, important 
commands were given him ; and these, together 
with his charming writings, served to give him an 
undeserved reputation for naval wisdom. That men 
of the Elizabethan period were fully conscious of 
the power of the press, is seen in the fact that both 
Essex and Raleigh, upon the capture of Cadiz, sent 
off post-haste to London a private messenger with 
a full account of the exploit, written for personal 
glory. Each hero wished to rush into print; but 
the shrewd Cecil captured and suppressed both 
messages, and issued only the official account of 
Lord Howard. Mr. Corbett has produced a schol- 
arly work. Research and discrimination are evident 
throughout. Extreme detail prohibits popularity in 
a sense, as does also the necessarily technical char- 
acter of much of the work ; yet there are many 
pages of brilliant description and of illuminating 

" The Builders of Greater Britain " 
8erie8 (Longman) is brought to a 
conclusion in the publication of a 
volume on Sir Stamford Raffles by Mr. Hugh E. 
Egerton. The book is unmistakably the best of the 
series in literary workmanship and in biographical 
style, though not in intrinsic interest. Sir Stamford 
Raffles was a poor boy who, by sheer hard work, 
fought his way up to a position of confidence in the 
home office of the East India Company. In 1805 
he was sent to Prince of Wales Island, and sub- 
sequently served in Java, Sumatra, and Singapore, 
in important capacities. He was responsible for 
the English exploitation of Singapore as a check 
upon Dutch influence in the East, and it is mainly 
for this service that he is included in the present 
series. Yet this was not his only claim upon public 
recognition, for he was endowed in an unusual 
degree with the qualities which have created British 
empire. He was hampered by instructions from 
England, yet, assuming the independence to act 
and to refer afterwards, he succeeded in executing 
his own designs without coming into immediate 

collision with the home office. Fortunately for 
England, Raffles was but one of a host of agents 
who, overstepping the limits set by central authority, 
effected permanent improvement and expansion. 
Mr. Egerton asserts that Raffles was a conscious 
philanthropic expansionist, that a desire to better 
native conditions went hand in hand with business 
administration, and that his term of office was 
marked by decided improvement in native life. 
This actual betterment was undeniably achieved ; 
nevertheless it is not difficult to see that to Raffles's 
mind England's foreign power, the Company's 
finances, and native improvement, held importance 
in the order stated. Nor did he disdain to use all the 
accustomed methods of doubtful intrigue to secure 
the submission of native princes. Thus after a 
successful war, begun in intrigue, he wrote : A 
population of not less than a million has been 
wrested from the tyranny and oppression of an in- 
dependent, ignorant, and cruel Prince, and a country 
yielding to none on earth in fertility and cultivation, 
affording a revenue of not less than a million of 
Spanish dollars in the year, placed at our disposal." 
Raffles was never idle ; he worked hard, aged early, 
and died in retirement in England at forty-six, 
July 5, 1826. He is an excellent illustration of 
the energetic colonial administrator, honest and 
upright in his motives, and in action as humane as 
to him the circumstances warranted. 

The inbred sentiment that moves 

Two book* on tie r .. . , 

America* Soldier. mo8t * U8 to vlew wltn a jealous 

eye the military branch of the fed- 
eral public service has undoubtedly wrought some 
injustice, in that it has prevented due recognition 
of the fine soldierly qualities, the unswerving good 
citizenship, the arduous services in the policing and 
opening up to the settler of our far- western domain, 
of our regular army ; and we therefore gladly com- 
mend to all American readers, as an excellent his- 
torical sketch and a temperate though feeling and 
forcible plea for a body of men who deserve excep- 
tionally well of their country, the little book wherein 
General George A. Forsyth, a gallant soldier and 
an attractive, virile writer, tells " The Story of the 
Soldier" (Appleton). General Forsyth's story of 
the growth as an establishment of the army, and of 
its more signal exploits in the field, is necessarily 
an outline sketch, but it is graphic, vigorously 
drawn, and based on wide experience. Its aim is 
to give the reader a correct idea of the soldier of 
the United States army as he really is. The vol- 
ume opens with an account of the inception of the 
army, its raison d'etre, and the sources whence its 
officers are commissioned. A chapter is devoted to 
the characteristics and development of the soldier 
his surroundings, perquisites, and pay. To read- 
ers with a taste for adventure the chapters on the 
various campaigns in our chronic Indian wars will 
prove satisfying. There are a half-dozen striking 
illustrations by Mr. R. F. Zogbanm. The pen of 
General Forsyth and the pencil of Mr. Zogbaum 



[Jan. 16, 

are again interestingly in evidence in the volume 
containing four stories of personal experiences in 
Indian Warfare and in the Civil War, and entitled 
"Thrilling Days in Army Life" (Harper). The 
titles are: "A Frontier Fight"; "An Apache 
Raid "; " Sheridan's Ride "; " The Closing Scene 
at Appomattox Court-House." The title of the 
book does not belie the contents. The stories are 
" thrilling " enough, and they are the better for be- 
ing so modestly and directly told. The book has 
the sharp literalism of the account of an eye- 
witness ; and its quality is not impaired by any 
straining at rhetorical effect. Mr. Zogbaum's pic- 
tures are decidedly good in their way, and there 
are sixteen of them. 

No one is familiar with the history 
of the Tennyson family, or, more 
specifically, with the " Memoirs " 
prepared by the second Lord Tennyson, without 
being aware of the intimacy between that distin- 
guished group and the family of the Reverend H. 
D. Rawnsley. " Memories of the Tennysons " 
(Macmillan), from the hand of the honorary Canon 
of Carlisle, will therefore be welcomed as tending 
to cast new light on the individualities of the most 
distinguished band of brothers in English literature. 
The chief concern of the author is, of course, with 
Alfred Tennyson, and many interesting anecdotes 
are given, none of them disclosing any unsuspected 
traits of a man so fully contemporaneous and so 
fortunate in his biographies, yet all rounding out 
toward completeness our knowledge of that com- 
manding personality. The incidents are set forth 
with great good nature and entire frankness, in- 
cluding some corrections of Mr. Rawnsley's speech 
by the Laureate, as when he insisted upon the 
pronunciation of " knowledge " with the " o " as in 
" know " an eccentricity of speech due, like many 
others, to his northern English origin. A chapter 
not less interesting than the others is devoted to 
Charles Tennyson Turner ; while the book is pre- 
faced by a series of homely anecdotes rescued from 
servants and villagers who knew the Tennysons of 
old. An interesting photograph of Alfred Tenny- 
son has been reproduced for the frontispiece, and 
the charm of the Reverend Mr. Rawnsley's style 
makes the book a contribution to literature in more 

senses than one. 

" The individual, Professor N. S. Shaler, as a partial 
a study of Life result of thirty-five years of teach- 
ing, has presented, in "The Indi- 
vidual, a Study of Life and Death " (Appleton), 
an application of the theory of evolution to some of 
the greatest concerns of mankind. A consideration 
of the purely physical realm, and then of that realm 
which contains life, shows that the organic form is 
differentiated from the inorganic by its capacity to 
gather and store experience. Thus each successive 
generation of individuals is nourished, the older 
form, after having transmitted its garnered experi- 
ence, disappearing to make room for the newer. 

Even before man is reached in the chain of life, 
death is established as an indispensable corollary 
and condition of advancement. Educableness, then, 
is the differentiating quality of the organic indi- 
vidual. And death is due, not merely to the process 
of natural selection, the survival of the fittest, 
but also to the sacrifice needed for the due devel- 
opment of the oncoming race. Though the indi- 
viduality of each man amounts to isolation, it is 
only in mankind that the power of sympathy reaches 
its height. Sympathy finds expression in language, 
and otherwise, and is prompted by natural and 
tribal affection, the religious motive, property, and 
especially by social institutions. It is in sympathetic 
outgoing to the needs of his kind that man best 
conquers the fear of death. Professor Shaler has 
made several suggestive departures from the strict 
scope of his field. War, he says, is waste of the 
young life, that, reared at great cost, is not allowed 
to perfect its contribution to the good of the whole. 
Old age should be secured to larger number, and in 
modern society can be utilized for the general profit 
as never before. Immortality is not denied by the 
discoveries of latter-day science, while there are 
certain observed facts that tally with belief in a 
life beyond death. As a whole, this book is the 
result of such observation, experience, and wisdom 
as a young man could not have had. Its pages are 
frequently illuminating outside the line of their 
direct discussion. The open mind and the rever- 
ence of the writer are everywhere evident. As a 
single word of blame amidst the praise there is 
room in a second edition for the correction of nu- 
merous small errors, due to imperfect proof-reading. 

Professor Frank J. Goodnow is a pro- 
lific wr i ter as we u as a logical and 

forcible one. His magnum opus on 
" Comparative Administrative Law," published in 
1893, was soon followed by his " Municipal Home 
Rule " and " Municipal Problems," and to these he 
has now added a work entitled "Politics and Ad- 
ministration, a Study in Government" (Macmil- 
lan). The title corresponds to the author's division 
of the functions of government into the political 
and the administrative the expression and the 
execution of the state's will the judicial function 
being classed as a subdivision of administration. 
Like Mr. Bryce, Professor Goodnow lays much 
stress upon extra-legal institutions ; and he gives in 
an interesting way the history and philosophy of 
such spontaneous political growths as the party, the 
spoils system, and the boss. He advises legal rec- 
ognition of political parties, in a way to make them 
and their leaders responsible to the public, and 
finds encouragement in England's development of 
responsible government and efficient administration 
out of corrupt bossism and a corrupt and inefficient 
civil service. His other principal recommendation 
is in the direction of a reasonable centralization of 
the American administrative system, coupled with 
an extension of the principle of self-government. 





" What we need, in order to obtain harmony be- 
tween the locality and the state, is to grant the 
locality more local legislative power than it now 
possesses, and to subject it to central administrative 
control where it is acting as the agent of the state." 

The treatment Whatever store the world may set 
and training by severe academic training, there 

/children. are t j me8 w hen the absence of it is 

refreshing. Such an instance was to be found in 
Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Oilman's " Women and 
Economics," and another is now afforded by her 
newer work " Concerning Children " (Small, May- 
nard & Co.). To a degree hardly known outside 
of that remarkable family of Beechers of which 
she is a member, Mrs. Gil man's work possesses a 
quality that provokes discussion. Whether her 
readers find themselves in complete disagreement 
with her and thus forced to set up a position of 
their own, or holding to certain of her tenets for 
reasons the reverse of hers, there is hardly a page 
of her work that does not have its effect from her 
manner of presentation. She announces with some- 
thing of the joy of the discoverer that children have 
rights of all kinds which the adult is bound to re- 
spect. She does not believe for a moment that a 
stupid, perverse, or untrained mother is better fitted 
to bring up her own child than an intelligent, re- 
ceptive, thoroughly disciplined instructor. She sees 
no reason no spiritual or intellectual reason 
why a man of the highest attainments should re- 
gard it as an honor to instruct youths of twenty, 
when he can do a thousand times more good by 
teaching infants of two. She does not think women 
from the lowest walks in life are the best companions 
for ingenuous youth in kilts ; and the Southern 
contempt for the negro as an associate, with a 
placid acquiescence in any negro being a good 
enough mentor for the Southern child, she regards 
as more than incongruous. But we cannot go further 
into the details of this wholesomely disturbing 
book, which deserves to be read on its own account. 

Mr. Gamer'* Whatever Mr. R. L. Garner has to 
ttudie* among say about our kinsfolk, the Quadru- 
ape* and monkey,. m&I1 a., is reasonably certain to be of 
interest. "Apes and Monkeys, Their Life and 
Language " (Ginn & Co.) is his most important 
popular account of his recent work in searching out 
the psychology of the brute creation nearest us in 
development, physical and intellectual. It contains 
a brief narrative of his stay in the wilds of Africa 
during his attempts to catch the speech and observe 
the manners of the manlike apes in the open forests. 
The account of the words and vocal articulations 
used by these animals for the conveyance of ideas 
is, it may be presumed, to be followed by a less 
popular and more scientifically exact work on the 
subject. It is to be noted with regret that Mr. 
Garner appears to be so unfamiliar with the study 
of phonetics that he has gone to the pains of in- 
venting a system of notation for the sounds used 

by his brute companions, when Mr. Alexander 
Graham Bell's " visible speech " would have an- 
swered every purpose better. Mr. Garner says of 
one of his chimpanzees (page 116) that he "suc- 
ceeded in teaching him one word of human speech," 
a statement not borne out by his fuller account of 
the experiment (pp. 135 et &eq.). Doctor Edward 
Everett Hale provides an interesting introduction 
for the book, which is handsomely designed and 

Reference book ^ n tne preface to his work on " Pre- 
/ Prehistoric historic Implements " (Robert Clarke 
Co.), Mr. Warren K. Moorehead 
warns us that his book is a reference-book for col- 
lectors, not a hand-book for the professional archae- 
ologist. There are, he informs us, four thousand 
five hundred persons in the United States who own 
collections of relics containing from fifty to twenty- 
five thousand specimens. His book aims to direct 
the efforts of these collectors to profitable ends. 
There is no question that its influence will be help- 
fully felt. The prehistoric relics of the United 
States are described by geographical areas. Some 
of these are discussed by Mr. Moorehead himself, 
but nine assistants, " editors," have presented the 
facts regarding their own local fields. This diver- 
sity of authors has led to a fairly full though 
uneven treatment of hitherto somewhat neglected 
areas; but a well-digested, connected, and sym- 
metrical presentation of the same material by one 
person would have been far more satisfactory. It 
is unfortunate that the illustrations are not better, 
and that greater care was not taken with the word- 
ing of the text and in proof-reading. While a long 
list of errata is given in the early part of the book, 
it does not begin to give the errors ; there are 
probably more unnoted errors than pages in the 
book. The fact that Mr. Moorehead's health was 
in a precarious condition during the time when the 
book was being prepared is some excuse for the 
unsatisfactory form in which it appears. 

Modern pen 
drawing and 


The annual extra Winter Number 
of "The Studio" is this year de- 
voted to an exposition of " Modern 
Pen-Drawings: European and American" (John 
Lane), in a handsomely printed volume issued under 
the editorship of Mr. Charles Holme. The text is 
contributed by special authorities in the various 
countries represented, and forms a comprehensive 
and reliable, though necessarily brief, survey of the 
subject But the main interest of the volume lies 
in the collection of illustrations, which would do 
credit to a much more ambitious and expensive 
work. Every artist commented upon in the text is 
represented, many of the pictures having been 
drawn especially for this purpose. The reproduc- 
tion and general arrangement of the drawings evi- 
dence the same skill and taste that have made 
"The Studio" the most beautiful periodical that 
we have. In the section devoted to American art- 



[Jan. 16, 

Methods of 



ists a number of errors in the spelling of proper 
names are to be found, and sometimes (as in the 
case of Mr. Gibson) the drawings selected are not 
always fairly representative of the artist's ability. 
But these are minor blemishes that can detract but 
little from one's enjoyment of the work, which is 
really a remarkable one for the price. 

Mr. Frank Hendrick, Ricardo prize 
fellow in Harvard University, has 
written a useful monograph on 
"Railway Control by Commissions" (Putnam's 
"Questions of the Day" series), in which he gives 
an account of railway regulation in France, Italy, 
Austria, Belgium, Germany, England, and the 
United States, describing most fully the Massa- 
chusetts system, which he especially admires, and 
concluding that the best form of control is secured 
by a permanent commission without power. After 
summarizing the proposals of various writers for 
solving the railway problem, the author submits as 
his own solution, (1) the permission of pooling, 
(2) the abolition of the quasi- judicial power of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, and (3) a sys- 
tem of state commissions on the plan of the Massa- 
chusetts board, to woi k in cooperation with a national 
commission to be organized on the same basis. A 
final chapter gives an account of the state purchase 
of railways in Switzerland. 

A graphic picture In ." A Captive of War " (McClure, 
ofu/einCon- Phillips & Co.) Mr. Solon Hyde, 
/< derate prison,. f ormer ] y Hospital Steward of the 
Seventeenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, tells the suffi- 
ciently stirring tale of his experiences in Confederate 
prisons, notably Libby, Danville, and Andersonville. 
Mr. Hyde was captured by Forrest's cavalry a day 
or two after the battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 
1863, and was finally paroled on Feb. 27, 1865, 
after a variety of experiences, in prison and en 
route from one prison to another, that are well worth 
the telling. The style of the narrative is terse, 
blunt, and unpolished, and there is a certain bitter- 
ness of tone throughout born of the rankling mem- 
ory of scenes of brutality, and of ill-treatment at 
the hands of ruffians of the Wirz type, whom the 
war clothed with a little brief authority. That 
" war is hell" Mr. Hyde's book graphically attests. 

"Old Wickford, the Venice of Amer- 
ica," is the title of a rather attract- 
ively made book of 240 pages, 
wherein Mrs. F. Burge Griswold sets forth pleas- 
antly and intelligently, if with a somewhat exag- 
gerated sense of the general interest of her theme, 
the simple annals of the wave-washed village of 
Wickford, R. I. The little volume seems in some 
sort a labor of love, and the author's manifest at- 
tachment to the scenes whereof she writes imparts 
a tinge of pleasing sentiment to her style. The text 
is printed on paper of a moderate glaze, and the 
score or so of photographic plates are acceptably 
made. (Milwaukee : Young Churchman Co.). 

The Venice 
of America. 


Messrs. Small, Maynard & Co. have reprinted the 
" Poems " of the late Philip Henry Savage, bringing 
together in a single volume the two small books pub- 
lished during the lifetime of the author, and " the 
best poems found in his portfolio after his death." The 
whole collection is edited by Mr. Daniel Gregory Mason, 
and embellished with a portrait of the writer. 

"The Listening Child," edited by Mrs. Lucy W. 
Thatcher, is a selection of English and American verse 
for " the youngest readers and hearers." It is, as 
Colonel Higginsou says in his introductory note, " care- 
fully thought out and intelligently arranged," and pro- 
vides a great variety of pieces suitable to be placed in 
the hands of readers of sixteen and downwards. The 
Macmillan Co. are the publishers. 

" Orestes A. Brownson's Latter Life," covering his 
last twenty years, has just been published by Mr. Henry 
F. Brownson, the author. This is the third and final 
volume of a biography which, although overgrown, is of 
much interest to both Catholic and Protestant readers. 
Nothing could well be uglier than the mechanical 
make-up of these volumes, and it is a pity that so valu- 
able a work should have such a handicap. 

Omar und kein Ende ! The last thing Omar would 
seem to need is a commentary, but Mr. H. M. Batson 
has thought otherwise, and has gravely explained the 
quatrains one by one. This rather thin performance is 
supplemented by a biographical study of the poet, made 
by Mr. E. D. Ross, and a work of the most admirable 
and scholarly character. FitzGerald's text is sand- 
wiched between these two thick slices of prose, and the 
whole is made into a neat volume by Messrs. Putnams. 

Dr. Edwin Herbert Lewis's " Second Manual of 
Composition," published by the Macmillan Co., carries 
on into the work of more advanced classes the prin- 
ciples and the methods inculcated in the earlier volume. 
It is a helpful and thoroughly practical treatise, in- 
formed by the best scholarship, and deserving of the 
most cordial commendation. 

A revised edition of the standard Spanish-English 
Dictionary of Velasquez has long been needed, and has 
at last been produced by the Messrs. Appleton. The 
editors are Messrs. Edward Gray and Juan L. Iribas. 
The extent of the revision may be indicated by saying 
that eight thousand new titles have been added, together 
with several hundred idioms. The work makes a vol- 
ume of nearly seven hundred pages of three columns 
each. It will be followed in due course by a revision 
of the English-Spanish section, and by revised editions 
of the other lexicographical and educational books of 

The National Educational Association held its meet- 
ing of last summer at Charleston, S. C., and the annual 
volume of the proceedings now comes to us from the 
secretary, Mr. Irwin Shepard. As the attendance upon 
the meeting fell below the figures of recent years, so 
the volume falls considerably below the standard of 
size set by its recent predecessors. But it contains over 
eight hundred pages, and proves a valuable repository 
of current educational opinion. Among the more im- 
portant subjects discussed are "The Small College," 
by Presidents Thompson and Harper; "The Problem 
of the South, ' by Mr. Booker T. Washington; " Alcohol 
Physiology,'' by Dr. W. O. Atwater; and " Educational 
Progress during the Year," by the late B. A. Hiusdale. 





" Elements of Spoken French," by Mr. Maurice N. 
Kuhn, is a recent school publication of the American 
Book Co. 

The American Book Co. send us "Selections from 
the Bible," for use in schools, as arranged by Dr. John 
G. Wright. 

" Ivanhoe," in two volumes, with pretty colored illus- 
trations, has just been added to the " Temple Classics 
for Young People." 

Longfellow's " Evangeline," edited by Dr. Lewis B. 
Semple. is the latest number in the Macmillan Com- 
pany's " Pocket English Classics." 

A new volume by Mr. Edward Dowden, entitled 
" Puritan and Anglican," will be published this month 
by Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. 

' The Structure of the English Sentence," by Miss 
Lillian G. Kimball, is a recent publication of the 
American Book Co. It is prepared for use in high 
and normal schools. 

Thomas Shelton's translation of " Don Quixote " fills 
three volumes in the " Library of English Classics," 
edited by Mr. A. W. Pollard, and published by the Mac- 
millan Co. The text of 1620 has been followed in this 

Mr. John Lane is publishing a new edition of " The 
Spanish Conquest in America," by Sir Arthur Helps. 
Mr. M. Oppenheim officiates as editor, and the first of 
the four volumes of which the work consists has just 

" Our Bird Friends," described as " a book for all 
boys and girls," the work of Mr. Richard Kearton, has 
just been published by Messrs. Cassell & Co. The text 
is well-written in popular style, and is abundantly and 
beautifully illustrated. 

Ruskin's " Sesame and Lilies " and " The King of 
the Golden River," supplied with an exceptionally good 
editorial apparatus by Mr. Herbert Bates, is issued by 
the Macmillan Co. in their " Pocket Series of English 
Classics " for school use. 

A second series of "Voyages of the Elizabethan 
Seamen to America," edited from Hakluyt by Mr. Ed- 
ward John Payne, and including the narratives of Gil- 
bert, Amadas and Barlow, Cavendish, and Raleigh, has 
just been published by Mr. Henry Frowde for the Oxford 
Clarendon Press. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer's " First Principles," written 
forty years ago, has been three times revised by the 
author, and in the edition now published by the Messrs. 
Appleton, the work reappears in what will doubtless 
prove its definitive form. A fine portrait of Mr. Spencer 
dignifies this volume. 

The " American Art Annual " for 1900-1901, pub- 
lished by Messrs. Noyes, Platt & Co., is the third issue 
of that useful work of reference. The matter has been 
brought down to date by the editor, Miss Florence N. 
Levy, and several new features may be found in the 
contents of the volume. 

The " Lyrics " of the late J. Houston Mifflin, rescued 
from oblivion by a friendly hand, have been repnb- 
lished, with a portrait, by Messrs. Henry T. Coates & 
Co. The original edition, never strictly published, was 
dated Philadelphia, 1835. The author died only some 
ten years ago, but wrote no verse during the last half- 
century of his life. 

The Rowfant Club of Cleveland will begin in March 
the publication of a reprint of the famous Boston 
" Dial " of 1840-44. The sixteen numbers of the orig- 
inal issue will be reproduced in exact facsimile, and a 
supplementary volume containing an account of the 
publication by a competent authority, a list of the 
contributors, and an index, will be supplied. The edition 
will be limited. 

Three recent English texts are the following: Addi- 
son's " Roger de Coverley Papers," edited by Miss 
Laura Johnson Wylie, and published by the Globe 
School Book Co. ; selections from Tennyson's " Idylls 
of the King," edited by Miss Mary F. Willard, and 
published by the American Book Co. ; and Hawthorne's 
" The Gentle Boy and Other Tales," published in the 
" Riverside Literature Series " by Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 


[The following lift, containing 66 titles, include* book* 
received by THK DIAL since its last issue.] 


Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley. By his son, 

Leonard Huxley. In 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, etc., 

8vo, gilt tops, uncut. D. Appleton & Co. $5. net. 
Life and Letters of Phillips Brooks. By Alexander V. 

O. Allen. In 2 vols., illus. in photogravure, etc., large 

8vo, gilt tops, uncut. . P. Button & Co. $7.50. 
Madame : A Life of Henrietta, Daughter of Charles I. and 

Duchess of Orleans. By Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Henry 

Ady). Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 406. E. P. Dntton 

& Co. $3. 
Alfred Tennyson: A Saintly Life. By Robert F. Horton. 

Illus. in photogravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 323. 

. P. Dntton & Co. $2. 
Emma Marshall: A Biographical Sketch. By Beatrice 

Marshall. Illus., 8vo, uncut, pp. 342. . P. Dntton & 

Co. $2. 
Life of Mrs. Booth, the Founder of the Salvation Army. By 

W. T. Stead. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 256. F. H. Revell 

Co. 81.25. 
The Life of Thomas J. Sawyer, S.T.D., LL.D., and of 

Caroline M. Sawyer. By Richard Eddy. S.T.D. Illus. 

8vo, gilt top, pp. 458. Universalist Publishing House. 

Ulysses S. Grant. By Owen Wister. With portrait, 24mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 145. " Beacon Biographies." Small, 

Maynard <ft Co. 75 cts. 
Thomas Jefferson. By Thomas E. Watson. With portrait, 

24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 150. "Beacon Biographies/' 

Small, Maynard & Co. 75 cts. 
Le Due de Reicbstadt. Par Madame H. Castegnier et G. 

Castegnier. With portrait, 8vo, uncut, pp. 40. Win. R. 

Jenkins. Paper, 50 cts. 


The Fight with France for North America. By A. Q. 
Bradley. With maps, large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 400. 
E. P. Dntton & Co. $5. 

The Last Years of the Nineteenth Century. By Eliza- 
beth Wormeley Latimer. With portraits, 8vo, pp. 545. 
A. C. McClurg & Co. $2.50. 

The Men Who Made the Nation: An Outline of United 
States History from 1760 to 1865. By Edwin Erie Sparks, 
Ph.D. Illus.. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 415. Macmillan 
Co. $2. 

The Germans in Colonial Times. By Lucy Forney Bit- 
tinger. 12mo, pp. 314. J. B. Lippincott Co. 81.50. 


Miscellanies. By Edward FitzGerald. 18mo, uncut, pp. 207. 

" Golden Treasury Series." Macmillan Co. $1. 
A Treasury of Canadian Verse. With brief Biographical 

Notes. Selected and edited by Theodore H. Rand. D.C.L. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 412. E. P. Dutton & Co. 82. 



[Jan. 16, 

A Short History of French Literature. By L. E. Kast- 
ner, B.A., and H. Q. Atkins, M.A. 12mo, pp. 312. 
Henry Holt & Co. $1.25 net. 

The World's Orators, "University" edition. New volumes : 
Vol. VII., Orators of England, Part II., edited by Guy 
Carleton Lee. Ph.D.; Vol. VIII., Orators of America, 
Part 1. 1 edited by Guy Carleton Lee, Ph.D., and Franklin 
L. Riley, Ph.D. Each with photogravure portraits, large 
8vo, gilt tops, uncut. G. P. Putnam's Sons. Per vol., 

Anthology of French Poetry, 10th to 19th Centuries. Col- 
lected and translated by Henry Carrington. M.A. 12mo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 301 . Oxford University Press. 75c. net. 

The Treasury of American Sacred Song. With Notes, 
explanatory and biographical. Selected and edited by W. 
Garrett Horder. Revised and enlarged edition; 12mo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 401. Oxford University Press. 

The Book Hunter. By John Hill Burton, D.C.L. ^ New 
edition ; 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 427. J. B. Lippincott 
Co. $1.25. 

On Southern Poetry Prior to I860: A Dissertation. By 
Sidney Ernest Bradshaw. 12mo, pp. 162. Published by 
the author. 

The Rigveda. By E. Vernon Arnold. 18mo, pp. 56. " Pop- 
ular Studies in Mythology, etc." London : David Nutt. 

Poems and Fancies. By Edward Everett Hale. Library 

edition ; with portrait, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 380. 

Little. Brown, & Co. $1.50. 
Shakespeare's King Henry V.: The Richard Mansfield 

Acting Version. Illns., 8vo, uncut, pp. 124. McClure, 

Phillips <fe Co. Paper, 50 cts. net. 
Lark Classics. New volumes : Swinburne's Laus Veneris 

and Other Poems, and Shakespeare's Sonnets. Each 24mo, 

uncut. New York : Doxey's. Per vol., 50 cts. 


Herod : A Tragedy. By Stephen Phillips. 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 126. John Lane. $1.50. 

The Poems of Philip Henry Savage. Edited, with Intro- 
duction, by Daniel Gregory Mason. With portrait, 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 170. Small, Maynard & Co. $1.25. 

Christus Victor: A Student's Reverie. By Henry Nehe- 
miah Dodge. Second edition ; 18mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 186. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 

Ballad of the Unsuccessful. By Richard Burton. 12mo. 
Small, Maynard & Co. Paper, 35 cts. 


The Dogs of War: A Romance of the Great Civil War. 
By Edgar Pickering. Illns., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 343. 
Frederick Warne & Co. $1.50. 

In White and Black. By W. W. Pinson. 12mo, pp. 357. 
Macon. Georgia: J. W. Burke Co. $1.25. 

The Lapidaries, and Aunt Deborah Hears "The Messiah." 
By Mrs. Elizabeth Cheney. 12mo, pp. 30. Eaton & 
Mains. 30 cts. 


A Book of Common Worship. Prepared under the Di- 
rection of the New York State Conference of Religion by 
a Committee on the Possibilities of Common Worship. 
16mo, pp. 418. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 

Helps for the Quiet Hour: Prayers. Collects, Verses, col- 
lated from Many Sources. By Rev. Jesse Bowman Young, 
D.D. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 167. Eaton & Mains. $1. 

Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the 

Year Ending June 30, 1898. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 713. 

Government Printing Office. 
Outlines of Human Physiology. By F. Schenck, M.D., 

and A. Giirber, M.D.; authorized translation from the 

second German edition by Wm. D. Zoethont, Ph.D.; with 

Preface by Jacques Loeb, Ph.D. Large 8vo, pp. 339. 

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Illustrated in the same style. 
The Beginnings of New England. $4.00. 
The American Revolution. 2 vols. $8.00. 
The Critical Period of American History. $4.00. 

The sterling and delightful character of these 
books, their profuse historical illustrations, and their 
high quality of bookmaking, make them particularly 
desirable for libraries. 


New Riverside Edition. Newly arranged 
and revised by the author, with three 
Portraits. 7 vols., 12mo; each, $2.00. 
I. Cheerful Yesterdays. II. Contemporaries. 
III. Army Life in a Black Regiment. IV. Women 
and the Alphabet. V. Studies in Romance. VI. 
Outdoor Studies and Poems. VII. Studies in History 
and Letters. A handsome edition of some of the 
most delightful writings in American literature. 


frontispiece of eight famous American 
poets. Large crown 8vo, gilt top, $3.00 ; 
cloth, full gilt, $3.50 ; half calf, gilt top, 
$5.00 ; tree calf or levant, $6.50. 

A royal book in which American poets are repre- 
sented by their best poems, with brief biographical 
sketches, and a very valuable Introduction. 


Being a Brief Review of the Foreign Rela- 
tions of the United States, 1776-1876. 
By JOHN W. FOSTER, former Secretary of 
State for the U. S. 8vo, $3.50. 

" Never before has American history been presented 
in so authoritative and yet interesting fashion from 
the diplomatic standpoint." Boston Daily Advertiser. 


Portraits. Crown 8vo, $2.00. 

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well as preacher, that his name in connection with 
any work stamps it at once as desirable and valuable. 
His charming style, his exquisite appreciation of 
everything true, poetic, and beautiful in nature and 
in human nature, makes whatever he writes a satis- 
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By EDMUND NOBLE, author of " The Russian 
Revolt." 12uio, $1.50. 

" In this book we have an account which is con- 
spicuous, above all other things, for its fairness and 
its political spirit. . . . Mr. Noble, who has lived in 
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friendship of government authorities and Nihilists 
alike, has given a sketch of Russian history which is 
so clear and concise that it may well serve as a model 
for other historians." Boston Transcript. 


By JAMES T. FIELDS. With 28 Photograv- 
ures, including many Portraits and 7 Fac- 
similes. 8vo, $3.50. 
A charming book of anecdotes, reminiscences, and 
appreciations of Thackeray, Hawthorne, Dickens, 
Wordsworth, Miss Mitford, and Barry Cornwall. 

Sold by all Booksellers. Sent postpaid by 






Successful and Valuable Books 





thor of "France in the 19th Century," 
etc. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. $2.50. 
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recommended; while the many readers whom Mrs. 
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stirring, not a dull page, and the 
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For sale by all booksellers. Mailed on receipt of price by the publishers, 


60 THE DIAL, [Feb. 


By Major J. B. POND 













It is a handsome octavo volume, 5^*8^ inches, of 620 pages, with 100 half-tone portrait illustrations. 
Beautifully bound in English silk cloth. At all bookstores. $3.50. 




A YEAR ago we published an authoritative biography of Sir Arthur 
^* Sullivan, and the book had a good sale through the retail trade. We 
were disappointed, however, by the fact that it was not purchased more 

generally by the libraries. The 
work is acknowledged by those 
who have seen it to be a definitive 
life of the great composer, and we 
were assured that it deserved a place 
in all libraries. We infer that libra- 
rians do not know the work suffi- 
ciently well to justify themselves in 
ordering it, and we are therefore 

appeal to a large part of the public. ..,. , . . , 

willing to send the book on ap- 


His Life Story, with letters, reminiscences, and many 

illustrations. 8vo, cloth, gilt, $3.50; to libraries, $z. 

This is the authorized biography of the great com- 
poser. It was prepared under his personal supervision, 
and revised by him in proof before his death. The 
volume, fully illustrated as it is, with letters, portraits, 
and musical scores, is an ideal reference work for a 
library. The Gilbert and Sullivan operas have such 
a firm place on the stage of our time, that a close 
acquaintance with one of their authors cannot fail to 

proval, and if accepted to sell it at a reduced price. 

To introduce the book, we will send on request a copy to any 
library, subject to return if unsatisfactory. We will pay carriage both 
ways, and will make the special price $2.00. 

HERBERT S. STONE & COMPANY, Eldridge Court, Chicago 








" I have read ' Eben Holden ' with a great joy in 
its truth and freshness. You have got into your book 
a kind of life not in literature before, and you have 
got it there simply and frankly. It is 'as pure as 
water and as good as bread.' ' 


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one finds a real book he or she owes it to the rest to tell 
them about it that they may read and enjoy it too. 
So I pass the ivord along: Read ' Eben Holden." " 



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zestful and poetic tales of 'fiction ' as ' Snow Bound' and ' Eben Holden.' ' 

12mo, gold lettered on red cloth, gilt top. Price, $1.50. 

For sale by all booksellers 




Enlarged from Forty-eight to Sixty-four Pages of Plates and Text 

The Prospectus for 1901 is the best ever offered to the Art-loving public, including several 
valuable series of articles by experts, full critical reports of Salons and exhibitions, illustrated 
biographical sketches, and special illustrative features. 

Free to all New Subscribers to BRUSH & PENCIL 

A Yearly Subscription to BRUSH & PENCIL and SIX beautiful color plates 

suitable for framing. 
A Yearly Subscription to BRUSH & PENCIL and the six numbers of 

Volume VI. 

For $3.00 { 


Write for sample copy and terms to the trade. 

WHAT IS SAID OF IT. " BRUSH & PENCIL is a high-class periodical, quite superior to any similar 
magazine published in this country." The Commercial Advertiser (New York). 

The Brush & Pencil Publishing Co., 215 Wabash Ave., Chicago 



[Feb. 1, 


Stringtown on the Pike 

12mo. Illustrated. $1.50. 

A Kentucky story whose scope is as wide 
as the country itself. 

A book which none but an American could 

The Master Christian 

12mo. Cloth. $1.50. 

In this novel the author has surpassed all 
her former efforts. 

The most widely discussed book of the 

The Maid of Maiden Lane 

12mo. Illustrated. $1.50. 

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The Isle of Unrest 

12mo. Illustrated. $1.50. 

A thrilling story of Corsica and Southern 
France during the Franco-Prussian war, having 
all the epigrammatic charm of" The Sowers." 


Short Story Writing 


12mo, cloth, $1.00. 

A practical treatise on the art of the short story, 
designed to present concretely the rules of that art. 
It is a working manual, not a collection of untried 
theories. It tells how to write a story with reference 
to the requirements of contemporary editors. 

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cerned with the special application of rhetorical principles to 
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chapters on Titles, Style, and the Labor of Authorship." 


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THE BAKER & TAYLOR CO., Publishers, 
33-37 East Seventeenth St., New York. 



The Most Startling Novel of the Age 

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ature of the New Century. Osuri Katsuma stands forth as 
strongly as any of Dumas's Heroes." The Literary News. 


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No. 3 East Fourteenth Street . . NEW YORK CITY. 
By Captain A. T. MAHAN 

The War in South Africa 

More than 400 Illustrations. Drawings by REMINGTON. 

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Price, $5.00. 

For tale by all Booksellers, or 

R. H. RUSSELL, 3 W. 29th St., New York. 






| Dictionary of Architecture and Building : 

BY RUSSELL STURGIS, Past President of the Architectural League of New York, author of 

Volume I., A E. 

Ready this week. 

Profusely illustrated. 

Three volumes in all. 

The set, $20.00 ; tn half 
leather, $30.00. 
Cloth, Royal 800. 

European Architecture," etc. 

Over eighty of the best-known American and European 
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working architect offering as it does the last word on every 
important related topic Acoustics, the Arch, Color, Design, 
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work of reference, and the whole superbly illustrated. 


in its sources; 


most copiously ; 


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" Essentially American wholly alive . . . of inestimable value." CHICAGO TRIBUNE. 

Cyclopedia of American Horticulture 

Edited by L. H. BAILEY, Cornell University, assisted by WILLIAM MILLER, and many expert Culti- 
vators and Botanists. Superbly illustrated. 
"The information given is precisely what the horti- 
culturist and general reader is desirous of knowing." 

Scientific American. 
" In range, treatment, and editing, the Cyclopedia appears 

to be emphatically useful : . . . a work worthy of rank- 
ing by the side of the Century Dictionary." Nation. 
" This really monumental performance will take rank as a 
standard in its class. Illustrations and text are admirable." 

New York Tribune. 

Volume III. 

Ready early in February. 

Cloth, Royal 8vo. 

Volumes I. and II. 

Each, $5.00 net. 


" Whether for learner or expert, there is no dictionary that offers such an immense array of information. ... a unique 
work." W. H. HAZARD in The Churchman. 

Encyclopedia Biblica 



Edited by the Rev. T. K. CHEYNE, D.D., J. SUTHERLAND BLACK, from the staff of the Encyclopedia 

Britannica. and many contributors in Europe and America. 

" And this initial volume is convincing testimony that they 
will do the work well and thoroughly. Of the fifty-three 
contributors to it there are few who are not widely known 
in the world of Biblical scholarship, and there is not one 
who is not an authority on the special topic which he 
discusses." New York Tribune. 

" Laymen as well as professional scholars will find it of 
invaluable interest and use." Chicago Evening Post. 
"It is far and away the most important and valuable reference book for the clergyman who accepts a literary instead 
of a dogmatic handling of the Bible as the true way." The New World. 

Volume II., E K. 

Early in February. 

Volume I., A D. 
Super-royal octavo, 

Cloth, $5.00 net. 
Leather, $7.50 net. 


yet concise, 
the latest views of 

leading scholars. 

With illustrations, 

maps, etc. 

Each is sold only on Subscription for the Complete Work. 
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, 66 Fifth Avenue, New York City 



[Feb. 1, 1901. 


Target," REPLIED THE SPIRIT. And how have I merited your godship's kind 
assistance?" INQUIRED THE GENERAL. "I am grateful to you," ANSWERED 
THE SPIRIT, " because in your days of practice you never once hit me." 


Deal with the faults of others as gently as with your own. Oblige and you will be obliged. 

A man thinks he knows, but a woman knows better. If you fear that people will know, don 't do it. 

Armies are maintained for years to be used on a single day. He who rides a tiger cannot dismount. 

These are only a few of the gems found in 

The History of Chinese Literature 

By PROFESSOR HERBERT A. GILES of Cambridge University. 
This book is the only one on this most interesting subject ; not even in Chinese has 
the task ever before been attempted. And it is admirably performed. It treats of 
poetry, fiction, the drama, philosophy, and religion. There is not a dull page in it. 
Tenth in the Literature of the World Series. 



By JULIEN GORDON, author of " A Puritan Pagan." 
1 vol., 12mo, 363 pp., cloth, $1.50. 
The Social Career is real history; it is a faithful 
portrayal of life in Boston, New York, and Rome. 
Dinner-table discussion will assuredly turn on the 
question: Who was Mrs. Clyde? 


A Tale of the Loyal South. By WILLIAM A. BAR- 
TON, author of "Pine Knot," etc. No. 295 in 
Appletons' " Town and Country Library." Paper, 
50 cts.; cloth, SI. 00. 

" Vigorous, spirited, truthful, absorbing." CRITIC. 
" A thoroughly interesting, red-blooded virile story. A his- 
torical document of the very greatest value." BOOKMAN. 

The Great Spanish Dictionary 
Velazquez Spanish=English Dictionary 

New Edition; revised and enlarged by EDWARD GRAY, A.B., M.D., F.R.M.S., and JUAN L. IRIBAS, A.B., 

LL.D. 1 vol., 8vo, 801 pp., cloth, $3.50. 

More than 8,000 titles have been added; the definitions have been simplified and corrected; a multi- 
tude of new terms have been inserted. The pronunciation has been carefully noted, and the accents have 
been used in accordance with the new regulations of the Spanish Academy. 

" It should take its deserved place as THE Spanish dictionary." NEW YORK OUTLOOK. 

" So far as we have been able to judge by tests here and there, the revisers have done their work with sound 
scholarship and excellent taste. The NEW VELAZQUEZ is happily timed for the new vogue of Spanish." NATION. 

A Masterpiece of Biography 

In a recent vote solicited by the London Academy as to the ten best books of the year 1900, a ma- 
jority of the readers who expressed their opinion put second not a novel, but a biography ! 

The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley 

By his son, LEONARD HUXLEY. It is in two 8vo volumes, illustrated, with 549 and 547 pp., index; pub- 
lished by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, at $5.00 net, in cloth. 

E. L. G. [E. L. GODKIN], in the New York Evening Post, says that: " Whatever success England has achieved 
during the past century has been largely due to the frequency with which such biographies as those of BURKE, PITT, 
DARWIN and HUXLEY have been put before the youth of the nation." He goes on to call that of Huxley " one of the 
most instructive and brilliant of English lives." This opinion is echoed by the press everywhere. 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 72 Fifth Ave., New York 


21 SemfsiSontijIg Journal of ILitrrarp Criticism, Biscngston, anfc Information. 

No. S51. 

FEB. 1, 1901. 

Vol. XXX. 



. 65 



Sumner Bradford 67 


Some Neglected Material in Anti-Slavery Literature. 

Alfred Mat hews. 
A Distressing Misquotation. S. 

A MODERN STOIC. Percy Favor Bicknell .... 68 


Cranston Lawton 70 

A POETIC DRAMA. Edward E. Hale, Jr. ... 71 


Stanley 73 

James's In and around the Grand Canyon. Curtis's 
Between the Andes and the Ocean. Miss Humph- 
rey's A Summer Journey to Brazil. Browne's The 
Paradise of the Pacific. Browne's The Pearl of the 
Orient. Miss Bates's Spanish Highways and By- 
ways. Wilkin's Among the Berbers. Heathcore's 
St. Kilda. Miss Coll bran's An American Girl's Trip 
to the Orient. Mrs. Dodd's Falaise. Forbidden 
Paths in the Land of Og. 

lace Bice 76 

Desmolin's Boers or English. The British Case 
against the Boer Republics. Cecil's On the Eve of 
the War. Miss Markham's South Africa. Mus- 
grave's In South Africa with Bnller. Atkins's The 
Relief of Ladysmith. Ashe's Besieged by the Boers. 

Churchill's London to Ladysmith via Pretoria. 
Churchill's Ian Hamilton's March. Hillegas' The 
Boers in War. Davis's With Both Armies in South 
Africa. Wilkinson's Lessons of the War. Doyle's 
The Great Boer War. Arnold-Forster's The War 
Office, the Army, and the Empire. Scoble and 
Abercrombie's The Rise and Fall of Krugerism. 
Farrelly'8 The Settlement after the War in South 


O'Connell, the Irish Liberator. Talk about Art 
and Life. A commendable compendium on memory. 

The Monitor as an epoch-maker. The story of 
old " Ironsides." The life and character of Oliver 
Cromwell. The Forward Policy in India. The 
Germans in Colonial Times. A study of Greek 
terracotta statuettes. A missionary-statesman of 
young Japan. The life of an English anti-slavery 
agitator Pleasant essays on familiar themes. 
Ten women of Colonial times. 






An interesting article contributed by Mr. 
Herbert Putnam to the January " International 
Monthly " sums up the progress of recent years 
in American library development. The public 
library in the United States has become so 
important a part of our educational ma- 
chinery and so influential a factor in our 
intellectual life that the principal facts con- 
cerning its development should be in the pos- 
session of every intelligent person, and it is 
desirable that they should be summed up from 
time to time by some writer of Mr. Putnam's 
experience and authority. As librarian of 
our great national collection of books he is 
officially at the head of his profession in the 
United States, and those who know anything 
of his zeal and his equipment do not need to 
be told that the profession could not well have 
a worthier leader. 

The very use of this word " profession " 
suggests what is probably the most striking 
fact of all in the history of the American 
library movement. Twenty-five years ago, 
people thought of a librarian as a custodian of 
books, usually a helpless sort of person as far 
as practical affairs were concerned, and not 
infrequently a crusty one. To speak of his 
occupation as a profession was to use strange 
language, and to make one look askance at the 
speaker. And indeed, there were then few 
professional librarians to be found. But the 
pioneer work which was being done by Poole 
and Winsor, together with a few of their con- 
temporaries, has since then borne rich fruit, 
and librarianship is now a professional calling 
in as exact and distinct a sense as is the occu- 
pation of the lawyer or the physician. It has 
its professional schools and associations, its 
professional ideals and ethical principles, just 
as the bar and the pulpit have them, and may 
be taken up as a life vocation with the same 
certainty that opportunity for its exercise will 
be found, and that success will be the reward 
of exceptional ability. 

This settlement of the librarian's status has 
been made, as we have already mentioned, 
during the last quarter of a century. A good 



[Feb. 1, 

many other things of importance to the pro- 
fession have also been done during the same 
period, such, for example, as the establishment 
and maintenance of " The Library Journal," 
the formation of the American Library Asso- 
ciation, and the adoption of enlightened library 
legislation by a large number of the States. 
The decade of the seventies witnessed the be- 
ginnings of all three of these movements, for, 
although there were library laws before that 
time, the Illinois statute of 1872 set a new 
pace, and placed the public library upon a more 
substantial foundation than had before sup- 
ported it. When we speak of the advance in 
library economy and administration, and of the 
methods by which libraries have increased their 
helpfulness for all classes of users, we are at a 
loss to know where to begin in the enumeration 
of things done. A rough list will include 
State commissions, travelling libraries, open 
shelves, popular lectures, children's depart- 
ments, delivery stations, the extension of service 
into the schools, annotated lists for readers, 
and cooperative methods of cataloguing. To 
the outsider, these terms mean little that is 
definite, but to the close observer of recent 
library activities, each of them connotes an 
agency of approved educational value, and a 
development to which a volume might easily 
be devoted. 

One result of all this multiplication of ac- 
tivities is, however, sure to impress the most 
casual observer, and is equally sure of being 
misunderstood. In the old days, the funds of 
a library were largely devoted to the purchase 
of books ; in our own times, the purchase of 
books seems to have become a matter of minor 
importance. It is rather startling to learn that 
the Boston Public Library, for every dollar of 
its income that goes into books, spends ten 
dollars in other ways, yet such is about the 
proportion that must be exhibited by the bud- 
get of any institution of the size of one of our 
great city libraries. Nor will one thoroughly 
conversant with the services performed through 
the agency of a modern library building, and 
by the labors of its trained staff, find it pos- 
sible to deny that the ten dollars are as wisely 
and usefully expended as the one. The scholar 
may object, but public libraries are not for 
the benefit of the scholar alone, and the class 
to which he belongs, at any rate, gets as large 
a share of their benefits as any ocher class. 
Indeed, no collection of books can be of much 
value to the community as a whole, unless the 
means for exploiting it, and for bringing it to 

bear upon every form of intellectual need and 
craving, are provided quite as generously as 
are the books themselves. Every library, for 
example, soon reaches a point at which a few 
thousand dollars may far more judiciously be 
expended upon the preparation of an expert 
catalogue than upon any additions, however 
urgently demanded, to its stores. It is dif- 
ficult for a layman to see this, but to the in- 
itiated, it becomes a proposition so obvious as 
to need no demonstration. 

The public library of the twentieth century 
is not going to abandon any of the methods, 
worked out in so painstaking a fashion, by 
which our public collections of books have been 
made second in educational importance to the 
public schools alone. They will all be devel- 
oped still further in the direction of helpfulness, 
of the bridging over of difficulties, and of the 
stimulation of an interest in reading among 
all classes. To them still other methods will 
be added from time to time, even at the cost 
of still further lessening the funds with which 
books are bought, for the purpose of a library 
is not to preserve books, but to circulate them. 
And approval of the methods of modern pro- 
fessional librarianship will continue to be evi- 
denced, as in the past, and in a constantly 
growing ratio, by increased public support and 
by the still greater multiplication of generous 
private foundations. Our country leads the 
world in the use that it makes of public libra- 
ries, and it is going to maintain the leadership 
already won by every means that are now de- 
vised, or may hereafter be devised. We have 
no intention of going into prophesy at this 
time, but we will venture one prediction, to 
the effect that the next marked development 
of library activity will be found in the schools, 
and that books will be brought to bear upon 
the studies of young people to an extent, and 
with beneficial results, of which few educators 
now dream. When the use of books comes to 
have as important a part in the work of the 
historical and literary group of studies as the 
use of the microscope and the balance now has 
in the scientific group of studies when in 
every school the library shall be as well pro- 
vided as the laboratory now is then the next 
important step in education will have been 
made, and men will wonder why it should have 
been left for the twentieth century to make. 
We content ourselves here with this general 
statement, reserving a more detailed and spe- 
cific treatment of the subject for some future 





Amending a familiar thought, a novel is a picture 
of life seen through the prism of an author's mind. 
When the picture seems to as clear and true, we 
recognize its technical excellence ; and if in addi- 
tion it has the interest that attaches to a truthful 
transcript of action, passion, character, and thought, 
we call the picture a great one. 

Amid the discussions which centre around the his- 
torical novel, it appears strange that no more effort 
has been made to differentiate it from the others. 
It seems taken for granted that an historical novel 
is an historical novel ; hut the varying treatment 
of the theme shows the widely differing ideas which 
exist on the subject. A distinction would be useful, 
and should not be exceedingly hard to make. Any 
novel is certainly in one sense historical, but by 
carrying out logically the common and somewhat 
hazy idea we can arrive at a definition that carries 
with it the necessary distinction. Should we not 
consider the true historical novel as one which has 
to do with people seeming to have had a part in 
the greater events, the larger forces, that make 
history ? 

To illustrate the distinction carried in this def- 
inition, look at " Cranford " and " Hugh Wynne." 
Probably the former is a more truthful, as it cer- 
tainly is a more convincing, picture of bygone days 
than the latter ; but one would not think of classing 
them together. 

Of the novels of history accessible to English 
readers there are few indeed which can be placed 
in the front rank ; for many a work which would 
reach this place is barred by a lack of one or more 
of the essential characteristics, among which are 
good workmanship, a convincing portrayal of life, 
a life in the main current of events. The fatal 
defect, and the most common, is the absence of 
that spirit which would give us the innate motif of 
the time. Take for an example " Ivanhoe," one 
of the most celebrated novels in the language. The 
story is most interesting, the picture is clear, it has 
the interest that attaches to well-drawn action and 
character ; but its people are moderns, living par- 
tially the mediaeval life ; we get from the book 
hardly the slightest inkling of the basic brntishness 
and savagery of the time. That chivalry which 
was only a fall of lace on the dirty clothing of 
society is transformed by the touch of the wizard's 
pen into the fabric itself. The fault is characteristic 
both of Scott and of the great school which has 
followed in his footsteps, though all will admit that 
we owe to this school some splendid stories. Kings- 
ley's best works, " Hypatia," " Westward-Ho," and 
" Hereward," have this same lack ; but it seems 
certain that had Kingsley not been so hampered 
by his profession and his public, his work would 
stand in the foreground, for he had in him much 
of the artistic essence, and red blood runs in the 
veins of his people. 

Consider for a moment two novels which cer- 

tainly do stand in the foreground of literature. 
The Three Musketeers " is a model in its way, 
but the ground on which the heroes stand we feel 
to be a little uncertain ; a glowing, shifting haze 
hangs over and between us and "the immortal 
three who were four." Still, it would take greater 
faults than these to displace so good a story. The 
other, " Henry Esmond," of all the acknowledged 
standards, should probably be placed first, for it has 
almost every element which goes to the making of 
the ideal historical novel. Of course, Thackeray 
shrinks from a full portrayal; but the real life is 
so suggested where it cannot be told, the action and 
plot are so interesting, the characters are so clear- 
cut, the men and events treated are so important 
to the period, that the novel is practically above 
criticism, and to many it has seemed above success- 
ful rivalry. 

But in the universe of letters a new planet has 
swum into the ken of recent observers. We have 
now a writer who perhaps more fully than any 
other has met the requirements of a literary mas- 
terpiece, and that man is the Polish author, Sien- 
kiewicz. He who has not yet made the acquaintance 
of the trilogy, "With Fire and Sword," "The 
Deluge," and " Pan Michael," has before him the 
pleasure of reading works almost unique, that carry 
out nearly to perfection the idea of a great historical 
novel putting before us, in a light as vivid as our 
latter day ideas will permit us to enjoy, the life of 
the past. These stories oft-times lack delicacy of 
touch and finish ; they have incidents that seem 
needlessly brutal and reach the limits of our in- 
dulgence ; they treat of life and character so alien 
that at first thought they seem unreal. Tet we soon 
know that we are seeing life as men lived it, that 
the author is a creator of people who live and move 
and have being. We find characters drawn with 
an unerring hand ; we come to understand that a 
master of masters is putting before us the rush and 
sweep of great events, the elemental passions, all 
the vital constituents of the life of the time of 
which he treats. 

We have some new friends when we have finished 
these stories. There is that " combination of 
Ulysses and Falstaff," Zagloba. with his unfailing 
resource and wit, with the most human and laugh- 
able and lovable admixture of courage and cow- 
ardice, of selfishness and generosity, a character 
destined to live among the few immortal creations 
of fiction. There is that whole company of noble- 
men, imbued with the strangest compound of religion 
and savagery, of singlemindedness and subtlety, 
men of a race whose spirit is in many ways repel- 
lant to us, yet which compels our admiration and 
respect, for it formed the bulwark between Europe 
and the powers of darkness. 

There is hardly an indistinct character amid 
them all, nor among those charming women whom 
they loved and whom we love. Above all, there is 
Pan Michael, whose fortunes we follow through the 
trilogy the little man who never met his match 



[Feb. 1, 

with the sword (and that not from lack of trying) ; 
the faithful friend, the devoted lover of his king, 
his country, and woman. Here is a man whom we 
love as we do D'Artagnan and for the same reason, 
which is that our hearts go out to him who is not 
too far removed from earth, a man who boldly and 
fearlessly works out his fate. We have a sense 
of something lacking in a hero like Henry Esmond. 
Who of us does not feel some sympathy with 
Beatrix when she tells him he would have gotten 
along better w\th her had he not been on his knees 
to her so much. 

Sienkiewicz's later and more popular " Quo 
Vadis " is far inferior as a novel to any one of the 
trilogy, though one must recognize the power of 
the descriptions, the strength of the characters 
especially that of Petronius and the realism of 
the whole, this last being the crucial test. The 
novel in which Sienkiewicz has last been presented 
to English readers, " The Knights of the Cross," is 
hardly up to the standard of his best, though strong 
and fine in every way. 

The impression made by Sienkiewicz is best 
characterized by saying that after almost any other 
novelist one feels that he has been looking at a pic- 
ture, or at best at a "moving picture." After 
Sienkiewicz one feels that he has looked on life. 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Professor Barrett Wendell, in his " Literary History 
of America," seems to have neglected certain obvious 
opportunities iu dealing with the literary history of the 
Anti-Slavery agitation. There died in Ohio as far back 
as 1833, Charles B. Storrs, President of Western Re- 
serve College, who was the real pioneer of the remark- 
able Anti-Slavery or Abolition movement in that part 
of the country, which soon involved Giddings and 
Wade. Yet Professor Wendell, who devotes much 
space not simply to Anti-Slavery literature, but to 
the Anti-Slavery agitation in general, has not a word 
for Storrs, whose services for the cause in the West 
were fully recognized by the New England workers 
for that same cause, as is shown by Whittier's beautiful 
elegy. This brings me to the Harvard professor's 
omission of a literary landmark which is unexplainable, 
as it was not a Western but a distinctly New England 
landmark. The author dwells at length and most in- 
terestingly on Mrs. Stowe's epoch-marking "Uncle 
Tom's Cabin," but he makes not the slightest allusion 
to the initial literary work of the propaganda. In 1833, 
the same year when Storrs, the pioneer of Abolition in 
Ohio, died, Mrs. Lydia Maria Child (nee Francis), a 
native of Massachusetts, published " An Appeal for 
That Class of Americans Called Africans," which was 
the first Anti-Slavery book published in America. It 
may not be generally known as such, for Allibone 
does not so state, nor does he give the exact title of the 

book, nor any date whatsoever, but the fact is incon- 
testible, and as such of course deserving of a place in 
the literary history of the country. That it has none 
in the work of Professor Wendell, taken in conjunction 
with numerous other important omissions, may seem to 
some an indication of inconsiderate haste ou his part, 
and to a certain extent to detract from the dignity of 
history, titularly claimed for his work. 

Philadelphia, January S3, 1901. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

It is probable that the Anthology of Mr. Stedman 
will be regarded by the judicious as proof of the pov- 
erty of our American poetic lore rather than as con- 
vincing evidence of our riches. It will be generally 
conceded, however, that Edgar Allen Poe was a real 
poet; only his contributions are so small. But one of 
his most characteristic and attractive gems is marred 
in Mr. Stedman's book by one of the most diabolical 
blunders of misquotation in all the annals of printing; 
and this will be copied no doubt unwittingly many 
times. I refer to the lines " To One in Paradise ": 
" And all my days are trances, 
And all my nightly dreams 
Are where thy dark eye glances 

And where thy footstep gleams 
In what ethereal dances, 
By what eternal streams." 

Instead of " dark eye " Mr. Stedman has " gray eye "! 

"Gray eye glances"! That distressing alliteration 
would have ruined the fame of Milton. S. 

Little Rock, Ark., January 22, 1901. 



The story is told of the third Earl of Shaftes- 
bury that, rising to make his maiden speech in 
Parliament on the bill allowing counsel to a 
prisoner accused of treason, he became so em- 
barrassed and confused as to break down alto- 
gether ; but being encouraged by the House to 
go on, he made a great impression by the in- 
genuous remark : " If I, sir, who rise only to 
speak my opinion on the bill now depending, 
am so confounded that I am unable to express 
the least of what I proposed to say, what must 
the condition of that man be who is pleading 
for his life without any assistance and under 
apprehension of being deprived of it?" This 
happy turn pleased his listeners extremely, and 
was thought to have done more toward passing 
the bill than any of the more solid arguments 
advanced in its support. The incident is char- 

ited by Benjamin Rand, Ph.D. New York: The Maomillan 




acteristie of the man, and stamps him as a 
worthy predecessor to the noble and philan- 
thropic seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, his more 
famous descendant. 

Dr. Rand's volume on the third Lord Shaftes- 
bury deals far less with the public life of the 
Earl than with that inward growth revealed by 
his philosophical writings and private corre- 
spondence. Indeed, his delicate constitution 
prevented him from engaging actively in poli- 
tics, although he seems to have made his mark 
in Parliament, and was offered the secretary- 
ship of state by King William, whose trusted 
adviser he continued to be for some years. He 
died an early death in 1713, within a few 
weeks of his forty-second birthday. His son's 
biography of him, first published in Bayle's 
" General Dictionary," and now reprinted, with 
some additions from the biographer's manu- 
scripts, in this volume, and Series V. of the 
Shaftesbury Papers, preserved in the Record 
Office, are the chief sources of our information 
regarding the Earl. Dr. Rand devotes nearly 
half of his portly volume to the Letters, rather 
more than half to the " Philosophical Regimen," 
and fourteen pages to the brief " Life," all, 
excepting the letters to Locke and the biog- 
raphy, being published for the first time from 
the Shaftesbury Papers. 

To the non-classical student the book may 
seem to bristle formidably with Greek and 
Latin quotations, but a second glance will show 
that these are nearly all translated or para- 
phrased, so that his alarm is groundless. To 
the lover of the classics the volume will have 
a flavor of old-fashioned scholarship not un- 
grateful in an age which sees the editor of a 
leading English literary review gravely refer- 
ring to the temple of Janus as closed in time 
of war, and an editorial writer in one of our 
own most scholarly journals ascribing the 
" Miles Gloriosus " to Terence. The disciple 
of Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius will be glad 
to give the " Philosophical Regimen " a place 
beside the " Enchiridion " and the " Medita- 
tions." The key-note of the work is struck in 
the essay on " Improvement," where, after re- 
ferring to the practice of making memoranda 
for various less worthy uses, the author con- 
tinues : 

"Would one think of making any for Lifef Would 
one think that this were a business to improve in? 
What if this should be the thing of all others chosen 
out for a pocket-book and memorandums ? But so it 
is. ... Begin therefore and work upon this subject. 
Collect, digest, methodize, abstract. How many codes, 

how many volumes, how much labour, and what com- 
piling in the study of other laws ? But in the law of 
life how ? They who seek not any such in life, nor 
think that there is any rule, what are they better than 

It is to be regretted that the style of the 
work is so largely that of the note-book, in 
which occasional memoranda are jotted down 
with little regard to literary form. Nearly 
always labored and often bombastic in his ut- 
terance, the author has repelled rather than 
attracted readers. Even his once famous 
" Characteristics " has long lain neglected. 
Yet we should not forget that he was admired 
in his own century by such critics as Hurd and 
Blair. That he should have had so little of 
Addison's elegance, of Swift's perspicuity, 
simplicity, and strength, of Steele's ease and 
vivacity, and all three of these were his im- 
mediate contemporaries, is somewhat sur- 
prising. But occasionally his manner is hardly 
less admirable than his matter, as when, treat- 
ing of the passions, he writes thus aptly and 
forcibly concerning " Joy ": 

" There is one sort of joy which is fierce, eager, 
boisterous, impetuous, restless, which carries with it a 
sort of insatiableness, rage, madness, sting; and which 
afterwards is followed by disgust and discontent. There 
is another sort of joy which is soft, still, peaceable, 
serene, which has no mixture or alloy ; of which there 
is no excess, but the more it is felt, the more perfect 
and refined it grows, the more content and satisfaction 
it yields through the whole of life. To the first of these 
a thousand things are necessary, a thousand outward 
and casual circumstances concurring, the least of which 
being removed, or ceasing, it also must cease. To the 
second there is nothing necessary but what depends 
upon ourselves." 

It adds much to the weight of Shaftesbury 's 
counsels to know that he practised what he 
preached, so far as we can learn from his con- 
temporaries ; and thus his lumbering periods 
make an impression where a Seneca's rhetorical 
flights of would-be stoicism fail to convince. 
" Perhaps no modern," writes Toland in his 
introduction to the Shaftesbury letters, " ever 
turned the ancients more into sap and blood, 
as they say, than he. Their doctrines he un- 
derstood as well as themselves, and their vir- 
tues he practised better." " Just as Spinoza 
was ' God-intoxicated,' " says the Earl's latest 
editor, " so Shaftesbury was * intoxicated with 
the idea of virtue.' He is the greatest Stoic 
of modern times. Into his own life he wrought 
the stoical virtue for virtue's sake. This ex- 
alted purpose he sought to attain by means of 
I this Regimen. . . . The Greek slave, the Ro- 
man emperor, and the English nobleman must 




[Feb. 1, 

abide the three great exponents of stoical phil- 

Lord Shaftesbury's influence on the men of 
his time was considerable. Voltaire calls him 
the boldest of English philosophers perhaps 
questionable praise and Diderot's " Essai 
sur le Merite et la Vertu " is a free translation 
of the Earl's "Inquiry concerning Virtue." 
He enjoyed the friendship of Locke, Pope, 
Lord Somers, Lord Halifax, and many others 
eminent either in literature or in public affairs. 
His reputation as a free-thinker hurt him in 
some quarters, but his wholesome influence for 
liberality of thought and freedom of inquiry 
could not have been other than widespread. 

The letters, with which the volume closes, 
though they have not the charm of the great 
letter-writers, are yet interesting reading. 
Their formality and stately courtesy even 
his own mother he always addresses as " your 
ladyship" are characteristic of the period, 
but a little chilling to the reader, and a little 

A book, Dr. Johnson declares, should help 
us to enjoy life or to endure it. This note- 
worthy contribution to the literature of stoicism 
is well fitted for the latter purpose, nor, we 
believe, will its perusal entirely fail of accom- 
plishing the former. 



The adequate translation of Homer is doubt- 
less the most imperative task set, for the clas- 
sical scholar, in the interests of general culture. 
Very few men can ever have, and even fewer 
can retain, an accurate knowledge of the 
Greek poem. Indeed the specialist himself 
reaches only one certainty : that he does not 
possess, and can never restore, the original 
text. The Homeric vocabulary is very large, 
and the meanings of many words are merely 
surmised, or are still fought over. Yet in the 
history of poetry, in mythology, even in socio- 
logical and ethnological studies, the Iliad and 
Odyssey must always be of peculiar and unique 
importance. They are the first chapters in the 
history of European culture. We should have 
an interpretation, and a comment, by a syndi- 
cate of scholars, which would have for the 
layman such authority as the Revised Version 
now enjoys. 

* THE ODYSSEY. Rendered into English Prose by Samuel 
Butler. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

The present reviewer believes firmly that 
the poetic tone and spirit, and also the unit 
of the line or verse, are indispensable elements 
in every great poem. Hence Longfellow's 
Dante, which attempts to preserve both, is a 
better-directed effort than Mr. Norton's ver- 
sion, which wholly abandons the metrical form. 
Voss's line-for-line German version of Iliad 
and Odyssey is almost ideal. 

But the general voice of our generation 
seems adverse to all this. The translation of 
Homer probably best-known in America is 
still the dignified, musical, rather slow work 
of the poet Bryant's old age. To the eye his 
rendering is "blank verse," and the ten-syllable 
line is quite too short to express the average 
contents of an Homeric hexameter. For the 
ear this verse has no well-defined close, and is 
indeed often plain prose. Furthermore, the 
most notable recent renderings have been 
avowedly prosaic. Mr. Lang and his partners 
still retained an archaic flavor, and somewhat 
elevated diction. Mr. Palmer descended to the 
simplest and most direct forms of contemporary 
English. Mr. Samuel Butler has taken a 
much longer stride down the same slope. He 
has deliberately emptied each phrase of all 
noble allusiveness or charm, and gives us the 
blunt fact in vulgar colloquial words. We do 
not think he would himself quarrel with this 

A typical instance is Odyssey, Book V., vss. 
1545, with its inimitable antithesis. Bryant 
indicates the contrast poetically, though he 
does not attempt the artistic repetition of the 
last word : 

"Night after night 

He slept constrained within the hollow cave, 
The unwilling by the fond.'' 

Butcher and Lang rise to the occasion, and 
expanding slightly give us : " Howsoever by 
night he would sleep by her, as needs he must, 
in the hollow caves, unwilling lover by a will- 
ing lady." Mr. Palmer has a similar render- 
ing. Mr. Butler offers us : " He had got tired 
of Calypso, and though he was forced to sleep 
with her in the cave by night, it she, not 
he, would have it so." Words like " hurry- 
skurry ing," phrases like " There is no account- 
ing for luck," were never meant to suggest 
poetry. The clearest note, perhaps, is struck 
at II. 20, where Antiphos, a companion of 
Odysseus, is mentioned. " The savage Cyclops 
killed him in the cave, and on him made a 
supper last of all," says Mr. Palmer. There 
may be a bit of tragic irony here, in that poor 




Antiphos just failed to escape with the rest of 
the crew. Mr. Butler actually makes it read 
that the Cyclops " cooked his (Antiphos') last 
meal for him," and comments thus : " So we 
vulgarly say ' had cooked his goose ' or ' had 
settled his hash.' " If this is the mature result 
of literal prose translation, let us by all means 
" hurry-skurry " back to Pope, with his deftly- 
managed clattering pair of stilts ! 

It is fair to say that this well-printed version 
seems based on competent study of Greek, is 
as a rule carefully and faithfully done, and in 
the notes the translator shows personal famil- 
iarity with Mediterranean lands. The discussion 
of passages borrowed more or less awkwardly 
from the Iliad into the younger poem is often 
acute and stimulating, though it is startling to 
hear this spoken of as a newly-discovered or 
unworked vein of scholarship. 

Mr. Butler announces this translation as a 
supplement to his " The Authoress of the 
Odyssey," published in 1897. This was an 
attempt to demonstrate that the Odyssey was 
written by a girl, who lived at Trapani on the 
west coast of Sicily, that all Odysseus' adven- 
tures really amounted to a mere circumnaviga- 
tion of that island: and that the authoress 
has put in Nausicaa as a flattering portrait 
of herself. He announces in the preface to 
the present volume that no serious criticism 
of these theses has reached him, and yet he 
by no means thinks that " scholars generally 
acquiesce in " his conclusions. Both these 
latter statements are doubtless true, and will 
probably remain no less so. Even the inventor 
himself, at least in this book, keeps up the dis- 
cussion in a rather bantering spirit, calling at- 
tention to feminine inconsistency, girlish shy- 
ness and ignorance, etc., in the Odyssean 
passages which seem to make for his novel 
and air-spun theory. 

Facing p. 72 are two photographic views of 
S. Cusumano's salt-works, a sort of dyke on 
the flat Sicilian shore. The former tidal inlet, 
now silted up, is, it seems, the original for the 
beautiful river into which Ulysses swam, to 
land safely on the Scherian shore. But the 
same place was introduced, it further appears, 
in three other sets of passages in the Odyssey, 
as (1) the harbor of Rheithron in Ithaca, (2) 
the place where Ulysses landed in Ithaca, (3) 
the place where Telemachus landed in Ithaca. 
All these shrivel to a little muddy silted-up 
Sicilian tideway : ex uno disce omnia. 



Critics are very apt to object strongly to 
what they call "closet plays." They some- 
times call them " literary dramas," but that 
name is not a very good one, for it seems to 
deny the literary element in many dramas 
which are meant for the stage and very well 
suited to it. By whatever name called, how- 
ever, the theatrical critic looks askance on the 
drama written by a man who writes because 
he wants to, even though he sees no particular 
chance of having his play presented. A recent 
writer deplores the " literary drama " and the 
fascination it had for the great English poets 
of the nineteenth century : he says it has a para- 
lysing effect, although it is not clear upon 

The critic, however, who is more apt to read 
plays than to see them, may well wonder at such 
a view. We have, for instance, among other 
books, " Ghost of Rosalys " by Mr. Charles 
Leonard Moore. We should regret to regard 
it as something not worth doing, something of 
a paralysing effect. Indeed it was worth doing 
and it has no such effect. Some closet plays, 
doubtless, are really very bad : when the poet 
divorces himself from all possibility of stage 
presentation, he perhaps feels a lack of restraint 
that is demoralizing. But after all it can hardly 
be a certainty with any play that it will not be 
presented. " Faust " has been presented many 
times ; the second part as well as the first. 
" Manfred " has been often presented, and that 
very effectively. " Brand " has been given a 
number of times. Almost anything can be 
presented if there are people who wish to pre- 
sent it. It is true that when presented, it may 
not be successful, for there may not be anyone 
that wants to see it. But then, such is the 
case with some plays written expressly for the 

There is really no very strict criterion of a 
closet play. The only condition (and a simple 
one it is) is that the writer shall have before 
him the absolute impossibility of stage presen- 
tation. Such was the case, probably, with 
Shelley in writing "Prometheus Unbound"; 
possibly with Swinburne in " Atalanta in 
Calydon." But the greater number of what 
are generally thought of as literary dramas 
are plays that one can imagine on the stage. 
We can imagine Mr. Moore's play on the stage : 
indeed, we have done so with pleasure. The 

* GHOST OF ROSALYS : A Play. By Charles Leonard 
Moore. Philadelphia : Printed for the Author. 



[Feb. 1, 

fact that an audience of our day might not 
much care to see it, if it were presented, has 
little* to do with the matter. An audience of 
our day would not care for many of Shake- 
speare's plays, nor did the audience for which 
Shakespeare's plays were originally written 
care for them more than they did for a good 
many other plays now forgotten save by readers. 
The test of a closet play cannot go much far- 
ther than has been indicated : if the writer has 
had a general view to stage conditions, then it 
is not a closet play that he writes, no matter 
how literary it may be and no matter how little 
" stage technique " it may have. Stage tech- 
nique may be needful for a successful presen- 
tation, just as types and ink are needed to 
make a book. But both are trivial matters, 
as is clear when we think how little stage 
technique avails Massinger, Congreve, Robert- 
son to-day, just about as little and as much 
as types and ink. 

That a play is not written expressly for the 
stage, that it is not meant for immediate per- 
formance, that it has not been presented any- 
where, these things, then, are not reasons 
why we may not have something very good. 
The fact of a successful stage presentation is 
nothing in favor of a play nowadays ; it should, 
on the other hand, warn us against a play. If 
we hear that a play has been successfully pre- 
sented, the chances are that it is a bad play. 
"Cyrano de Bergerac " succeeded, but so did 
" The Christian," and more plays are like the 
latter than like the former. 

Hence, we may read with pleasure if we 
like poetry several plays which have been 
of late published by American writers. Mr. 
Moody's "Masque of Judgment," Professor 
Raymond's "The Aztec God," Mrs. Fields's 
" Orpheus," Mr. Moore's play which we have 
mentioned, with these books we have a pos- 
sibility of finding something charming and at- 
tractive, that is lacking when we read Mr. 
Fitch's " Barbara Frietchie " or Mr. Thomas's 
" Arizona." These latter plays have already 
charmed and attracted in the way for which 
they were intended ; as books they are like 
pressed flowers that have no sentimental asso- 

After all aside from the possibility of a 
closet play why should a poet not put his 
ideas in dramatic form ? It is surely a con- 
venience, in that it enables him, if he wishes, 
to present certain essential dramatic elements 
and to omit a great many other elements of 
which he does not feel the need. The dramatic 

form allows one to hold the attention close to 
the development of the idea without the dis- 
traction of description or comment. It has its 
drawbacks in return for these advantages, but 
used with proper regard for its proper charac- 
teristics the drama is undoubtedly a powerful 
literary form as well as a valuable theatrical 

This play of Mr. Moore's was presumably 
not written for the stage, but it is not a play 
in which the author has neglected theoretical 
possibilities. Whether it could be successfully 
presented is neither here nor there ; it could be 
presented, undoubtedly, if there were enough 
persons who wished to present it, and it would 
be successful if enough persons were found 
who wished to see it. And as this is about all 
that one could say of any play which had not 
yet made its appearance on the stage, we may 
therefore neglect the question of presentation 
until the play is performed. 

Mr. Moore has written his play almost en- 
tirely in verse, which is not a very common 
thing just now ; in verse which though occa- 
sionally rough, is yet sustained with unflagging 
vitality and spirit, and which by its flowing 
movement and its adaptive character carries 
the reader along with it. He puts aside the 
stillness of a uniform . metre, and as one scene 
changes to another we find the rhythm varying 
harmoniously with the thought. In some places 
he is less fortunate than in others, but on the 
whole the device is eminently successful. And 
although the question of the stage be dismissed, 
it may be allowable to point out, not so much 
that the stage of our day loses something by 
practically excluding verse (Ibsen, Maeter- 
linck, D'Annunzio, Pinero, and, in the main, 
Hauptmann and Sudermann, on the one hand, 
and Rostand and Stephen Phillips on the 
other), as that the verse of a drama generally 
gains by declamation. Mr. Moore's verse may 
be read aloud with pleasure (indeed, should 
be), although here and there it is not so fer- 
vent as elsewhere. 

It is a romantic drama. That might be 
inferred from the adaptive rhythms and the 
rhymes. The clear definiteness of our English 
blank verse gives somewhat the effect of the 
marble material of a statue, unless it be so much 
broken up as to become merely pulsating prose. 
Romantic in form it is and also romantic in 
general treatment, that is, its main idea is pre- 
sented not definitely and simply, but with an 
exuberance of accessory figure and ornament 
that often rather veils the idea than presents 




it. Still, the main figures are striking : Joyeux 
the imaginative, and his three coadjutors, the 
scientist, the priest, the poet. These last are 
not presented with a firm enough conception 
of character to vitalize them everywhere, but 
they serve what is perhaps their chief purpose, 
to carry us to the end of the first and long- 
est act and give us the idea that is to be devel- 
oped. The imagination has its ideal, which is 
to be realized in love and at the point of reali- 
zation vanishes away. Rosalys dies and Joyeux 
is, for the time, led away by witch will o' the 
wisps. But in the last act he revives his old- 
time love ; Rosalys rises for a brief half hour, 
and when she again passes away he goes with 

Presumably Mr. Moore had not definitely 
in mind more than to create certain passionate 
figures and to embody a poetic feeling. Im- 
plicit in such presentation is, however, an idea, 
or perhaps we should not call it more than a 
sentiment. Our attention is aroused and held 
by the ideas that gather in our minds around 
this figure of the imaginative man and his effort 
to 'give form to his imaginings, his strivings 
with the impossible, his deception at the hands 
of vulgar cheats. But whither does all tend ? 
Mr. Moore does not seem to have his problem 
clearly in mind. At least we find no real 

But no play should be judged as an allegory 
unless it be frankly conceived as such. This 
play is not : it presents to us romantic figures, 
which do something to arouse ideas in our 
mind as all figures must. But it is better 
merely to take the people as people and to lose 
oneself in the story of emotion and exaltation, 
and to be content with an adumbration here 
and there of the wider meaning beyond. We 
do not, ourselves, fully appreciate the full pur- 
port of the third act. But the poetry of the 
first act especially, and of the last, carried us 
well along over whatever did not make its 

To write a play and in verse is rather a 
daring thing although now there are a num- 
ber to keep one in countenance but Mr. 
Moore has come well through all dangers with 
his venture. EDWABD E. HALE, JR. 

MR. RICHARD MANSFIELD'S acting version of " King 
Henry V.," as lately produced with marked success, is 
published in a most attractively-printed volume by 
Messrs. McClnre, Phillips & Co. An Introduction by 
Mr. Mansfield, some notes on the heraldry of the play, 
and two photogravure illustrations, are included. 


As in this age more people travel, and travel 
more often, and to more distant places, books 
of travel must correspondingly increase. But 
the more be-travelled our sphere the less be- 
comes the opportunity for a really new book 
dealing with the previously unknown and tell- 
ing of strange men and beasts. All the books 
in our present group treat of parts of the earth 
more or less familiar from the writings of pre- 
vious travellers ; yet these books have all of 
them a certain raison d'etre, either in the 
personality of the writer, the timeliness of the 
subject, or the general utility of the whole 

Mr. G. W. James's hand-book to that won- 
derful region, " In and around the Grand 
Canyon," comes largely under the last head. 
" A canyon," says the author, 
" Is not a deep, narrow, gloomy gorge, into which the 
sun fails to shine even at midday. It is, in reality, a 
series of canyons one within and below the other. Pic- 
ture one canyon, a thousand feet deep and ten or twelve 
miles across; below this, another canyon, but two miles 
less in width and a thousand feet deeper than number 
one; then still another, two thousand feet deeper and 
four miles narrower, followed by yet another, deeper 
still and more miles narrower, until the inner gorge of 
granite is reached, through which the roaring river 
flows, and you will have a better idea than ever before." 

This describes the Grand Canyon, but many 
canyons are by Mr. James's own account nar- 
row and gloomy. After a general description 
of the Colorado region and some historical 
chapters, Mr. James takes up the Grand Can- 
yon and its tributaries in detail. He regards 
the Bridal Veil Falls in the Havasu as the 
"Most exquisitely beautiful waterfall in the world. 


Wharton James. Illustrated. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

Eleroy Curtis. Illustrated . Chicago : H. S. Stone & Co. 

A SITMMEB JOUBNEY TO BfiAZiL. By Alice R. Humphrey. 
Illustrated. New York : Bonnell, Silver & Co. 

Illustrated. Boston : Dana Estes & Co. 

THE PEARL OF THE ORIENT. By G. Waldo Browne. Illus- 
trated. Boston : Dana Estes & Co. 

Bates. Illustrated. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

AMONG THE BERBERS. By Anthony Wilkin. Illustrated. 
New York: Cassell & Co., Ltd. 

ST. KILDA. By Norman Heathcote. Illustrated. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

THE WORLD. By Christine Collbran. Illustrated. Chicago : 
Rand, McNally & Co. 

Bowman Dodd. Illustrated. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

There is nothing in the Yosemite that, for rich delicacy 
of beauty and rare combination of charms, can equal it. 
On the left and right are towering cliffs, two thousand 
feet high, of red sandstone. At your feet is rich green 
grass, and a delicate gauzy growth, as fine as asparagus 
grass, which covers the ground with fairy-like lace and 
makes a carpet fit for a ' Midsummer Night's Dream ' 
dance. Above, just on the edge of the fall, are several 
trees, rich with their new dress of spring leaves, with 
the red mountains and azure sky, as richly blue as that 
of the Mediterranean. . . . Now, with such a back- 
ground, enjoy the fall Wa-Hath-peek-ha-ha." 

Mr. James gives some account of the Havasu- 
pai Indians in the canyon district, and an in- 
tensely interesting narrative is given of Mr. 
Bass's experiences in attempting to reach these 
Indians. The work is to be recommended to 
the general reader and to the tourist. The 
quotations are extensive, and the illustrations 
are numerous and excellent. 

Mr. W. E. Curtis has collected his South 
American letters to the Chicago " Record " 
into a volume which he entitles " Between the 
Andes and the Ocean," describing all the west- 
ern countries from Panama to Patagonia. Mr. 
Curtis gives quite a full account of the Panama 

" The advocates of the Panama canal lay great stress 
upon the fact that it has a good harbor at either end, 
capable of receiving the largest ships, while the Nica- 
ragua canal has none, and the two that must be built 
present serious engineering difficulties; that a good 
railroad is now in operation along the entire route of 
the Panama canal, while one will have to be constructed 
in Nicaragua; that the supreme difficulties of the Pan- 
ama route have already been developed and overcome, 
while those of the Nicaragua route are unknown; that 
nothing of an experimental character is proposed on the 
Panama canal, while several projects in the Nicaragua 
scheme involve elements of novelty that are without 
precedent; that the length of the Panama canal is only 
forty-six miles, while that of Nicaragua is four times as 
great; that there are no volcanos on the isthmus, while 
there are several in Nicaragua; that earthquakes are 
practically unknown here, while in Nicaragua they are 
frequent; that the concession from the government of 
Columbia for the Panama canal is complete and satis- 
factory and there is only one nation to deal with, while 
two nations must be consulted in everything that in- 
volves the Nicaragua canal, and the concessions are 
complicated with conditions that are likely to prove 

There is some historical matter in Mr. Curtis's 
book, but the main topic treated is the indus- 
trial, social, and political life of the people. 
The volume forms, on the whole, a very read- 
able description of the Western South America 
of to-day. There are a number of illustrations 
and a fair index, but no map. 

" A Summer Journey to Brazil," by Miss 
Alice R. Humphrey, is a brief and pleasant 
record of a trip to Rio Janeiro, Pernambuco, 

Bahia, Petropolis Sanctos, and Sao Paolo. 
The author has some sharp criticism for the 
U. S. consular service at Sanctos, and her 
chapter on this subject ends with this quota- 
tion from a letter written by an American in 
Sao Paolo, dated July 6, 1900 : 

" What does our government mean by sending out 
an Italian Priest as Consul to Santos? If he were only 
a priest who had practically withdrawn from active 
functions, it would not be so bad; but this one makes 
it his first duty to visit the newspapers and declare that 
he will not allow the duties of the consulate to interfere 
with his higher ecclesiastical functions, and as a proof 
of this, he left the duties of the office yesterday and 
came up to say a thirtieth day Mass for the soul of a 
person connected with the Diario Popular,' and had it 
advertised far and near." 

As far as it goes the book is a useful and read- 
able sketch, and contains a number of appen- 
dices of value. 

Under the title " The Paradise of the Pa- 
cific " Mr. G. Waldo Browne gives us a short 
general account of the Hawaiian Islands. The 
volume includes a description of the islands, a 
resume of their history, with special chapters 
on the religious history, and an account of the 
present status. The condition of the Japanese 
and Chinese have particular mention. 

" The Japanese appear to be the disturbing factor in 
the islands at present. There are many educated and 
intelligent Japanese on the islands, who are prominent 
in business and have thrifty homes, but the class most 
largely drawn hither is ignorant, impetuous, and hard 
to control. If industrious they are ambitious, and, see- 
ing better than the Chinese the real inwardness of their 
situation, are dissatisfied with it, waiting, watching for 
the opportunity to strike a blow at the power which at- 
tempts to hold them in check. There is too much of 
the Yankee about them to be held long in surveillance, 
and, with their high percentage of population, what the 
outcome is to be is hard to forecast, though probably 
no cause for serious alarm." 

The book is popular in tone and profusely 

A companion volume to the book just noticed 
bears the rather fanciful title " The Pearl of 
the Orient." It is a brief compilation of mat- 
ter relating to the Philippine Islands, and while 
popular in tone is fairly accurate on matters of 
fact. There are chapters on the geography 
and history of the islands, on the animals, on 
the resources, and the volume closes with a 
chapter on " America in the Orient." The 
bola or native knife is thus described : 

" The most common type used in warfare is between 
two and three feet in length, including the handle, and 
has a wide, thick blade edged like a guillotine. When 
wielded by a fanatic Philippine in the heat of battle, it 
is a formidable instrument of death, which is capable 
of cutting a human head clear from its seat at a single 




blow, split the body from shoulder to hip, or cleave the 
skull in twain. At the call to charge, these native troops 
discard all other weapons and spring to the wild attack 
hand to hand, wielding the bola with terrible effect." 

The illustrations are profuse and well-printed. 

In Miss Christine Collbran's account of " An 
American Girl's Trip to the Orient and around 
the World " we have the fresh impressions of 
a young person conveyed pleasantly enough in 
a very familiar epistolary style. One amusing 
incident the author thus describes : 

" While out walking I met a sort of procession, 
marching down one of the streets of Yokohama, which 
amused me immensely. It consisted of fifteen or twenty 
men carrying long poles with white banners fastened to 
them, or with a mock rooster perched on the top, fol- 
lowed by a brass band of about eight instruments, play- 
ing, or rather trying to play, ' Marching through 
Georgia.' Each man seemed to be playing just as he 
felt, and their laudable endeavors to express their dif- 
ferent moods in different keys was not all that could 
be desired from a musical point of view. Apparently, 
it did not matter in the least if he were a few notes too 
high, or too low, or if he were playing faster or slower 
than the rest; so taking it altogether, I was only just 
able to recognize our good old campaigners' song. The 
Japanese, themselves, seemed to be enjoying it thor- 
oughly, if we may judge by the crowds that followed 
in the wake of this comical band." 

The bulk of the book is given to Japan and 
Korea, other countries receiving but very 
meager notice. 

" Among the Berbers of Algeria," by Mr. 
Anthony Wilkin, is "a popular record of a 
journey undertaken with scientific objects." 
These objects were of an archaeological and 
anthropological nature, the special purpose 
being " to trace if possible their [the Berbers'] 
connection with the most ancient races of 
Egypt by the methods of anthropology, by col- 
lections of pottery, of designs, of physical 
measurements, and by observation of their 
everyday occupations, and of the monuments 
of their ancestors." This object the author 
achieved. The Berbers, unconquered by Roman 
or Arab, but at length subjugated by the 
French, are divided into two tribes, the Chawia 
and Kabylia, both of which were visited by 
our author. He finds the Berber has many 
good traits. 

" Whether in the olive-clad mountains of Kabylia 
or the terraces of their Aurasian fastnesses they are 
white men and in general act like white men. Among 
them the virtues of honesty, hospitality, and good- 
nature are conspicuous. It is not their misfortune 
alone that the lowlands know them no more; not their 
misfortune only that Mohammedanism has debarred 
them from entering, as they would otherwise have en- 
tered, on the path of European progress and liberality: 
it is the misfortune of the whole civilized world. De- 
scendants of a mighty race whose culture once spread 

from the Atlantic to the Red Sea and the Hanran from 
Crete to Timbuctoo and the Soudan, there are still to 
be found among them the vestiges of the arts and 
sciences, of the spirit of conquest, of the capacity for 
self-government, which, if developed, would make them 
again a great nation." 

The book is of interest and value as giving 
us some acquaintance with this little-known 
race. The illustrations are exceptionally fine. 

A pleasant account of that most remote of 
the British Isles, St. Kilda, is prepared by Mr. 
Norman Heathcote. This " last of the sea-girt 
Hebrides " is famed in Britain for its uncouth 
natives and for its multitude of sea-birds. The 
author presents a brief history of St. Kilda, 
followed by chapters on the island as it is to-day, 
boating and climbing experiences, the birds, 
and the " St. Kilda of the future." A curious 
habit of the Fulmar Petrel is thus described ": 

" On the approach of an enemy, the fulmar squirts 
oil at him in self-defense. I suppose the operation is 
of use to them against some of their foes; and though 
it does not avail them against the St. Kildan fowler, 
it is on record that one gallant fulmar succeeded in 
killing a man by this same process. It was not in St. 
Kilda, and it was some time ago. The said man, being 
unacquainted with this little habit of the petrel tribe, 
was so astonished at receiving a stream of nasty-smelling 
oil in his face that he fell off the ladder, by means of 
which he bad obtained access to the nest, and was 
killed. My experience is, that it is a very poor sort of 
weapon, as the range is so short. I doubt if the stream 
of oil will carry more than a couple of feet on the level." 

The illustrations are good, and the author's 
map is probably the best yet made. 

Miss Katharine Lee Bates's " Spanish High- 
ways and Byways " is the vivacious account 
of a tour along the regular routes, the only 
" Byway " being a trip through the Basque 
provinces. The author's impression of the 
Spaniard is that he is not only not lazy, as 
often reputed, but intensely active. She gives 
a graphic picture of a Spanish Carnival. 

" Squeaking and gibbering, the maskers, unrebnked, 
took all manner of saucy liberties. A stately old gen- 
tleman rose from his cushion in a crested carriage to 
observe how gallantly a bevy of ladies were beating off 
with a hail of confetti and bonbons an imploring cav- 
alier who ran by their wheels, and when he would have 
resumed his seat he found himself dandled on the 
knees of a grinning Chinaman. Sometimes a swarm 
of maskers would beset a favorite carriage, climbing 
up beside the coachman and snatching his reins, stand- 
ing on the steps and throwing kisses, lying along the 
back and twitting the proudest beauty in the ear or 
making love to the haughtiest. This all-licensed masker, 
with his monstrous disguise and affected squeal, may 
be a duke or a doorkeeper. Carnival is democracy." 

The book contains a pleasant chapter on the 
gypsies, and one of some length on the Choral 
games of Spanish children, a disquisition which 



[Feb. 1, 

should be of interest to the psedologist. The 
illustrations are good, but there is neither map 
nor index. 

An enthusiastic, vivacious description of 
Falaise and its environs by an intimate friend 
and observer, may be found in Mrs. Anna 
Bowmon Dodd's volume entitled " Falaise, the 
Town of the Conqueror." The effect of Nor- 
mandy landscape is thus described : 

" Little by little, the subtle and satisfying charm of 
this Normandy landscape was producing an effect not 
wholly new to me, at least. So penetrating have I 
felt this charm to be, that in just such Normandy 
scenes, and just such warm, balmy days, I have had 
that rarest of human sensations, a satisfied, completed 
sense of perfect enjoyment. The man or woman who 
loves nature, sanely, can be made more entirely con- 
tent, I believe, in the rich inland parts of this marvelous 
Normandy province than in any other country." 

The author visited the Falaise Fair in a char- 
a-banc, and in brisk style she narrates the 
scenes there witnessed. A large portion of 
the volume concerns the history of the city. 
We have rarely seen better photographic illus- 
trations than those which adorn this book. 

" Forbidden Paths in the Land of Og " is 
the narrative of a trip by three missionaries 
into the region beyond Jordan. Their expe- 
dition was to the west and north of the Sea of 
Galilee and included visits to Golan, Gadara, 
Mizpah, and Jerash. Of the latter place, 
where are found the ruins of the ancient and 
magnificent Gerasa, the account is quite full 
and interesting. 

" A Greek theatre of the ancient type forms a capital 
camping-place for modern travellers. Historically it 
awakens myriad thoughts of regal splendor and Chris- 
tian martyrdom. Practically it lends itself to the real 
necessities of the tourists in affording shade and shelter, 
semi-seclusion, and excellent stabling for the ani- 
mals. Incongruous as this may sound, a grand 
theatre reduced to the level of tourists' conveniences, 
yet so it was. Camp was pitched in the midst of the 
open arena. Round about on three sides rose the semi- 
circle of stone benches, in sixteen tiers, one above 
another, capable of seating three or four thousand 

The book is full of Biblical allusions, and 
should be of especial use to Bible students. 

MR. W. GARRETT BORDER'S " Treasury of American 
Sacred Song " is reissued, in an enlarged edition, by 
Mr. Henry Frowde. Something like thirty new poems 
are included, but the price of the volume has been re- 
duced. The editor gives a broad meaning to the word 
" sacred," and this admirable book is far more than a 
mere collection of hymns. In fact, hymns are rather 
far to seek in these pages. 


The wish is father to the thought in nearly all 
recent books which treat of the war in South Africa. 
Two of the group before us are from American 
hands, and attempt to give both sides of the ques- 
tions involved. Several, from English pens, are 
interested only in disclosing what their authors saw. 
The rest are more or less partial to Great Britain, 
reflecting the attitude to be expected when war ex- 
cites a nation. 

The pamphlet from M. Edmond Desmolins, au- 
thor of "Anglo-Saxon Superiority," entitled " Boers 
or English: Who Are in the Right?" is an argu- 
ment against the rights of a weaker people to na- 
tional existence, with such qualification as can be 
given that unpleasant theme by statements such as 
this: "These great nations must understand that 
their preeminence is based solely on the fact that 
they are, for the time being, the most worthy to 
exercise it," a complete confusion, -it will be 
noted, of might and right. 

" The British Case Against the Boer Republics " 
is a small document prepared by the Imperial South 
African Association, chief agent of the Johannes- 
burg mine owners in their campaign of misrepresen- 
tation, which was sent by the Bureau of Education 
to the teachers of the United States during the past 
summer. It is a brief, giving page and volume of 
British official documents, intended to supply the 
British sympathizer with justification for the exter- 

Edmond Desmolins. New York : Imported by Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. 

Anonymous. London: The Imperial South African Asso- 

ON THE EVE OF THE WAR. By Evelyn Cecil, M.P. New 
York : Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 

ham. New York : Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Musgrave. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

BESEIGED BY THE BOERS. By E. Oliver Ashe, M.D. New 
York : Doubleday, Page & Co. 

Spencer Churchill. New York: Longmans, Green, & Co. 

IAN HAMILTON'S MARCH. By Winston Spencer Churchill. 
New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

THE BOERS IN WAR. By Howard C. Hillegas. New York : 
D. Appleton & Co. 

Harding Davis. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

LESSONS OF THE WAR. By Spencer Wilkinson. Phila- 
delphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 

THE GREAT BOER WAR. By A. Conan Doyle. New 
York: McClure, Phillips & Co. 

H. O. Arnold-Forster, M.P. New York : Cassell & Co., Ltd. 

and H. R. Abererombie. New York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

By M. J. Farrelly, LL.D. New York: The Macmillan Co. 




initiation of the South African Republics. It is 
purely ex parte, and makes no other pretension. 

Mr. Evelyn Cecil is a nephew of the Marquis 
of Salisbury and a member of parliament. He 
arrived at Cape Town less than a month before the 
war broke oat, and stayed in South Africa for 
three months and a half afterward. The opening 
words of his book, " If England fights she will 
create for herself a sullen dependency among the 
Dutch in South Africa," spoken to the author upon 
his arrival at the Cape, seem to be most nearly 
prophetic of any of the statements in the volume, 
which deals with the British side entirely. Some 
remarks on the administration of Rhodesia are 
worth reading, as evidence that the Transvaal was 
brought to bay for doing the very things which the 
Chartered Company did in a much more extortion- 
ate degree. 

Just such another book as the foregoing, mak- 
ing necessary allowances for sex and education, 
is Miss Violet R. Markham's " South Africa, Past 
and Present." The larger part of the work, how- 
ever, is a rewriting of the history of the land, with 
a chapter on "Industrial Johannesburg" supplied 
by the author's brother, Mr. Arthur Markham. 
The portly volume requires no extended notice at 
this time, containing as it does the usual record of 
mismanagement and race hatred, fostered by mu- 
tual misunderstandings and thoughtless oppor- 

One of the best of the books resulting from the war 
in Cuba was written by Captain George Clarke Mas- 
grave, whose new volume, " In South Africa with 
Buller," contains a vivid account of that doughty 
warrior's advances and retreats. It is a violently 
partisan work, addressed to Americans in a par- 
ticular sense, even to the point of quoting Mr. John 
Hays Hammond, a paid attorney of the Johannes- 
burg mine owners, as an authority, along with a 
number of other Americans with foreign names 
who wish to see England reduce taxation. The 
book makes no pretension to literary graces, but its 
narrative of the fighting can hardly fail to interest. 

Another former Cuban correspondent is Mr. 
John Black Atkins, whose letters to the Manchester 
"Guardian " have been collected, so far as they are 
pertinent, into a volume entitled "The Relief of 
Ladysmith." The story of the repeated attempts 
to bear succor to the people of that sadly beleagnred ' 
and gallant little town is told in Mr. Atkins's best 
style, with great good humor, though with a full 
setting forth of the difficulties met and surmounted. 

Dr. E. Oliver Ashe was a surgeon in the hospital 
at Kimberly daring the siege, and his " Besieged 
by the Boers " is a picturesque account of events in 
that monopolistic town for several months, mottled 
with paragraphs that reflect the deadly dullness of 
the long isolation. Dr. Ashe's vivid pages tell a 
story worth telling, and tell it well. 

The two books of Mr. Winston Spencer Churchill, 
"London to Ladysmith via Pretoria" and "Ian 

Hamilton's March," form a continuous narrative of 
the author's numerous adventures and narrow es- 
capes, from the beginning of the war to the capture 
of Pretoria. The inclusion of the diary of Lieuten- 
ant Frankland, an officer in the unfortunate Dublin 
Fusileers, carries on the tale of the prisoners at 
Pretoria from the time of Mr. Churchill's escape 
until his return to that city with the British column. 
It is not necessary here to praise Mr. Churchill's 
methods of presenting his facts. He is writing in 
the field and his letters appear in a London paper 
before they are printed in book form ; but it is 
doubtful if any revision or care could give them 
the air of reality they now convey. 

Mr. Howard C. Hillegas is an American who has 
been attached to the Republican side in the South 
African struggle. His account of " The Boers in 
War " pays a high tribute to the men who compose 
the burgher armies, and the manner in which they 
go about their battles. He bears witness to the 
smallness of the force which they have been able 
to put in the field, such forces never exceeding 
thirty thousand men at any time, and his descrip- 
tion of what might be called the " elective system " 
of fighting makes it still more surprising that their 
successes should have been what they are. Though 
his sympathies are evidently with the Dutch, Mr. 
Hillegas is wholly free from rancor, as was evi- 
denced in his former book. 

The psychological study of a man changing his 
mind adds to the value of Mr. Richard Harding 
Davis's " With Both Armies in South Africa." It 
is evident from the narrative that Mr. Davis had 
been so thoroughly persuaded the burghers were 
as black as the British had painted them that his 
discovery of the exaggeration caused a total over- 
throw of all his pre-judgments, leaving him as 
violently partisan as before, though on the other 
side. His testimony that the Englishman is a bad 
loser can be matched by an abundance of examples 
collected from exclusively British sources since the 
outbreak of hostilities, and the hearty dislike his 
frankness has caused in Great Britain is some wit- 
ness to the accuracy of his comment. 

Mr. Spencer Wilkinson's volume of " Lessons of 
the War " is merely a reprint of his weekly reviews 
in " The London Letter," and carry the story of 
the war no farther than the relief of Ladysmith. 
His statement that no power will intervene unless 
it is prepared for war still awaits complete demon- 
stration. Another similar volume will contain more 
and riper decisions. 

Even the preface by the Earl of Rosebery does 
not save Mr. H. 0. Arnold-Forster's " The War 
Office, the Army, and the Empire " from being too 
sanguine a work in its belief that strictures on the 
blunders of those who control the machinery of the 
British army will result in reform. Similar rumors 
have been heard in the United States ever since 
Grant found himself powerless to redeem his spe- 
cific pledges to Sherman in behalf of the War 



[Feb. 1, 

Department against the protests of mere politicians ; 
and the two great Anglo-Saxon powers are too 
desperately proud of proving that they can triumph 
over difficulties to stop to remove any of their own 
making. The author makes out the strongest pos- 
sible case against official incompetents in places 
of power and so did Captain John Bigelow, 
U.S.A., in 1899, concerning the authorities at 

Dr. A. Conan Doyle states the case against him- 
self with entire fairness in the preface to his " The 
Great Boer War." He wrote the somewhat bulky 
volume partly in England and partly on the steamer 
in passage, finishing it in Bloemfontein while pro- 
fessionally engaged during the epidemic among 
the wounded soldiers there. " Often," he says, 
" the only documents which I had to consult were 
the wounded officers and men who were under our 
care." Elsewhere he speaks of the volume being 
" compiled with as much accuracy as is attainable 
at this date." But the history, such as it is, has 
commanded the highest praise in England, and it 
seems to be designed exclusively for British con- 
sumption. Dr. Doyle means to be impartial, and 
there are frequent evidences of his efforts to that 
end. He brings to the book, too, a personal knowl- 
edge of the South African landscape and general 
geography, in addition to his well known skill as a 

" The Rise and Fall of Krugerism " bears for 
its sub-title, " A Personal Record of Forty Years 
in South Africa," and Mr. Scoble may be regarded 
as its real author, the position of Mr. Abercrombie 
in the intelligence department of Cape Colony en- 
abling him to eke out the facts which his colabor- 
ator's correspondency for the London " Times " at 
Pretoria put him in the way of acquiring. The 
book is written from the extreme imperialistic point 
of view, and nothing derogatory to the government 
of the Transvaal has been omitted, making it a 
treasure house for the opponents of the Republics. 
But even here the silence of the authors respecting 
the Orange Free State admits away a part of their 

Dr. M. J. Farrelly is an advocate of the supreme 
court of Cape Colony, and he is somewhat more 
frank than many of his countrymen in setting forth 
the nature of the struggle. " We are fighting," he 
says, " in order to place a small international oli- 
garchy of mine owners and speculators in power at 
Pretoria [what Kruger was fighting to avoid]. En- 
glishmen will surely do well to recognize that the 
economic and political destinies of South Africa 
are, and seem likely to remain, in the hands of men, 
most of whom are foreigners by origin, whose trade 
is finance, and whose trade interests are not chiefly 
British." Dr. Farrelly looks for a period of duress 
as a Crown colony for the Transvaal and, probably, 
the Free State, and regards time as the only solu- 
tion of most of the existing difficulties. 



the Irish 

The Daniel O'Connell of Mr. Robert 
Dunlop's presentation, in the " He- 
roes of the Nations " series (Put- 
nam), is a genuine Irishman, somewhat unduly 
spiritualized it may be, yet typical of his race. 
Mercurial in temperament, quick to take offense 
and quick to forgive, easily quarrelsome over triv- 
ialities, he is still the foremost figure in the long 
list of the Irish agitators of the earlier part of the 
century. O'Connell was a leader of the Irish bar, 
an eloquent orator, and an effective member of 
Parliament, but it is upon his abilities as an organ- 
izer of political societies for the redress of Ireland's 
grievances that Mr. Dunlop justly places the greatest 
stress. He excelled his contemporaries in his ability 
legally to evade repressive laws, and he stood far 
above every other agitator of the period in his de- 
termination never to encourage violent methods 
for the repeal of obnoxious statutes. O'Connell 
always advocated " constitutional " agitation. Mon- 
ster petitions, public meetings, and far-reaching 
political associations were the instruments he chose 
to express Ireland's sentiments, in the hope that 
incessant iteration would ensure fair treatment for 
his countrymen. Revolution was hateful to him. 
Neither personal persecution, nor discouragement 
at the seeming failure of wisely conceived projects, 
moved him, for an instant, from his horror of in- 
surrectionary methods. Mr. Dunlop insists upon 
this again and again, for O'Connell has frequently 
been credited with the will, but not with the courage, 
to embroil Ireland in civil war, and during his 
lifetime was generally regarded in England as 
hypocritical in his denunciation of armed resistance. 
Yet Mr. Dunlop's estimate is sustained by numer- 
ous quotations from O'Connell's personal letters to 
intimate friends, at every stage of his career. 
O'Connell's character and acts were by no means 
above criticism, and the author does not attempt to 
conceal the defects. He was an egoist, yet perhaps 
purposely so in politics, recognizing the aptitude of 
his countrymen for submission to the political 
" boss." He made serious mistakes in policy, as 
when he favored the disfranchisement of the forty 
shilling freeholders. He was often vulgar and 
abusive in language toward his political opponents. 
These failings are noted explicitly, though usually 
with toleration, by Mr. Dunlop. Yet Council's 
greatest mistake, in the author's opinion, was one 
of judgment and not of character or measure, 
briefly, that his whole scheme of operations, though 
successful in securing Catholic emancipation, was 
based upon ideals, thus rendering complete success 
impossible. O'Connell believed that when once 
England was educated to understand the wrongs 
of the existing government of Ireland, the English 
sense of justice would force the righting of these 
wrongs. He therefore educated England by agi- 
tation in Ireland. Mr. Dunlop asserts that England 




An and LAfe. 

has never acted toward Ireland upon principles of 
abstract justice, and that selfish interest alone has 
brought any alleviation of Irish distress. Mere 
agitation of principles of right are here, therefore, 
always useless unless England sees her own direct 
benefit in their realization. Mr. Dunlop is an 
Englishman. - 

In "Sleeping Beauty and Other 
p roge Fancie8 /j oh " n Lane ) Mr> 

. j . * 

Richard Le Galuenne gives us a 
series of short essays written in the brilliant vein 
that holds attention if it does not always produce 
conviction. Mr. Le Gallienne is a devotee of the 
religion of beauty, and in the fervor of his devotion 
he says, " Why not disendow the Church, and en- 
dow Literature, which is really the coming Church?" 
His militant faith in the triumph of the finer in- 
stincts of the soul, love of beauty and desire for 
truth, and longing for the invisible things of the 
spirit, is abundantly in evidence, and especially so 
in the most important essay in the book, "The 
Second Coming of the Ideal." He insists upon the 
reality of dreams, and declares that realism has 
failed because it does not understand, as does 
idealism, the science of human nature. Eager and 
earnest as are Mr. Le Gallienne's convictions, he 
manages to give them publicity without too much 
parade of importance, dwelling upon them lovingly 
rather than strenuously, and even touching them 
lightly with a graceful fancy and a mild sort of wit. 
His treatment of Mr. Stephen Phillips has the 
charm of absolute sincerity of appreciation, and 
this paper more than any other makes us realize 
how much of our pleasure in the volume comes 
from the genuineness of his fresh delight in the 
aesthetic charm of books and men. But his enjoy- 
ment of Stevenson, and Theodore Watts-Dun ton, 
and Miss Custance is balanced by the very positive 
irritation that comes to him from the great popular 
success of Rndyard Kipling. "Mr. Kipling has 
chosen to make the clay jig, instead of compelling 
the marble to sing; and he has his reward," he 
says, ^A Propos The Absent-Minded Beggar," 
and. while we may not sympathize with his feeling 
of personal vexation, we must allow the criticism. 
On the whole, while there are some good things 
well said in the book, it is an entertaining rather 
than weighty or valuable contribution to the literary 
discussion of the problems of art and life. It 
might be suggested to Mr. Le Gallienne that his 
work is sufficiently pretentious to warrant his giving 
a little more attention to the writing of correct 
English. Especially is this desirable if he is to go 
forth to battle with Mr. Kipling as one who degrades 
the national literature by the use of slang. 

A commendable Information in regard to memory is 
compendium a matter of general interest, and 

descriptions of the peculiarities and 
vagaries of the venerable mother of the muses may 
frequently be overheard in the small talk of culti- 
vated persons. Exact information in regard to the 

psychological status of the memory-processes is cer- 
tainly desirable ; and on the whole such information 
has kept pace with the increasing knowledge in 
regard to the physiological and psychological basis 
and mode of development of mental functions. 
Professor Colegrove's inductive study of " Memory" 
(Holt) is a well-designed aid to the student of this 
topic, and will appeal to the interests of the general 
reader. The scope of the volume includes an intro- 
ductory chapter giving the historical setting of 
opinions in regard to the nature of memory ; a 
suggestive account of the fluctuations of the memory- 
functions in the biological world ; some description 
of the diseases of memory, without which a con- 
ception of memory would be both misleading and 
inadequate ; a brief statement of the connection of 
memory-processes with the functions of the brain ; 
a discussion of the significant types, or classes of 
memory ; a detailed study, on the basis of an ex- 
tensively circulated question-sheet, of certain special 
problems in regard to the tenacity, accuracy, di- 
rection, unfoldment, relation to age, sex, race, etc., 
and other characteristics of individual memories ; 
a discussion of the relations of the mere retentive 
functions to the assimilative ones, particularly to 
attention, apperception, and association ; and a 
concluding chapter rehearsing the pedagogical ap- 
plications of the main results of the previous studies. 
The volume is the outcome of a deep personal in- 
terest and of a special investigation of the subject. 
Its essential defect is the lack of a sustained hold 
upon the relations of the different parts of the 
subject to one another. We have a series of inci- 
dents, where we expect a continued story involving 
the same characters but in new situations. It is 
true of memory as of many problems psychological, 
that " what was a problem once is a problem still "; 
but an interesting sketch of the shape which the 
problem assumes in response to the activities of 
modern research may be profitably gained from 
Dr. Colegrove's handbook. 

" The history of our navy under 
steam divides itself into two parts, 
rather sharply separated by a pe- 
culiar war-vessel forced into the field of action in 
advance of its natural time by the demands of a 
great war, and destined suddenly to change by its 
example the naval armaments and methods of all 
nations." This sentence indicates the underlying 
thought in " The Monitor and the Navy under 
Steam " (Hough ton), by Lieut. Frank M. Bennett, 
IT. S. N. The story of the origin and progress of 
steam navigation is told in a very interesting way, 
a number of drawings helping materially in giving 
the reader a correct understanding of the successive 
advance steps. A second chapter recounts the 
famous duel between the " Monitor " and the 
" Merrimac," and this is followed by a description 
of other naval actions of the Civil War, the upper- 
most thought always being the evolution of the 
modern battle-ship. After the Civil War the United 

The Monitor 
at an 



[Feb. 1, 

States " practically dropped out of sight for twenty 
years as a naval or maritime power," and European 
nations made the experiments and perfected the 
machinery necessary to the building of the battle- 
ship of to-day. This naval indifference was trying 
to American officers, and yet had its compensations, 
since we were able, when our " new navy " was 
planned, to profit by the expensive experience of 
the rest of the world. What the new navy accom- 
plished in the Spanish-American War of course is 
set forth in glowing words, nearly a hundred pages 
out of three hundred and fifty being given to the 
events of 1898. This may perhaps be criticised 
as an undue proportion, but it is true that the story 
is designed to approach such a climax, all the 
thought and inventions of the past being represented 
at their best in such a vessel as the " Oregon." 
The last chapter will be depended upon to sell the 
book, but it is likely that more real value attaches 
to the earlier pages, which show how naval inventors 
worked unceasingly at ideas tending to make the 
ships move faster than sails could carry them, and 
at the same time to make a more solid barrier for 
the flag at sea than was afforded by the " wooden 
walls " of the old navy. 

In his careful and engrossing work 
* io ? yo S on "The Frigate Constitution, the 

" Old Irotitides." _, , _. , , _ 

Central rigure of the Wavy under 
Sail" (Houghton), Mr. Ira N. Hollis follows the 
fortunes of " Old Ironsides " from her inception 
under the presidency of Washington to her present 
condition of honorable old age, in which she is 
soon to enjoy a pension adequate for her main- 
tenance in ease and dignity. With the part in 
history played by the "Constitution" Americans 
have every reason to be satisfied. If she did 
not win her spurs a most terrestrial trope, in 
this connection during the Jbrief war with France, 
she did beat an English frigate sailing at that 
time, and Preble gave her plenty to do against 
the Tripolitans soon after. It was in 1812 that 
the gallant ship blossomed into her fulness of fame, 
and Mr. Hollis does not exaggerate when he says 
she " was the single champion of a young and 
struggling nation " in a war which " terminated 
the period of our dependence upon England." 
Thrice escaping from British fleets by exhibitions 
of resourcefulness which still thrill the heart, and 
thrice victorious over British ships-of-war, the 
" Guerrie're," the "Java," and the "Cyene" and 
" Levant," the career of the " Constitution " 
furnishes almost enough material for an epic. The 
book is always readable and frequently fascinating. 

The life and ^ e h& ve ^ a( i two or three good 

character of books on Cromwell of late, notably 

Oliver Cromwell. the 8tu( j ie8 fey M]p j ohn Morley and 

Governor Roosevelt, and to them is now added Mr. 
Arthur Paterson's " Oliver Cromwell, His Life and 
Character" (Stokes), a continuous, well-rounded 
work which the reader who wants biography as 

nearly as possible pure and simple, and in a form 
which presupposes a very moderate degree only of 
antecedent knowledge of the elements of Crom- 
well's story, will probably find more serviceable 
than any of its recent predecessors. Mr. Paterson's 
object is to give a detailed narrative of the per- 
sonal life, aims, and motives of Cromwell, and he 
has hence abstained so far as may be from the 
usual historical and politico-philosophical excursions 
which his theme suggests. His book, in short, is a 
good plain narrative of Oliver's career, and a sen- 
sible, unexaggerated view of his character. Mr. 
Paterson inclines to take issue with writers who 
regard Cromwell's later usurpations as an apostasy 
from the cause of political liberty, and endeavors 
with some plausibility to show that his high-handed 
measures were largely forced on him by circum- 
stances (which we believe to be in a measure true), 
and, moreover, that in taking such measures he really 
acted as the instrument or mandatary of his council 
(which we believe to be exceedingly doubtful). 
Mr. Paterson's book is very readable, and it sets 
forth concisely, in a compact, well-made volume, the 
essentials of Cromwell's history. There are two 
well-executed portraits, one of them a likeness of 
the Protector's mother after a rare original. 

Before the outbreak of hostilities in 

The Forward g outQ Africa, tne que8 tion that most 

Policy in India. , ' . L*_ 

interested political England was the 
so-called " Forward Policy " in India, and whether 
the Afridi war was a logical result of that policy. 
Under the guise of a personal memoir, Mr. Richard 
I. Bruce, a former political agent in Beluchistan, 
has written a book of comment upon English action 
in India. " The Forward Policy and Its Results " 
(Longmans) relates the chief activities of its author, 
and defends the system introduced by Sir Robert 
Sandemann, in bringing under English control 
some of the frontier tribes between Northwest India 
and Afghanistan. The question at issue is as to 
whether it is wiser to accustom the wild Pathans of 
this border to submit to English intervention in 
their disputes, and to permit the establishment of 
semi-military outposts, or to leave them absolutely 
independent in the hope that such a policy will 
assure their friendship in case of a Russian advance 
on India. Mr. Bruce is emphatically in favor of 
the Forward Policy as opposed to the Close Border 
Policy. Every new government in India, he says, 
has entered office with the determination to check 
further advance toward Afghanistan, but has been 
forced by the necessity of the situation to alter its 
purpose. He advocates a peaceable, friendly, non- 
military advance, to be made on principle and not 
grudgingly, and cites his own and Sir Robert 
Sandemann's labors among the Harris and Bugtis 
in proof that such an advance is possible. He is 
not a forcible writer, and indeed makes no pretense 
at literary merit, but trusts to the reiteration of 
specific facts in Indian history to substantiate his 
argument. As a personal memoir the book is not 




interesting, for the description of frontier incident 
and life has been sacrificed to the narrative of petty 
political events. It will be of value to those Amer- 
ican readers who care to know tho conditions of 
government on this thousand-mile frontier of India. 
Many fine photographs of men and places accom- 
pany the text, and an excellent map is inserted at 
the end. 

During the last ten years, a great deal 
The Germant in o f attent i O n has been paid by special 

Colonial timet. . f. J 

students of American history to what 
may be called the minor race elements of Colonial 
times, and long delayed protests have been increas- 
ingly frequent against that method of history- 
writing which ascribes all the virtues of Colonial 
days to the English settlers and finds small place 
for mention of representatives of other blood who 
helped to build the United States. " The Germans 
in Colonial Times " (Lippincott), by Miss Lucy For- 
ney Bittinger, is the latest of these protests, a com- 
pact little volume of three hundred pages, into 
which is crowded a vast amount of interesting in- 
formation regarding the early German immigrants. 
The conditions in the homeland which led to the 
movement of population are shown, a religious 
condition and a social one, aud then, step by step 
and colony by colony, the author describes the 
various German bodies, many of them small relig- 
ious sects, Mennonites, Bunkers, Salzburgers, Mo- 
ravians and the like, who settled here and there 
from Maine to Georgia, called locally " Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch," and yet having many common char- 
acteristics wherever found. The trials and tribu- 
lations of these immigrants are clearly shown, one 
interesting chapter being on the " Redemptioners," 
in which it appears that the lot of an indented 
servant was often a hard one. A chronological 
table shows that the German influence was mani- 
fested for exactly a century before the treaty of 
Paris of 1783, the first company, the one which 
located at Germantown, coming in 1683. A quite 
extensive bibliography indicates wide reading. The 
writer undoubtedly performed a labor of love in 
the preparation of her material, and her heart was 
full of desire to make the best case for her friends. 
Naturally there are some faults due to over-enthu- 
siasm, and in some places the book lacks exact 
references and foot-notes, but it is none the less a 
welcome addition to the literature of Colonial times, 
and a valuable handbook regarding one important 
race-element in our cosmopolitan national character. 

In his preface to Miss C. A. Button's 
interesting monograph on " Greek 
Terracotta Statuettes " (Macmillan) 
Dr. A. S. Murray, keeper of classical antiquities in 
the British Museum, states that, while anyone with 
the slightest artistic perception can enjoy the beauty 
of these dainty figurines, it is needful to share in 
Miss Button's unusual erudition if one is to step 
beyond this, and understand how they were made, 
and when, and where, and why. To these questions 

A ttudy of 
Greek terracotta 


the author returns no uncertain answer. Not only 
is the whole secret of the ancient manufacturers 
laid bare to the most casual reader, but such recon- 
dite matters as changes of coloring, and changes in 
dress and style, are made plain. To do this, it was 
needful to reproduce a number of typical figurines 
in both monotint and color, and these numerous 
illustrations add immensely to the value of the book. 
Many of the statuettes owe their birth to the period 
which gave us the immortal bits of the anthology, 
and the treasures of that work have been drawn 
upon by Miss Button for mutual comparison and 
elucidation, with the happiest results. Such a book 
has long been needed for general reference, and it 
is to be hoped that it may yet be re-issued in less 
expensive and more popular form. 

A wtitiionary- The sudden and vigorous growth of 
statesman of that young nation of the Pacific, 

Japan, was due to many causes not 
popularly known. One of these was the presence 
in that land, at critical moments, of sturdy and 
level-headed foreigners. Dr. William Elliot Griffis 
in his " Verbeck of Japan : A Citizen of No Coun- 
try " (Revell) has opened our eyes to see one of 
those characters. Dr. Guido F. Verbeck entered 
Japan in 1859 and gave nearly forty years of his 
life to the Japanese. He went out as a missionary, 
but his success as a teacher, his wisdom as a man of 
affairs, and his influence as an adviser, soon secured 
for him unwonted power with those in authority in 
the dawn of Japan's modern history. A number 
of the chief authorities of state in the young gov- 
ernment had been his former pupils and wisely 
looked upon him as their best adviser ; so that 
when the constitution of the country was finally 
cast, Dr. Verbeck was probably next to the dictator 
of its articles. Then, too, the educational policy 
of Japan, and its relation to foreign culture, to the 
arts and sciences, was largely shaped by the wis- 
dom of this same Americanized Dutchman. Dr. 
Griffis has given us a noble portrait of this devoted 
missionary-statesman, who molded in a very definite 
manner the new empire of the Pacific. 

The ufe of A. n auspicious and appropriate be- 

an English ,. r , f , 

anti-tlavery g 11111111 ? t a new biographical 861168 

agitator. o f " Saintly Lives " (Dutton) is 

made in Mrs. Anna M. Stoddard's life of Elizabeth 
Pease Nichol. Mrs. Nichol was known to all anti- 
slavery agitators in the English-speaking world as 
one of that devoted few who swayed the voice and 
the heart of England away from mere interests of 
greed in the struggle between the North and the 
South, and turned the popular English derision of 
Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation into mighty 
mass-meetings of praise to the Divine Providence 
which had rid the world of its greatest curse. Eliza- 
beth Pease was born in 1807, was married to Pro- 
fessor John Pringle Nichol in 1853, and died soon 
after her ninetieth birthday, in 1897. She was of 
Quaker lineage, and consecrated almost from birth 


[Feb. 1, 

to the cause of the hopeless and oppressed, an an- 
nointing which she never forgot. The story of her 
long and noble life, with its eager sympathy and 
deep devotion to immutable truths, is well-told in 
Mrs. Stoddard's volume. 

Pleasant essays 
on familiar t/iemet. 

We are glad to be lectured gently 
on our follies and vanities and on 
things having to do in general with 
the old subject of the conduct of life, when the 
teaching to which we must listen is as genial and 
kindly, as full of a simple and wholesome wisdom, 
as is that of Mr. Edward Sandford Martin's " Lucid 
Intervals " (Harper). The chapters on " Children," 
" Swains and Damsels," " Husbands and Wives," 
"Education," "Riches," and the five more that 
make up the book are devoted to the comfortable 
optimism of a man who has known how to accept 
things as they are and be happy. The subjects 
touched upon are old and the possibility of saying 
anything new upon them does not promise much, 
but the racy freshness of treatment, and the pleas- 
antly pervasive quality of the author's personality, 
gives them new color and interest. The book has 
a goodly number of taking illustrations and is at- 
tractively bound. 

The Colonial woman, as an object 
of interest to her bustling and am- 
bitious descendants, is still having 
her innings, and therefore the pretty volume entitled 
" Dames and Daughters of Colonial Days " (Crow- 
ell), by Miss Geraldine Brooks, will doubtless find 
favor with readers of books of its class. It contains 
ten simply-written sketches of notable women, the 
list beginning with the "first of American club 
women," Anne Hutchinson, and closing with Sally 
Wister, of Pennsylvania, a charming Quakeress 
whose life, says Dr. Weir Mitchell, "must have 
been a joy to itself and others." The characters 
chosen for treatment collectively represent a wide 
territorial range, and the flavor of the short story 
imparted to the sketches will commend them to 
readers in quest of entertainment. 


The finest craft of the bookmaker is exhibited in the 
latest volume by " E. V. B.," entitled " Sylvana's Let- 
ters to an Unknown Friend " (Macmillan). The paper 
is of the best, the print is large and enticing to the eye, 
and photographic illustrations are lavishly interspersed 
with the letter-press. The delights of gardening are 
the prolific theme of the writer, who has means and 
leisure to indulge to the utmost her taste for floriculture. 
A gentle sympathy follows her record of the flowers 
that pass in lovely procession through the fertile months 
of the year. A little more life and warmth in her 
descriptions would relieve them of a possible accusation 
of monotony. 

The Oxford University Press have published an 
" Anthology of French Poetry," including examples all 
the way down from the tenth century to the last, trans- 

lated by Dean Henry Carrington. We need not in this 
connection discourse upon the necessary limitations of 
verse translation, for they are well understood. What 
is important to say is that the present translator is 
thoroughly familiar with his material, and that the deft 
poetical touch of his versions is often remarkable. His 
range is wide, and almost every French lyrist of im- 
portance is represented by one or more examples. 

"The Foundations of Botany," by Mr. Joseph Y. 
Bergen, is a text-book published by Messrs. Ginn & Co. 
It is written upon the general plan of the author's 
earlier "Elements of Botany," but gives greatly in- 
creased attention to laboratory work and the study of 
cryptogams. The text proper occupies upwards of 
four hundred pages, and to this is appended a " Key and 
Flora" of two hundred and fifty pages more. In the 
latter section about seven hundred species, wild and 
cultivated, are included, which makes such an appendix 
really worth while. The directions for experimental 
work are abundant and explicit, and the volume has 
hundreds of illustrations in the text, besides a dozen 
or so full-page plates. The book is thoroughly scien- 
tific in method, and presents the subject in the most 
attractive way. 

Mr. W. H. Mallock has tried an interesting experi- 
ment, although one not brought to a particularly happy 
issue, in his little book entitled " Lucretius on Life and 
Death in the Metre of Omar Khayyam." The similarity 
of spirit between the Persian and the Roman poet is 
sufficient to justify this effort, but if there be some 
suggestions of the unsophisticated Omar in Mr. Mai- 
lock's quatrains, there is nothing of the peculiar quality 
that FitzGerald gave to his immortal paraphrase. Mr. 
Mallock has produced about a hundred quatrains, and 
has appended the original texts upon which they are 
based. Mr. John Lane publishes the volume. 

Mr. John Kenyon Kilbourn has compiled a volume 
on the "Faiths of Famous Men in their Own Words" 
(Henry T. Coates & Co.), which shows vast industry 
but less judgment. Of its ten chapters, four are upon 
the Millenium, the Intermediate State, the Resurrec- 
tion, and Heaven, although only about a third of the 
book itself is given to these subjects. The famous men 
who write upon such subjects are somewhat unknown. 
Grover Cleveland, it is true, is quoted under the Mil- 
lenium, but his words have to do with the disarmament 
of nations. Indeed, the author has a most catholic 
estimate of fame and has admitted many men mostly 
clergymen of whom the careless world has little 
heard. Yet, the volume is full of interest, and we doubt 
not will serve a useful purpose in furnishing preachers 
with apt quotations. 

The admirable series of "Beacon Biographies" is 
being supplemented by a similar series of small volumes 
called the " Westminster Biographies " (Small, May- 
nard & Co.), dealing with prominent Englishmen. The 
two volumes upon John Wesley by Mr. Frank Banfield 
and Adam Duncan, Lord Camperdown, by Mr. H. L. 
Wilson, are good illustrations of what biographical 
sketches should be. The problems facing the two 
writers were precisely opposite. The material at hand 
for the biography of Wesley is voluminous, while in 
the case of Duncan it is strangely scauty. Each author, 
however, maintains the perspective of his subject's 
life and has incidentally given us a good many side- 
lights upon the England of their day. This historical 
treatment is especially prominent in Mr. Wilson's 
sketch of Duncan. 





Two " Lark Classics " are the sonnets of Shakespeare 
and a selection from the lyrics of Mr. Swinburne. They 
are trim little volumes published by Mr. Doxey, New 

The Chicago " Daily News Almanac " for 1901, com- 
piled, as for many years past, by Mr. George E. Plumbe, 
has just been sent to us, and is a welcome addition to 
the reference shelf. 

" The Rigveda," by Mr. E. Vernon Arnold, is a new 
pamphlet in the series of popular studies in mythology, 
romance, and folklore which Mr. David Nntt has been 
publishing from time to time. 

Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sous publish a third edition, 
considerably enlarged, of " Cabin and Plantation Songs 
as Sung by the Hampton Students." A few Indian 
songs are also comprised within the collection. 

" The Book Hunter," by Mr. John Hill Burton, is a 
bibliographical classic that needs no description at 
this late day. The J. B. Lippincott Co. have just repub- 
lished the work in an edition that is both neat and inex- 

" Rouen," by the Rev. Thomas Perkins, and " Char- 
tres," by Mr. H. J. L. J. Mass*;, are the two most 
recent additions to the series of " Bell's Handbooks to 
Continental Churches," issued in this country by the 
Macmillan Co. 

"A New Greek Method," by Mr. William James 
Seelye, comes to us from the Herald Printing Co., 
Wooster, Ohio. It is a modest little book, intended to 
provide beginners with as short a cut as possible to 
their "Anabasis." 

" Moore's Meterological Almanac and Weather 
Guide " for 1901, is published by Messrs. Rand, Mc- 
Nally & Co. It bears the name of Professor Willis L. 
Moore, but we marvel that he should have authorized 
so unscientific a title. 

Two volumes of biographical and critical interest, 
to be issued shortly by Mr. M. F. Mansfield of New 
York, are a life of Samuel Richardson, by Miss Clara 
L. Thomson, and an account of " J. M. Barrie and his 
Books," by Mr. J. A. Hammerton. 

Messrs. Frederick Warne & Co. call our attention 
to the fact that their " Nuttall Encyclopaedia," recently 
mentioned in these pages as " reissued," is an absolutely 
new work, although the title-page does not make this 
altogether clear. We cheerfully make the desired cor- 

Professor T. N. Toller's " Outlines of the History of 
the English Language," published by the Macmillan 
Co., is a serviceable text-book for students, whether in 
or out of school. It is essentially a treatise on Old 
English, although three chapters are devoted to the 
Middle and Modern periods. 

Professor Simon Newcomb's " Elements of Astron- 
omy," published by the American Book Co., is a small 
book but a comprehensive one. It is particularly well- 
fitted for use in such high schools and academies as are 
unable to devote more than a three or four months' 
course to the subject of astronomy. 

The removal to New York of Professors Trent and 
Wells has devolved the editorial conduct of "The 
Sewanee Review" upon new hands. The work will 
now be taken up by Professors Henneman and Ramage, 
of Sewanee, and we have no fear that they will do any- 

thing to lower the high standard already achieved by 
this valuable quarterly, which is just entering upon its 
ninth annual volume. 

" The Stories of My Four Friends " is a little book 
of nature studies for children, left in manuscript by the 
late Jane Andrews, and now prepared for publication 
by her sister, Mrs. Margaret Andrews Allen. This 
small volume, pleasantly written and charmingly illus- 
trated, is published by Messrs. Ginn & Co. 

The American branch of the Oxford University Press 
has arranged with the Rev. F. N. Peloubet, D.D., 
author of " Peloubet's Select Notes on the International 
Lessons," to issue a Teachers' Commentary on the New 
Testament. The work will be complete in ten volumes, 
the first of which, a Commentary on Matthew, will be 
issued at once. 

" The Etiquette of Correspondence," by Miss Helen 
E. Gavit, is a publication of the A. Wessels Co. From 
it one may learn how to write properly all kinds of let- 
ters, and obtain at the same time much useful informa- 
tion respecting such incidental matters as heraldry, 
postal regulations, the use of abbreviations, and of for- 
eign words and phrases. 

" On Southern Poetry prior to 1860," by Mr. Sidney 
Ernest Bradshaw, is a doctoral dissertation presented 
to the University of Virginia. It is a conscientious 
piece of investigation, and adds one more stone to the 
cairn to which the twentieth century historian of our 
American literature will have recourse when he lays 
the foundations of his work. 

" The Historical Development of Modern Europe," 
by Dr. Charles M. Andrews, has now been before the 
public for three or four years, and has approved itself 
to judicious students of history. Messrs. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons now reissue the work, two volumes in one, and 
call it a " student's edition." There are nearly a thous- 
and pages in the volume, and the price is moderate. 

" A Short History of French Literature," by Messrs. 
L. E. Kastner and H. G. Atkins, is published by Messrs. 
Henry Holt & Co. It provides a convenient manual 
for examination candidates, and at the same time a 
readable conspectus of the whole of French literature, 
down to the latest (or next to the latest) of the decadent 
writers of to-day. These closing chapters, indeed, while 
the most questionable, will probably be found the most 
useful in the book, for it is not always easy to obtain 
even such meagre information as is here offered con- 
cerning the French poets and novelists of the younger 

Following up the edition of Dante's " Paradise " 
issued in the series of " Temple Classics " (Macmillan) 
a few months ago, we now have the "Inferno" in sim- 
ilar satisfactory form. The Italian text and the well- 
known translation of Dr. John Aitken Carlyle are 
presented on alternate pages, with the necessary edito- 
rial material supplied by Mr. H. Oelsner. Other vol- 
umes in the same series that have come to us during 
the past few weeks include Vol. VII. of Caxton's 
"Golden Legend," Vols. IV. and V. of Macaulay's 
Essays, Vol. III. in Mr. F. S. Ellis's edition of " The 
Romance of the Rose," and Vols. IV. to VIII. in Mr. 
A. B. Hinds's translation of Vasari's Lives, com- 
pleting all four of these editions. Last of all may be 
mentioned the reprints of La Motte Fouque"s " Sin- 
tram " and " Aslauga's Knight," with illustrations by 
Mr. Charles Robinson, and Miss Mitford's " Our Vil- 



[Feb. 1, 


February, 1901. 

Anti-Scalping Bill, The. Hugh T. Mathers. Forum. 
Armour, Philip D. Frank W. Gnnsaulus. Rev. of Reviews. 
Barbara Frietchie. The True. Anne Fletcher. Lippincott. 
Booth, J. W., Recollections of. Clara Morris. McClure. 
Canal and the Treaty. J. D. Whelpley. World's Work. 
Cavalry vs. Infantry. Henry A. Greene. Forum. 
Chemistry, Unsolved Problems of. Ira Remsen. McClure. 
China, The True Situation in. T. F. Millard. Scribner. 
Christian Endeavor, Two Decades of. A. R. Wells. R. ofR. 
Croker, Richard. William Allen White. McClure. 
Crowd, Beautifying the. Gerald S. Lee. Atlantic. 
Democratic Party, Rehabilitation of the. Forum. 
Election, Lesson of the. W. J. Abbot. Forum. 
Empire by the Lakes. F. C. Howe. World's Work. 
Employees, Self Help to. R. E. Phillips. World's Work. 
Frye Shipping Bill, The. Review of Reviews. 
Germany under a Strenuous Emperor. World's Work. 
Graft, The World of. Josiah Flynt. McClure. 
Humor, American, Essence of. Charles Johnston. Atlantic. 
Huxley, Reminiscences of. John Fiske. Atlantic. 
Immigration, Changing Character of. World's Work. 
Industrial Revolution, The New. Brooks Adams. Atlantic. 
Japanese Immigration. Review of Reviews. 
Kitchener. James Barnes. World's Work. 
Libraries, Travelling. George lies. World's Work. 
Lincoln as an Antagonist. C. P. Button. Lippincott. 
Lincoln Phrase, Possible Origin of a. Review of Reviews. 
Literature, The Dark in. Richard Burton. Forum. 
Monroe Doctrine and Hay-Pauncefote Treaty. Forum. 
Napoleon, Last Phase of. Goldwin Smith. Atlantic. 
Naturalist, Day's Work of a. E. W. Nelson. World's Work. 
Negro and Education. Kelly Miller. Forum. 
New York, A Plea for. J. K. Paulding. Atlantic. 
Nonsense Verse, Study of. Carolyn Wells. Scribner. 
Pan-American Exposition, Decorative Sculpture at. R. ofR. 
Pension Bureau and the South. T. A. Broadus. Rev. of Rev. 
Porto Ricans, Status of. Stephen Pfeil. Forum. 
Reconstruction Problem, The. H. A. Herbert. Atlantic. 
Rhodes, Cecil. Ewart Scott Grogan. World's Work. 
Sheep and the Forest Reserves. C. S. Newhall. Forum. 
Spellbinders, The. William D. Foulke. Forum. 
Stage Reminiscences of Mrs. Gilbert. Scribner. 
State Guards, Nationalization of. T. M. Anderson. Forum. 
Trade-Unions, Am., and Compulsory Arbitration. Forum. 
Trans-Caspian Railway, The. Henry Norman. Scribner. 
War at Sea, Laws and Usages of. C. H. Stockton. Forum. 
Washington and Lincoln. Lyraan P. Powell. Rev. of Kev. 
Woman's Education and Man's. C. F. Thwing. Forum. 
World Conquest, The New. P. S. Reinsch. World's Work. 


[The following list, containing 41 titles, includes books 
received by THB DIAL since its last issue.] 


The Rossettis: Dante Gabriel and Christina. By Elisabeth 
Luther Cary. Illus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 310. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.75. 

Under England's Flag from 1804 to 1809: The Memoirs, 
Diary, and Correspondence of Charles Boothby, Captain 
of Royal Engineers. Compiled by the last survivors of 
his family, M. S. B. and C. E. B. Illus., 8vo, uncut, 
pp. 285. Macmillan Co. $2. 


The Historical Development of Modern Europe, from 
the Congress of Vienna to the Present Time, 1815-1897. 
By Charles M. Andrews. Student's edition, two volumes 
in one ; large 8vo, uncut, pp. 900. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
$2.75 net . 

The Siege in Peking: China against the World. By an 
eye witness, W. A. P. Martin, D.D. Illus., 12mo, pp. 192. 
F. H. Revell Co. Si. 

The Story of Assisi. By Lina Duff Gordon; illus. by 
Nelly Erichsen and M. Helen James. Illus., 16mo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 372. " Mediaeval Towns." Macmillan Co. 


A Treasury of Irish Poetry in the English Tongue. Edited 
by Stopford A. Brooke and T. W. Rolleston. 12mo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 578. Macmillan Co. $1.75. 

The Writings of James Monroe, including a Collection of 
his Public and Private Papers and Correspondence now 
for the First Time Printed. By Stanislaus Murray Ham- 
ilton. Vol. IV., 1803-1806. Large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 509. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 85. (Sold only in sets.) 

The Likeness of the Night: A Modern Play in Four Acts. 
By Mrs. W. K. Clifford. 12mo, uncut, pp. 146. Macmillan 
Co. 81.25. 


La Divina Commedia di Dante Alighieri. Nuovamente 
riveduta nel testo dal Dr. E. Moore ; con indice dei nomi 
propri compilato da Paget Toynbee, M.A. 12mo. gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 557. . Oxford University Press. 81.50 net. 

The Prairie: A Tale. By FenimoreCooper ; illus by C. E. 
Brock. 12mo, gilt edges, pp. 437. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 

The Pathfinder ; or. The Inland Sea. By Fenimore Cooper ; 
. illus. by C. E. Brock. 12mo, gilt edges, pp. 463. Mac- 
millan Co. $1.25. 

The Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and Architects. 
By Giorgio Vasari ; trans, by A. B. Hinds. Vols. VI., 
VII., and VIII., completing the edition ; each illus., 24mo, 
gilt top, uncut. " Temple Classics." Macmillan Co. Per 
vol., 50 cts. 

The Inferno of Dante Alighieri: The Italian Text, and 
the Translation of John Aitken Carlyle. Edited by H. 
Oelsner, M.A. With photogravure frontispiece, 24mo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 400. "Temple Classics." Macmillan 
Co. 50 cts. 

The Romance of the Rose. By W. Lorris and J. Clopinel ; 
Englished by F. S. Ellis. Vol. III., completing the edition ; 
with photogravure frontispiece, 24mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp.260. " Temple Classics." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

Critical and Historical Essays. By Thomas Babington 
Macaulay ; edited by A. J. Grieve, B.A. Vols. IV. and 
V., completing the edition ; each with photogravure 
frontispiece, 24mo, gilt top, uncut. "Temple Classics." 
Macmillan Co. Per vol., 50 cts. 

Our Village : Sketches of Rural Character and Scenery. By 
Mary Russell Mitford ; edited by Emma Gollancz. With 
photogravure portrait, 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 360. 
"Temple Classics." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 

Sintram and his Companions, and Aslauga's Knight. By 
La Motte Fouque* ; illus. in colors, etc., by Charles Rob- 
inson. 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 218. " Temple Classics 
for Young People." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 


Ad Astra. By Charles Whitworth Wynne. Square 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 125. John Lane. $1.25 net. 

Poems. By Alexander Blair Thaw. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 115. John Lane. $1.50. 

In Scipio's Gardens, and Other Poems. By Samuel Valen- 
tine Cole. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 174. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 81.25. 


Gwynett of Thornhaugh: A Romance. By Frederick W. 
Hayes, A.R.A. 12mo, pp. 442. F. M. Lupton Pub'g Co. 


The Philippines, the War and the People: A Record of 
Personal Observations and Experiences. By Albert G. 
Robinson. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 407. McClure, Phil- 
lips & Co. $2. 

Sands of Sahara. By Maxwell Spmmerville. Illus., 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 162. J. B. Lippincott Co. 82. 

The City of Chartres: Its Cathedral and Churches. By 
H. J. L. J. Masse", M.A. Illus., 12mo, pp. 120. "Bell's 
Handbooks to Continental Churches." Macmillan Co. 

The Churches of Rouen. By Rev. Thomas Perkins, M.A. 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 125. " Bell's Handbooks to Continental 
Churches." Macmillan Co. $1. 





Reflections on the Origins and Destiny of Imperial 
Britain. By J. A. Cramb, M.A. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 315. Macmillan Co. $2.50. 


The North- Americans of Yesterday: A Comparative 
Study of North-American Indian Life. Customs, and Pro- 
ducts, on the Theory of the Ethnic Unity of the Race. 
By Frederick S. Dellenbaugh. Illus., large 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 487. Q. P. Putnam's Sons. $4. net. 

Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, 1895-96. By J. W. Powell. Part II., illns. 
in colors, etc., 4 to, pp. 300. Government Printing Office. 


Knowledge, Belief, and Certitude : An Inquiry with Con- 
clusions. By Frederick Storrs Turner, B.A. Large 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 484. Macmillan Co. $2.25 net. 

Four Great Venetians: An Account of the Lives and 

Works of Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, and // Veronese. 

By Frank Preston Stearns. Illus. in photogravure, 12mo, 

gilt top, pp. 376. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. 
Giorgrione. By Herbert Cook. M.A. Jllns. in photogravure, 

etc., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 145. " Great Masters in Painting 

and Sculpture." Macmillan Co. $1.75. 
Considerations on Painting: Lectures Given in the Year 

1893 at the Metropolitan Museum of New York. By John 

La Farge. New edition ; 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 270. 

Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 
Murillo. By Estelle M. Hnrll. Illns, 12mo, eilt top, 

pp. 96. " Riverside Art Series." Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 



Who's Who, 19O1 : An Annual Biographical Dictionary. 
12mo, pp. 1234. Macmillan Co. $1.75. 

Graded and Annotated Catalogue of Books in the Car- 
negie Library of Pittsburgh for the Use of the City 
Schools. Large 8vo, pp. 317. Published by the Library. 
Paper, 50 cts. net. 


Foundations of Botany. By Joseph Y. Bergen, A.M. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 257. Ginn & Co. $1.70 net. 
La Sainte-Catherine. Par Andre* Theuriet. 18mo, pp. 65. 

Wm. R. Jenkins. Paper, 25 cts. net. 
Longfellow's Giles Corey of the Salem Farms. With 

Introductory Notes and Stage Directions. 12mo, pp. 76. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Paper, 15 cts. net. 
Balzac's Cinq Scenes de la Comgdie Humaine. Selected 

and edited by Benjamin W. Wells, Ph.D. With portrait, 

16mo, pp. 208. D. C. Heath & Co. 40 cts. net. 


The Laws of Scientific Hand Reading: A Practical 
Treatise on the Art Commonly Called Palmistry. By 
William G. Benham. Illns., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 635. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $5. net. 

Cabin and Plantation Songs, as Sung by the Hampton 
Students. Arranged by Thomas P. Fenner, Frederic Q. 
Rathbnn, and Miss Cleaveland. Third edition, with addi- 
tions ; large 8vo, pp. 166. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.25. 


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MYSELF UNO GOTT. By A. McGregor Rose (A. M. R. 

Gordon). This remarkable poem, which made a sensation in two 
hemispheres, and the recital of which by an American naval officer 
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appropriate and striking original illustrations by Miss Jessie A. 
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THE ABBEY PRESS, 114 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

O L P OCEAN'S FERRY. A Collection of Odd and Useful Informa- 
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BONNELL, SILVER & CO., 24 West 22d Street, NEW YORK Crrr. 


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P. 0. BOX 178 : : : : PHILADELPHIA, PA. 


Added to the Old South Series, Numbers 104 to 111, 
inclusive. Among them are Jefferson's Inaugurals; 
The Government of the United States, by John C. 
Calhoun; Lincoln's Cooper Institute Address; The 
Romance of New England History, by Rufus Choate, 
and Kossuth's First Speech in Faneuil Hall. 
Price, Five Cents Each. 





HERE LIES: Being a Collection of Ancient and Modern 
Humorous and Queer Inscriptions from Tombstones. 
Compiled and edited by W. H. HOWB. Cloth, 75 cts. 

The Truth about Prince Charlie 
THE RISING OF 1745. With a Bibliography of 
Jacobite History, 1689-1788. Edited from contempo- 
rary writers by CHARLES S. TERRY, M.A., of Aber- 
deen University. Illustrations and maps. $1.25. 

Grant Allen's Last Complete Novel 
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EDITED BT | Volume xxx. nuir'Ar'n T^TTTJ -ic -IOAI w e<*. a copy. ( Fnre ABTS BUILDINQ 

CIS F. BROWNE, i No. 352. l^llL/AljU, Jb Ji.rS. it), lyUl. S2.ayear. \ Rooma 610-630-631. 



Being a Narrative of Adventure and Observation during Imprisonment on the 

Island of Luzon. 

By ALBERT SONNICHSEN. With Portrait. 8vo, $2.00. 

A PECULIARLY interesting account of an extraordinary experience. The story of the author's 
** imprisonment in the insurgent capital, his captivity during the retreat northward, his trials in a native 
hospital, and his final escape is told with remarkably genuine and convincing effect. Incidentally, there 
is a flood of fresh and novel light on the Filipino character. 

With Portraits. 8vo, $2.00. 

A WORK of the deepest interest, in which the famous Oxford scholar describes his career from his 
* earliest youth. He dwells with especial particularity upon the effect of environment upon his life, 
including in that phrase friends and circumstances. The intimate personal charm of the book is great. 


By BRANDER MATTHEWS. 12mo, $1.50. 

DROFESSOR MATTHEWS'S keen and illuminative insight into the personality of writers and into 
questions of literature appears at its best in this series of essays on literary subjects, both general and 
personal in character. His discussion of " The Historical Novel," of " Romance against Romanticism," 
and of " The Study of Fiction," will be found of the first interest and value to the student of fiction. 


By GEORGE M. HARPER, Professor in Princeton University. 12mo, $1.50. 
DROFESSOR HARPER has furnished in these careful and penetrating studies of the great French 
writers a survey of French literature as a whole, the place of which among the literatures of the 
world he also discriminatingly determines in an essay devoted to that special subject. The book is the 
manifest result of profound study and prolonged reading, and its views of the giants of French prose and 
poetry are marked by candor and intelligent sympathy altogether unusual in the criticism of the foreigner. 


(Music Lover's Library.) With Portraits. 12mo, $1.25 net. 

A CLEAR and connected account of the establishment and gradual evolution of the Opera as an art, 
especially as regards the inter-relation and effect upon each other of the different schools, composers, 
and epoch-making works. The book has the distinction and the authoritative quality attaching to every- 
thing Mr. Apthorp writes. 



90 THE DIAL. [Feb. 16, 

Two Notable Victorian Volumes 


Including Tennyson, Landor, the Brownings, Arnold, Buchanan, Morris, Swinburne, 
Eossetti, and others. With topical Analysis in the margin and full Analytical Index. 
Thirtieth Impression. Revised and extended, by Supplementary Chapter, to the 
Fiftieth Year of the Period under Review. Crown 8vo, $2.25 ; half calf, $3.50. 


Selected and edited by EDMUND CLARENCE STEDMAN. With brief biographies of the 
authors quoted, a fine frontispiece portrait of Queen Victoria, and a vignette of the 
Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. Large crown 8vo, $2.50 ; full gilt, $3.00 ; 
half calf, gilt top, $4.50 ; full levant or tree calf, $6.00. 


This edition comprised 250 numbered copies. A few of these can still be had, in two 
octavo volumes, printed upon high-grade paper, with two etched photogravures of 
Queen Victoria. The vignette on the engraved title represents the Poets' Corner in 
Westminster Abbey. Price, $10.00 net. 



By LYMAN ABBOTT, D.D., author of " The Life and Letters of Paul the Apostle," 
" The Evolution of Christianity," etc. Crown 8vo, gilt top, $2.00. 

Doctor Abbott's object in this book is to trace in the Bible the origin and development of the religious, 
political, and literary life of the ancient Hebrews, on the theory that this life was a gradual development 
like that of other nations. His treatment of the Bible is free yet wholly reverent, and his book is of un- 
common interest and value. 


By GEORGE A. GORDON, D.D., author of " The Christ of To-Day," " The Witness to 

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NOTES 115 



For some unaccountable reason, the American 
press has ignored the death of Frederic Myers, 
which occurred as long ago as the seventeenth 
of last month. We saw no reference to it at 
the time, and it was not until the arrival of 
the English journals dated January 26 that 
we were made aware of the grievous loss sus- 
tained by English literature in this death. 
While in no sense a popular writer, Mr. Myers 
had a considerable following among readers of 

choice intelligence, and these, at least, will feel 
that a score of notorieties might have been 
better spared than this graceful poet and ac- 
complished essayist. The loss to our letters 
of the living personality of Mr. Myers is of 
much the same weight as was the loss of Walter 
Pater, and will be felt by much the same class 
of readers. He was one of the few men of our 
time who had mastered the literary species 
which we call the essay, and had vindicated its 
right to be considered one of the forms of 
creative literature. His " Virgil," his " Greek 
Oracles," his " Mazzini," and his " Tennyson 
as Prophet," are hardly surpassed in all the 
range of our modern essay-writing ; they be- 
long in the same category with the best essays 
of Arnold and Newman and Pater ; they are 
productions to be read and reread in the spirit 
with which we read the great masterpieces of 
verse, and they provide for us a similar quality 
of delight. A few of these essays constitute 
the chief claim of Mr. Myers upon our affec- 
tions ; but it must not be forgotten that he has 
also given us, in his life of Wordsworth, one 
of the best of critical biographies, and in his 
" St. Paul," one of the most spiritual of our 
extended poems. 

Frederic William Henry Myers was born in 
the Wordsworth country, at Keswick, Febru- 
ary 6, 1843. His College was Trinity of Cam- 
bridge, where he remained for some years after 
taking his degree, both as fellow and as exam- 
iner for the Moral Science Tripos. Like Ar- 
nold, he was for many years an Inspector of 
Schools, but Cambridge continued to be his 
home for the rest of his life. It was here that 
his literary work was done, and that he gath- 
ered about his home many of the choicest 
spirits of his time, attracted, in the words of 
the " Athenaeum " memorial, by " one whose 
width of scientific interest and intensity of 
temperament were completed by a memory and 
a gift of exposition which was Platonic in its 
wealth of illustration and subtlety of humor, 
its magnificence and its mysticism." Leaving 
England, under doctor's orders, last December, 
he went with his family to the Riviera, and 
then proceeded to Rome to join his friend 
Professor William James. It was in Rome 
that he died, in the " city of the soul " that he 
had known so well in his earlier years, and 



[Feb. 16, 

which had furnished inspiration for some of 
his finest verses. 

The books of Frederic Myers are few in 
number ; half a dozen titles practically make 
out the list. There are the two volumes of 
poems, "St. Paul" and "The Kenewal of 
Youth," there is the study of Wordsworth in 
the " English Men of Letters " series, and 
there are the three miscellaneous volumes called 
" Essays Classical," " Essays Modern," and 
" Science and a Future Life." But these six 
volumes belong to English literature, for they 
are among the sources of spiritual refreshment 
that the future will not quickly neglect. Per- 
haps mention should also be made of the share 
taken by Mr. Myers in the work called 
" Phantasms of the Living " but it is not for 
such work that he will be remembered, and, 
however imperative seemed to him the personal 
call to enlist in this will o' the wisp pursuit, it 
must be admitted by candid observers that the 
psychical research activities of his later years 
resulted in a loss to literature with no corres- 
ponding gain to science. Few men of our time 
have seen with such clearness the eternal veri- 
ties of beauty and conduct ; few have expressed 
them with such eloquence or with so convincing 
an appeal to the highest idealism of which human 
nature is capable. That his superb powers 
should have been diverted into the field of un- 
profitable speculation, and have undertaken a 
task which was manifestly unworthy of them, is 
a circumstance that must always be regrettable. 

The best of the essays of this writer are 
almost matchless in their effectiveness of con- 
struction and their beauty of expression. 
When in full sympathy with his theme, he has 
the power to impart both his thought and his 
emotion to the reader so fully that they become 
a permanent possession. The elements of this 
power almost elude analysis, yet we may easily 
distinguish such features as the charm of the 
writer's cadence, his felicitous use of quotation, 
and the cumulative effect produced by his 
skilful marshalling of illustrative material. 
An extract from the "Virgil" will help to 
make clear our meaning. After making a series 
of references to parti cularVirgilian verses preg- 
nant with emotional associations, he goes on : 

" But there is not at any rate need to prove the es- 
timation in which Virgil has been held in the past. 
The force of that tradition would only be weakened by 
specification. The chastest poet,' in Bacon's words, 
and royalest, Virgilius Maro, that to the memory of 
man is known,' has lacked in no age until our own the 
concordant testimony of the civilized world. No poet 
has lain so close to so many hearts; no words so often 

as his have sprung to men's lips in moments of excite- 
ment and self- revelation, from the one fierce line re- 
tained and chanted by the untameable boy who was to 
be Emperor of Rome, to the impassioned prophecy of 
the great English statesman as he pleaded till morning's 
light for the freedom of a continent of slaves. And 
those who have followed by more secret ways the in- 
fluence which these utterances have exercised on man- 
kind know well, perhaps themselves have shared, the 
mass of emotion which has slowly gathered round certain 
lines of Virgil's as it has round certain texts of the Bible, 
till they come to us charged with more than an individual 
passion and with a meaning wider than their own 
with the cry of the despair of all generations, with the 
yearning of all loves uuappeased, with the anguish of all 
partings, ' beneath the pressure of separate eternities.' " 

Such prose as this is an achievement no less 
remarkable than is poetry of a very high order, 
and patches of this royal purple are not infre- 
quent in the text of the three volumes of essays. 
The wanderings of Mr. Myers in the morass 
of psychical research resulted from a passionate 
desire to secure to other men rational grounds 
for the resting of their fundamental religious 
beliefs. His own faith, of the transcendental 
sort that feels no need of corroborative evidence, 
was voiced in these stanzas from " St. Paul ": 

" Whoso has felt the Spirit of the Highest 

Cannot confound nor doubt Him nor deny ; 
Yea, with one voice, world, though thou denieat, 

Stand thou on that side, for on this am I. 
"Rather the earth shall doubt when her retrieving 

Pours in the rain and rushes from the sod, 
Rather than he for whom the great conceiving 
Stirs in his soul to quicken into God." 

But this inward illumination does not come to 
the many, who stand sadly in need of a more 
material justification for their faith. This was 
the thought that impelled Mr. Myers to sift the 
accumulations of popular superstition, thinking 
perchance to find therein the grain of truth 
so deeply longed for by mankind. This it was 
that made him find, as in the Messianic Eclogue 
of Virgil, a truly prophetic utterance in these 
Tennysonian lines : 

" And we, the poor earth's dying race, and yet 
No phantoms, watching from a phantom shore 
Await the last and largest sense to make 
The phantom walls of this illusion fade 
And show us that the world is wholly fair." 

This it was that made him end his essay on 
" Tennyson as Prophet " in the following un- 
forgettable strain : 

" If indeed the Cosmos make for good, and evolution 
be a moral as well as a material law, will men in time 
avail to prove it ? For then they will look back on 
Tennyson as no belated dreamer, but as a leader who 
in the darkest hour of the world's thought would not 
despair of the destiny of man. They will look back 
on him as Romans looked back on that unshakable 
Roman who purchased at its full price the field of 
Cannae, on which at that hour victorious Hannibal lay 
encamped with his Carthaginian host." 





Perspective is a prime essential of true vision. 
One merely conjures with the future when, at the 
completion of the nineteenth century, he essays 
definite prediction regarding the ultimate place of 
its authors, either in specific rank or in comparative 
services to the world's literature. Moreover, such 
valuations often change with the needs and moods 
of successive generations. One age gives exclusive 
laurels to Socrates, Dante, Shakespeare, and Addi- 
son. The next, with equal fervor, urges the rival 
claims of Plato, Petrarch, Bacon, and Samuel John- 
son. Poetry, no less than other forms of literature 
during the last hundred years, has had an unpre- 
cedented list of aspirants for the Hall of Fame. 
Possibly a later generation of readers, in the reac- 
tion from the hurtling haste of present life, may find 
some true " life of the spirit " among the submerged, 
as well as the popular, poets of the past cycle. 

In every century and nation, there have been 
poets of evanescent charm versus poets with per- 
manent message. The former may excel in beauties 
of form, but they fail to win that lasting, reverential 
memory which signalizes the " vates," or prophet- 
poet. Dante, Shakespeare, Milton, Burns, Goethe, 
each had a mission and a message not alone to 
the ear but also to the soul of his century. Elimi- 
nating all question of rank, we recognize certain 
prophecies, fulfilled or potential, spoken by the rep- 
resentative poets in England and America during 
the last century. 

Critics have noted that the period at the meeting 
of centuries, arbitrary rather than logical in divi- 
sion of time, is often marked by unrest, contradic- 
tion, and transition. Whether such symptoms are 
psychologic or pathologic, it is not our part to dis- 
cuss. The Revolutionary movement, the last in the 
great triad of progressive world-forces, germinated 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and cul- 
minated in the eighteenth. Its frenzied aftermath 
in France, seeming to presage the overthrow of all 
new-established ideals of liberty and faith, produced 
the gloom and vacillation which ushered in the 
nineteenth century. Senancour, Lamartine, and 
Chateaubriand in France, Byron, Wordsworth, and 
Coleridge in England, mirrored the hope, quenched 
by despair, on this final battle-ground of the old 
and new political principles. The constitutional 
reforms in England, which for more than a century 
had doomed absolutism, had found recognition and 
prophecy of yet greater advance in the earlier 
prophet-poets, Cowper, Blake, and Burns, who was 
emboldened to proclaim, 

'' But while we sing ' God save the King,' 
We '11 ne'er forget the People." 

As the decades passed, with the surety that, despite 
the transitory horrors of its progress, political lib- 
erty had become a fixed world-principle, the English 
poets uttered their triumphant message of democ- 

racy. The earlier group found it almost impossible 
to reconcile the lofty concepts of freedom and pro- 
gress with the social and religious anarchism rife 
during the final contention, yet they never relin- 
quished their ideals. Amid the desperate scepticism 
of " Childe Harold " and " Giaour," one clear note 

sounded : 

'* Freedom's battle, once began, 
Beqaeath'd by bleeding sire to son, 
Though battled oft, is ever won." 

The boyish unrestraint of Shelley's " Ode to Lib- 
erty " became softened into the calmer though vague 
hope of " Prometheus Unbound " and ' The Cenci." 
Readers are familiar with the successive stages of 
Wordsworth's poetic self-revelations, from the early 
hey-day of enthusiasm, followed by havoc of hopes 
and beliefs, to the gradual attainment of a sane, 
steadfast faith in ultimate freedom from all material 
and spiritual shackles. The life-story repeats itself 
from " The Prelude " and early sonnets to " Tintern 
Abbey " and " The Excursion." 

Democracy has not been a stable institution bat 
a progressive movement. Overthrow of political 
despotism was only an advance stage in its incep- 
tion. Tennyson, the true exponent of the pulse of 
the last half-century, embodied this thought in the 
dedicatory stanzas '" To the Queen ": 

" And statesmen at her councils met 
Who knew the seasons when to take 
Occasion by the hand and make 
The bounds of freedom wider yet 

" By shaping some august decree 

Which kept her throne unshaken still, 
Broad-based upon her people's will, 
And compassed by the inviolate sea." 

The democracy of these later decades, ever tending 
toward socialism and suggesting the abolition of 
constitutional monarchy and republic alike, is re- 
flected in the songs and visions by Swinburne, 
William Morris, and their disciples, but their true 
services to the poetry of the age will be noted later 
in a different message. 

Democracy was the fontal principle of the life of 
America, and her poetry could not fail to portray 
its emanation. The noble hymns of Emerson, the 
virile war-songs of Whittier, Lowell's famous satire 
and his later Commemoration odes, can never be 
overlooked in a review of the poetry which inter- 
prets the vital issues of the century. The term, 
" Poet of Democracy," has been accepted as the 
especial cognomen of that American author whose 
poetry is open to constant challenge, but his democ- 
racy, never. Whitman's message is bold, some- 
times blatant, yet vibrant with courage and elemental 
worship. Delighting in the repetitive utterance of 
"the word, Democratic, the word, En-Masse," he 
was also a loud herald of the second great principle 
of the century, closely linked with democracy, 
fraternity : 
" I will make the most splendid race the snn ever shone upon, 

I will make divine, magnetic lands, 

With the love of comrades. 

With the life-long love of comrades." 


[Feb. 16, 

In spite of the later revolutions on the Continent, 
when human life seemed of less value than chaff, 
the germinal movement toward democracy ever 
commingled brotherhood with political rights for 
the individual and the nation. This altruistic ideal 
has expanded as the political principle has pro- 
gressed, until it has permeated the spirit of nearly 
all great poetry of the age. Victor Hugo, Heine, 
Coppe"e, Tolstoi, have joined with English and 
American authors in iteration of the gospel of 
mutual, uplifting service. In his briefer lyrics, 
and in the tender narratives of " Margaret " and 
u Michael," Wordsworth testified to his close sym- 
pathy with the heart of the common people, to his 
advocacy of social as well as political unity. " The 
Bridge of Sighs," " Apparent Failure," " The Cry 
of the Human," " The Vision of Sir Launf al," 
such poems bear stamp of a century awakened, as 
never before, to fraternal and social service. Lanier, 
in " The Symphony," and Kipling, in his staccato 
pleas for oppressed and submerged humanity, have 
given timely rebuke to that commercialism and 
competition which threaten death to the spirit of 

One of the anterior influences which gave impetus 
to democracy was the increase, during the eighteenth 
century, of scientific knowledge among all classes. 
This propagation, through English and French en- 
cyclopaedic and philosophic channels, reached its 
natural culmination in the famous expositions dur- 
ing the middle decades of the century. Dangers 
of materialism and spiritual chaos lurked about the 
tenets of Darwin and Huxley, Spencer and Mill, 
until the years could fuse and interpret, could re- 
place the shattered illusions with new joy and sat- 
isfaction in fixed laws controlling Nature and life. 
To wisely apply such scientific knowledge and 
method to all phases of the century's life, poli- 
tics, economics, religion, became the mission of 
the poets no less than the philosophers and reform- 
ers. In place of the social anarchism of Godwin, 
the political and religious despair of Byron, and 
the embryonic yet unfulfilled philosophy of Cole- 
ridge, came into life and poetry the surety of a 
scientific law which could satisfy both the reason 
and soul. With a mind plastic to the premonitions 
of the future as well as the influences of the past, 
Shelley had yearned to the last for that " Spirit of 
the Universe," that vast " Force-Idea," so soon to 
be vested with new scientific insight and reverence. 

A sincere, persistent zeal for the deep facts and 
laws pervaded poetry and produced the so-called 
realism of Wordsworth, Arnold, Clough, and their 
followers. A new poetic imagination, combining 
the real and the ideal, was symbolized in Words- 
worth's " Skylark," 

" Type of the wise who soar but never roam, 

True to the kindred points of Heaven and Home." 
In " The Spanish Gypsy," as in her later novels, 
George Eliot applied this spirit of science in the 
analysis of character and in ethical teaching. 
Matthew Arnold proclaimed the ultimate blending 

of science and poetry, of Nature's law and man's 
work. Emerson and Whitman, in most distinctive 
forms, announced the poetic harmony of all physical 
and psychic forces, 

" For Nature beats in perfect tune, 
And rounds with rhyme her every rune." 

The two great English poets of the latter half of 
the century were marked adherents of evolutionary 
method. Browning turned the lens of a scientist, 
with the intense sympathy of a poet, upon the 
hidden motor struggles of passion and soul. Tenny- 
son studied the scientific laws no less than the pic- 
torial beauties of the ''Flower in the Crannied 
Wall," while he also explored the manifestations 
of mind and heart. " Sordello " and " Rabbi Ben 
Ezra," " In Memoriam," and " The Higher Pan- 
theism," all witness " One God, one Law, one 

Coexistent with the political and scientific ad- 
vance which had awakenfd the world from the 
atrophy of the previous century, had come religious 
revolutions, extending with diverse radiations 
through the entire nineteenth century. In the 
main, the progress of theological thought has been 
in accord with the affiliated principles of freedom 
and scientific law. Mr. Allen's story in poetic 
prose is a fitting climatic expression of the evolu- 
tionary, religious leaven of the century. There have 
been, however, occasional reactionary symptoms, 
like the Tractarian and other ecclesiastic move- 
ments, which have caused doubts and recessions, 
often reflected in the poetry of the last half-century. 
Perhaps no poet sought more earnestly than Clough 
to find and transmit a religious message to his age. 
Lacking the emotional equipoise of Arnold, with 
whom he shared the disturbing influences of Ox- 
ford, he made a valiant fight against the refuge of 
agnosticism, and spent himself in a struggle to rec- 
oncile religious uncertainties with spiritual vision 
and aspiring life. Over the doubt shines a rare 
spiritual fervor, rapturous in " Easter. Day " and 
'Through a Glass Darkly." Clough found the 
panacea for religious gropings in the message of 
" Qui Laborat, Orat," a strong poetic rendering of 
Carlyle's Gospel of Work. 

Tennyson, prone by nature to speculation, influ- 
enced yet more by the religious atmosphere of 
unrest and by personal grief, traversed successive 
mental stages, from the vacillation of " The Two 


Voices" to the acceptance with 

" Faith that comes of self-control 
The truths that never can be proved," 

which forms the message of " In Memoriam " and 
of his later poems. With Clougb, Tennyson em- 
phasized the religion of effort, first, to surpass our 
" dead selves," second, to perform some service for 
the world. The pivotal note in his great elegy 
rests upon this gospel ; then bursts forth the New 
Year's carol, merging individual loss and doubt 
beneath hopes for a nobler world-religion. 

Browning, with a child-like, unquestioning trust, 




akin to that of Whittier. expends none of his 
matchless analysis upon religions dogmas, but pro- 
claims, as basis of his creed, a militant knowledge 
born of dauntless faith. In Tennyson's strongest 
assurances, his chosen words are " hope " or " be- 
lieve "; Browning and Whittier fearlessly exclaim, 
" I know." It were difficult to long cherish doubt 
when under the spell of " Abt Vogler " or "Para- 
celsus ": 

" I know, I felt, (perception unexpressed, 
Uncomprehended by our narrow thought, 
But somehow felt and known in every shift 
And change in the spirit, nay, in every pore 
Of the body, even, ) what God is, what we are, 
What life is how God tastes an infinite joy 
In infinite ways one everlasting bliss 
From whom all being emanates, all power 
Proceeds ; in whom is life forevermore, 
Yet whom existence in its lowest form 
Includes ; where dwells enjoyment there is he." 

Browning's religion, however, is not confined to 
faith ; it has a major passionate strain. All life is 
a conflict, a battle between " the spirit's true en- 
dowments " and the forces of evil within and about 
man. It is this quality of unceasing, strenuous 
struggle, always with a guarantee of victory for 
the good soldier, that gives to his poems a dramatic 
energy capable of triumph over obscurities and 
wilful laxities which would be unpardonable in any 
lesser poet. The same " drum-taps " of robust, 
zealous life, immense in passion, pulse, and 
power," give vitality and far-reaching force to the 
stanzaic messages of Whitman and Kipling. 

While modern life, with its strenuonsness. its 
zeal for newness and thrill in thought and emotions, 
its pride in political, scientific, and religious advance 
unequalled in any previous century, has had full 
reflection in the poetry of the age, there has been 
a revival, no less unprecedented, of the ideals and 
forms of earlier art and thought. The universal 
message of poetry as an art has been as distinctly 
uttered as the problems and aspirations of present- 
day activity. Browning, Tennyson, and Morris 
have chosen the symbolism and atmosphere of 
medisevalism, the ideals and traditions of chivalry 
and the Renaissance, as media for strong social 
warnings and prophecies. To re-study and re-picture 
the beauties of fancy and noble life among the 
Greeks, the Norsemen, and the disciples of chivalry 
and monasticism, with the masterly skill of Landor, 
Keats, Rossetti, and Swinburne, is to perform no 
small service for the literature of an age too prone 
to forget the past in pressure of current interests. 

Prince of the poets who sought relief from the 
confusions of his own age in the reposeful glories 
of past art, is Keats. Amid the social and religious 
ferment about him he spoke the reactionary mes- 
sage of art as the true guide toward a life where 
truth and beauty could be identical. His place 
and mission in the century's literature closely re- 
sembles Ruskin's. The new century may well heed 
their warnings against such absorption in commer- 
cialism and science as will shrivel the artistic faculty 

and dwarf the soul. In workmanship, whether as 
rejuvenators of some forgotten fancy and metre, 
or as creators of some new beauty under familiar 
form, the century's poets of pure art have merited 
high praise. A generation which could produce 
" The Blessed Damozel," " The Earthly Paradise," 
and " Atlanta in Calydon," to mention no further, 
has already attained rank among the great master- 
artists in verse. 

One could easily enumerate a long list of themes, 
touching the minds, morals, emotions, and tastes 
of this age, upon which the poets of the century 
have spoken with oracular force. There remains, 
however, one characteristic, perchance the most 
comprehensive and important, surely the most uni- 
versal, trait of the poets. A keen observation, 
mingled with an intimate sympathy for Nature, is 
noted alike among realists and romanticists, among 
the earlier and later poets with cumulative fervor. 
The eighteenth century initiated this relationship 
between humanity and the sanative lessons of wave 
and wind, bird and flower. The spread of science 
merely gave new and definite impetus to the ideals 
already bespoken by Rousseau and the Sentimen- 
talists, by Cowper and Crabbe, by Thomson and 
Young. Logical observation and health-inspiring 
comradeship, with ever increasing unity, have per- 
meated the poetry of the century from Wordsworth 
to Watson. American poets must rest their claim 
to recognition largely upon their intuitive, delicate 
Nature-lyrics. The poet has served a special mission 
in an age of science. He has combined the quali- 
ties of analyst and artist ; he has urged communion 
as well as study. Viewed thus, not alone as an 
element but also as a presence. Nature offers, 
through the poets, the only possible expansion of 
life in its entirety, the only unassailable fount of 
religious teaching. "Saul," one of the master- 
poems of the century, is a noble embodiment of this 
truth. Through the sensuous, life-bestowing media 
of Nature's images, the king's shattered mind re- 
gained its poise and God-recognizing power. 

Glancing over the poetry of the cycle, we recog- 
nize that much has been crude and ephemeral, much 
has been potent and energizing. There have been 
produced no great dramas, no great epics, but the 
record contains a few noble elegies, some matchless 
sonnets, character-portrayals unsurpassed in real 
vitality, and a vast number of lyrics whose fancy 
and melody admit of no competition in previous 
centuries. Five great names, at least, deserve 
rank beside the prophet-poets of the past, Words- 
worth, Shelley, Keats, Tennyson, and Browning. 
There have been poems of doubt and despair, mes- 
sages of agnosticism and futility of effort, but the 
passing decades have proclaimed less unrest, more 
faith, less heart-eating apathy, more soul-stimulating 
conflict for the individual and the race, 

"By the pain-throb, triumphantly winning intensified bliss, 
And the next world's reward and repose, by the struggles 
in this." 



[Feb. 16, 




(To the Editor of THE DIAI,.) 

On the strength of the editorial in THE DIAL of 
Dec. 16, I have beten reading Professor Wendell's 
" Literary History of America," and I quite agree with 
you that Professor Wendell in this book " has produced 
incomparably the best history of American Literature 
thus far written by anybody." It is, in many respects, 
a profound book. It is at all times a readable book. 
Its characterization of movements and authors is well- 
nigh absolute with the exception perhaps of its treat- 
ment of Poe and Whitman, the two doubtful members 
of the American school, who ought to be given at this 
time, one would think, the benefit of the doubt. But 
with all its merits it is still a debatable book, and I 
have set down, without elaboration, some of the points 
about which there might be dispute. 

In the first place the series of literary histories, of 
which this volume is one, was conceived by a European 
from a European point of view. In the foreword of 
the series one reads of " the conflict of dynasties," " the 
popular panorama of kings and queens," " the quarrels 
of rival parliaments," which, it is said, have hitherto 
engrossed the attention of historians. On this ground 
there is surely no reason for a literary history of 
America. Not having been dazzled by kings and queens, 
our historians notably Parkman, Eggleston, Roose- 
velt, and Fiske have done full justice to every phase 
of our national development, including the intellectual 
and artistic. In the same preface it is written that 
" in spite of history, the poets are the true masters of 
the earth," and that " if all record of a nation's progress 
were blotted out, and its literature were yet left us, 
might we not recover the outlines of its lost history? " 
In view of the fact that no American poet, with possibly 
one or two exceptions, has ever mastered any portion 
of this earth our expansion being frankly materialistic, 
even imperialistic," if you please, and not transcen- 
dental the first claim seems preposterous, and the 
other suggestion is denied by the very evidence of this 
present literary history. Two centuries of American 
history, a period big with events, are almost without 
literary record, and of the 518 pages of this volume, 
479 deal with Boston and New England and what is 
called here the "Middle States" (with the western 
boundary at Philadelphia ! ). A poor hurried section 
of thirty- nine pages is devoted to the South and the 
rest of the United States ! This denotes either that 
Professor Wendell happens to know more about Boston 
than about the rest of the Republic, or that the propo- 
sition that our literature is equivalent to our history is 
false. The fact is that the intellectual life of Ameri- 
cans is not confined by the walls of colleges or by the 
pages of books. The Men who Do are with us far 
more intellectual, energetic, and creative, than the Men 
who Write. Boston Unitarianism and Transcendental- 
ism are not of much moment compared with the Win- 
ning of the West. 

There are other points of Professor Wendell's own 
statement that are also debatable. I have jotted down 
a few to present to a class which has the volume under 

(1) Is it true that the ideals of a nation are shaped 
by the language it adopts for a common medium? 

Trace the influence of " the tongue that Shakespeare 
spake and the faith and morals which Milton held " 
upon the German settlers in Chicago or upon the Ne- 
groes of the South. How much do race and environ- 
ment modify the primary effects of language? 

(2) Do you accept the substitution of the phrase, 
" English Literature in America," for the common des- 
ignation, " American Literature "? Would you speak 
likewise of French Art in America or German Music 
in America? 

(3) Is it more profitable as more rational to 
study American Literature as an independent develop- 
ment, correlating our own literature and history, or as 
a dependent literature, with emphasis upon the tradi- 
tional and imitative features and its correspondence to 
English literature? (I shall here point to the ease of 
making comparison by the use of Ryland's and Whit- 
comb's " Outlines," and also to Professor Wendell's 
satirical remark concerning Prince's History of New 
England, which began its account with " an epitome of 
the most remarkable transactions and events abroad, 
from the creation.") 

(4) Do you prefer to say the United States are or 
the United States isf Is this merely a question of 
grammar? Would the study of English Literature in 
America affect the idealism of one who persists in 
speaking of the United States as plural? 

(5) In discussing the literary history of America is it 
sufficient to consider only what is written in the English 
language? Is it fair to ignore the French literature of 
Louisiana? Would Rosenfeld's sweat-shop poems, writ- 
ten in Yiddish, have any bearing upon American history? 

(6) Does the actual history of America, as recorded 
by John Fiske, betoken " national inexperience "? Does 
England exhibit any less " inexperience " than America 
in respect to those forces which are shaping the modern 
world in both hemispheres? How much of England's 
substantial experience is due to the survival of the 
feudal traditions down to and including Tennyson? 
Was not the revolutionary literature of England due to 
England's inability to have a genuine revolutionary ex- 
perience? Would the meagre revolutionary literature 
of France indicate " national inexperience " also? 

(7) In a literary history of America how much atten- 
tion should be given to local phases of thought, such as 
Boston Unitarianism and Transcendentalism? 

(8) Do you agree with Professor Wendell in his ex- 
planation of the growth of " imperialism " in England 
and America? 

I consider it the function of a pedagogue to put 
questions as it is perhaps the function of a historian 
of literature to arouse them. 


University of Chicago, February 5, 1901. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Mr. Jackson Boyd's communication in the Jan. 16 
number of THE DIAL on " Ten Great Authors of the 
Century " might perhaps better have been deferred 
to a later issue, so that he could have had time and 
opportunity to profit by Mr. Charles Leonard Moore's 
statement in the same number: " The most aggravating 
of all critics is the critic who asserts. ..." Positivism 
would seem, from his article, to be Mr. Boyd's philos- 
ophy of literature, if not of life. Certainly his state- 




ments have the merit of certitude and conviction, in 
spite of their very evident defects from the standpoint 
of "things as they are." 

Mr. Boyd's article calls Schopenhauer, Comte, Dar- 
win, Spencer, Marx, Ward, Eliot, de Maupassant, Tol- 
stoi, and Bentham " the preeminent authors of the 
nineteenth century." Thus he does not give a list of " the 
greatest influences of the century," or " the greatest 
men of the century," but of " the greatest authors of the 
century," in short, the greatest writers of literature. 

Mr. Boyd goes somewhat beyond necessity when he 
says: "Schopenhauer is the greatest metaphysician 
that ever lived." He had need only to prove that he 
was the greatest metaphysician of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, to prove his greatness as a nineteenth century 
metaphysician. But Schopenhauer might be " the 
greatest metaphysician that ever lived," or ever will 
live, and still fail to be one of " the preeminent authors 
of the nineteenth century " one of the makers of lit- 
erature. Literature has no final (only an accidental) 
relation with metaphysics. 

He says, of science, " Charles Darwin was the most 
argumentative mind of the century." What of it? 
" Literature is the presentation of life in an artistic 
form. No man of science has ever been an artist, al- 
though some, as, for example, Darwin and Huxley, 
have been believed by their friends to have been such." 
Thus Mr. Clement K. Shorter, and " the consensus of 
critical opinion " upholds his position. 

" Herbert Spencer is the greatest Individualist of the 
race." Perhaps he is the greatest " individual " of the 
race. He is certainly great in his sphere; but as a 
writer of literature he has surprisingly little to offer. 

Karl Marx is one of the " master-minds of man." 
But he is not one of the master-minds of literature. 
His claims to literary greatness may be dismissed with 
the statement that he was " a famous German socialist." 
What has that to do with literature ? 

" Lester F. Ward is the most practical philosopher 
the century has produced." As " practical philosophy's " 
connection with literature is of the remotest, we need, 
perhaps, say no more about Mr. Ward's literary claims 
to "real greatness." 

11 George Eliot is the only writer of light literature 
who has any claim to real greatness." " It is indeed a 
discovery," writes Brander Matthews in " Aspects of 
Fiction," " to find that any man able to read and write 
is capable of classifying as ' light literature ' the acute 
and subtle study of the process of Tito's steady moral 
disintegration under recurring temptation." The ref- 
erence, of course, is to George Eliot's " Romola." The 
same statement applies with about equal force to George 
Eliot's other work. It is also, indeed, a discovery to 
learn that " light literature " gives anyone a claim to 
" real greatness." But granting that George Eliot has 
other claims to " real greatness " than " light literature," 
surely the nineteenth century has produced novelists 
greater than she, Balzac and Hugo in France ; Thack- 
eray, Dickens, and George Meredith in England. 

" Guy de Maupassant is the most artistic story-teller 
the world has ever produced." This is the only one of 
Mr. Boyd's formulas to which we can give even partial 
acceptance. The art of Guy de Maupassant, which 
produced such achievements of story-telling as " The 
Piece of String," "The Necklace," "Coward," and 
" Little Soldier," is certainly an art which, in mere 
artfulness (I do not use the term slightingly), has sel- 
dom been equalled. He has a few disputants to the 

title of " the greatest short-story teller of the century," 
however, as, for example, Robert Louis Stevenson, 
who, though inferior to the Frenchman in form and 
structure, surpasses him in the richness and charm of 
his style, and is ethically stronger at all points. And 
Poe and Hawthorne ! The author of " The Cask of 
Amontillado," and the man who wrote " Wakefield " 
and " David Swan," have produced almost if not quite as 
great short stories as have ever been written in French. 

"Count Leo Tolstoi [is] the most artistic novelist 
[the world has ever produced]." I am as much sur- 
prised at this statement as the author of " Anna Kare- 
nina" himself would be, if he heard of it. "God's 
moral " is what he is after, and he often shows it, 
seldom artistically, more often with evident effort. As 
far as form goes, he is huge and structureless. 

" One of the greatest authors of all time is Jeremy 
Bentham." The writings of Jeremy Bentbam have no 
literary merit whatever. His style is turgid, involved, 
and obscure. Even as knowledge they have been largely 

And now, having tried to set aside Mr. Boyd's list of 
"the preeminent authors of the nineteenth century," 
what have I to offer in its place? 

Who will dispute that Browning and Tennyson are 
the greatest poets of the nineteenth century, and two of 
the greatest poets of all time? 

No historian, essayist, or other writer in prose other 
than fiction, except John Ruskin, has attained to the 
first rank in literature in the nineteenth century. But 
his, at its best, magnificent style, like the peals of some 
" grand organ harmony " swelling, helps lift his work 
away from the mere writing of knowledge, " discussion 
and conflict," up to the " eternal peaks of pure litera- 
ture." John Ruskin ranks among " the nine great authors 
of the nineteenth century," in spite of the fact that his 
work is, mostly, not included in any of the three great 
forms of literary art. 

In fiction, Balzac and George Meredith are the great- 
est novelists, while the short story has four equalities, 
Poe, de Maupassant, Hawthorne, and Stevenson. In 
Robert Louis Stevenson we have both a writer of short 
stories of the very first rank ("Will o' the Mill," 
" Markheim," " Thrawn Janet "), and also a novelist 
who, in at least one of his tales, " The Strange Case of 
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," gives us a story worthy to 
be ranked with the greatest fiction of the century of 
all time. Balzac is probably the greatest novelist of 
the world, and immeasurably his superior in all the 
" amenities of style " is Meredith. In technique, if in 
technique only, Meredith is without a peer, while " the 
body of his work " is also most satisfactory. Professor 
Saintsbury says: "When these two things coincide in 
literature, or elsewhere, then that in which they coincide 
may be called, and must be called, Great, without hesi- 
tation, and without reserve." Meredith's extreme jus- 
tification is in the future, while Balzac has already- 
come into his own. The art of Dickens and Thackeray 
(except, perhaps, in their masterpieces, " David Cop- 
perfield " and " Vanity Fair," certainly less in these 
than in the rest of their work) is, as Mr. Howells has 
recently shown, largely " the art of a by-gone age." 

Alfred Tennyson, Robert Browning, Honore' de Balzac, 
George Meredith, Edgar Allen Poe, Robert Louis Stev- 
enson, Guy de Maupassant, Nathaniel Hawthorne, John 
Ruskin, these seem to me " the preeminent authors of 
the nineteenth century." ALEXANDER JESSUP. 

Westfield, Mass., February 6, 1901. 



[Feb. 16, 



Someone, Carlyle we dare say, speaks of 
Diderot's books as "printed talk." The de- 
scription, which is a handy one and nowadays 
widely applicable, nicely fits the Rev. W. 
Tuckwell's book of Oxford recollections, and 
very good talk it is, though younger noses may 
detect in its earlier and even its later chapters 
a somewhat " ancient and fishlike smell." For 
Mr. Tuckwell seems the Nestor of Oxonians, 
his memories going back largely to Oxford in 
the Thirties the Oxford to which you were 
driven in a coach (the " Tantivy," the " Reg- 
ulator," the " Blenheim," the " Rival," and so 
forth), by a Jehu of the tribe of Weller ; the 
Oxford of Gibbonian " port and prejudice " ; 
the Oxford to which Museums, Art Galleries, 
Local Examinations, Science Degrees, Exten- 
sion Lectures, Women's Colleges, and the like 
commonplaces of to-day were as yet innovations, 
germinant or threatened, at which dondom 
gravely shook its head, scenting heresy and 
schism, and the intrusion of ideas subversive 
of scholastic standards, learned reputations, 
the reign of the Humanities, and fat livings. 
Science especially, with its bold pretensions, 
was, as Gambetta said of clericalism, felt to be 
" the enemy." Conservatism hated it because 
it was new ; orthodoxy because, like the inven- 
tor in Dickens, it persisted in " wanting to 
know." Even men like Jowett, says our 

" Proclaimed war on it on behalf of the ' ancient 
studies/ as encroaching on and menacing the ' higher 
conception of knowledge and of the mind,' as antago- 
nistic to ' morals and religion ' curiously unaware 
that their own avowed ignorance of its nature, subjects, 
tendencies, precluded them from forming, much more 
from expressing, an opinion." 

Science, however, persisted in its efforts to 
break into the sanctuary with (as its enemies 
might have said) " a jemmy "; and in the end 
succeeded. Molested was the ancient, solitary 
reign of Theology ; broken the monopoly of 
the Humanities. The first representative of 
note of the new learning was Daubeny 
Doctor Daubeny, professor of chemistry, bot- 
any, rural economy, who wrote on Roman 
husbandry, experimented much in horticulture, 
planting his famous " Physic Garden," and 
building houses wherein flourished the Victoria 

M.A. Illustrated. New York : Cassell & Co., Ltd. 

lily, the aloe, and many plants unfamiliar to 
eyes dimmed by the study of Greek roots. 
The Doctor was something of an oddity, out- 
wardly a droll, fantastically clad figure, but 
genial and chatty in society. For zoological 
purposes he kept, in a great cage let into the 
Danby gateway, a collection of monkeys, which 
a mischievous undergraduate liberated one 
night, to the general joy of his appreciative 
fellows next day. The wanderers were re- 
captured, after an exciting chase and some 
perilous climbing ; but the Doctor was pained 
by what he considered an affront to himself, 
and his menagerie was eventually dispersed. 

Buckland was the next savant of note at 
Oxford. His lecture-room filled at once, not 
so much with students as with dons (attracted 
no less by the vivacity of his talk than the 
novelty of his theme), among them Shuttle- 
worth, father of the couplet 

"Some doubts were expressed about the Flood, 
Buckland arose, and all was clear as mud." 

Buckland at first posed as regular and rec- 
oncilist, his earlier writings containing little 
to provoke the heresy-hunters. Then, in 1836, 
appeared his Bridgewater Treatise, and stones 
from orthodox slings at once flew about his 
offending (and disregarding) head. Dean 
Gaisford of Christchurch thanked God on the 
fossil-hunting professor's departure for Italy. 
" We shall," he comfortably thought, " hear 
no more of his geology." Pusey, blinking 
anxiously at the new light, bustled about warn- 
ing men to avert their eyes from it, and or- 
ganizing a protest against the proposed degree 
for Professor Owen ; the saintly Keble clenched 
a bitter plea against the new science with the 
powerful argument worthy of patristic days 
that " when God made the stones he made the 
fossils in them." 

Buckland had a most efficient and zealous 
helper in his wife. From her, says Mr. Tuck- 
well, came the first suggestion as to the true 
character of the lias coprolites. 

" When, at two o'clock in the morning, the idea 
flashed upon him that the Cheirotherium footsteps were 
testudinal, he woke his wife from sleep; she hastened 
down to make paste upon the kitchen table, while he 
fetched in the tortoise from the garden; and the pair 
soon saw with joint delight that its impressions on the 
paste were almost identical with those upon the slabs." 

In Italy, as Dean Gaisford could not have 
been surprised to hear, Buckland went on 
pursuing the iconoclastic tenor of his way. At 
Palermo he visited Saint Rosalia's shrine. The 
receptacle was opened by the attendant priest, 
and the relics were reverently disclosed. 




Thousands of believing pilgrims (such is the 
efficacy of faith) had knelt before them and 
had their souls eased thereby and their bodies 
healed, and had gratefully bestowed their 
obolus on departing. But to the hard eye of 
the man of science and little faith the bones 
were not sacred, were not even Rosalia's. 
" They are," said he, " the bones of a goat, 
not of a woman " and the sanctuary doors 
were abruptly shut in his face, as Oxford doors 
would have been before had Gaisford and the 
rest had their way about it. 

Before taking leave of Buckland let us quote 
his Johnsonian retort to a North Briton who 
"heckled" him during a lecture: 

" ' It would seem,' queried a sceptical Caledonian 
during a lecture in North Britain, ' that your animals 
alwavs walked in one direction?' 'Yes,' was the re- 
ply, ' Cheirotherium was a Scotchman, and be always 
travelled south.' " 

What the initiative and persistence of Dr. 
Acland did for the establishment of Science 
and Art at Oxford is, or ought to be, well 
known. He settled there as a physician in 
1844, and was made Lee's Reader of Anatomy 
at Christchurch. His lectures began in 1845, 
and a great impetus was at once given to the 
movement in favor of a Museum. It was felt 
that the old Ashmolean must be supplanted by 
a temple worthy of the University. Economists 
opposed the proposal on the ground of cost, 
the classicists fought it because it was novel, 
and the theologians condemned it as a subtle 
device of the evil one designed to sap the 
foundations of belief. Sewell of Exeter, " more 
Puseyite than Pusey," fulminated against it 
in a University sermon which was too bigoted 
even for the bigots, and which went far to 
convince sensible men that the hour for a de- 
termined stand against the bats and owls of 
the corporation councils was come. To the 
defenders of the Museum were soon joined 
men like Liddell and Professor Phillips ; and 
early in the Fifties the money was voted, the 
design adopted, and the first stone of the new 
building laid by Lord Derby. Once begun, 
the edifice " rose like an exhalation," glorified 
by the genius of artists like Woodward, Burne- 
Jones, Skidmore, the brothers Shea, Rossetti, 
Prinsep, Monro, Morris. 

The Museum's memorable welcome to the 
British Association was marked by the day of 
the great Darwin fight, when the opposing 
hosts, led respectively by Huxley and S. Wil- 
berforce, did battle over the strange hypothesis 
from morn till dewy eve. The Darwinian dis- 

cussion was of course the event of the week. 
It took place in the large Library, which was 
packed with expectant humanity eager as 
always for a fray in which the blows were to 
be borne by somebody else. Professor Hens- 
low presided, and by his side sat Huxley 
" hair jet black, slight whiskers, pale full 
fleshy face, the two strong lines of later years 
already marked, an ominous quiver in his 
mouth, and an arrow ready to come out of it." 
Professor Draper of New York, " eminent, 
serious, nasal," read a paper on Evolution ; 
after which an irrelevant person rose to say 
that all theories as to the ascent of man were 
vitiated by the fact that, in the words of Pope, 
Great Homer died three thousand years ago. 
To this Professor Huxley sarcastically declined 
to reply ; so the Bishop of Oxford, author of 
an article in the " Quarterly " denunciatory of 
Darwinism, and the accepted champion of 
Orthodoxy, took the floor. The Bishop, says 
our author, was " argumentative, rhetorical, 
amusing." He does not appear to have been 
dignified or profound. 

" He retraced the ground of his article, distinguished 
between a working and a causal hypothesis,' compli- 
mented ' Professor Huxley who is about to demolish 
me,' plagiarized from a mountebank sermon by Bur- 
gon, expressing the ' disquietude ' he should feel were 
a ' venerable ape ' to be shown to him as his ancestress 
in the Zoo : a piece of clever, diverting, unworthy clap- 

In short, the Bishop of Oxford undertook to 
upset Darwinism by making fun of it ; and 
the fun, being of a cheap and puerile order, 
had no effect beyond tickling the ears of the 
groundlings, and provoking a retort of unpar- 
liamentary severity. 

" Huxley rose, white with anger. ' I should be sorry 
to demolish so eminent a prelate, but for myself I 
would rather be descended from an ape than from a 
divine who employs authority to stifle truth.' A gasp 
and a shudder through the room, the scientists uneasy, 
the orthodox furious, the Bishop wearing that fat, pro- 
voking smile which once, as Osborne Gordon reminds 
us, impelled Lord Derby in the House of Lords to an 
unparliamentary quotation from ' Hamlet.' ' I am 
asked,' Huxley went on, if I accept Mr. Darwin's 
book as a complete causal hypothesis. Belated on a 
roadless common on a dark night, if a lantern were 
offered to me, should I refuse it because it shed an im- 
perfect light ? I think not I think not.' " 

Happily the great Darwinian debate at the 
Museum was not without its humors. One 
ominous pause was broken by the important 
announcement of an elderly gentleman with a 
Roman nose that Mr. Darwin's book "had 
given him acutest pain." A roar of " Ques- 
tion ! " overwhelmed him, and he departed and 



[Feb. 16, 

was seen no more. Another volunteer rose 
from the back benches during a lull in the 
storm, stepped smartly to the rostrum, and 
asked for a blackboard. This was produced, 
whereupon he, after deep thought, chalked two 
cabalistic crosses on opposite corners of it, 
opened his mouth to speak, lost his intellectual 
bearings, and stood vainly groping in the 
crypts of memory, until forced to his seat by 
inextinguishable laughter, the thought he had 
in him remaining, as Carlyle says, conjectural 
till this day. 

Mr. Tuckwell's sense of humor and keen 
eye for personal peculiarities lend zest and 
freshness to his portraits of Oxford worthies, 
and of these sketches his book forms a varied 
and amusing, and we dare say in their kind 
pictorially faithful, gallery. The subjects 
range from genuine notabilities, as Pusey, 
Newman, the Arnolds, Clough, Jowett, Lid- 
dell, Max Miiller, Mark Pattison, A. P. Stan- 
ley, etc., down to mere oddities, like "Horse" 
Kett and "Mo." Griffith, who were notable 
mainly because they were odd. Mr. Tuckwell 
has a good deal to say about Pusey, who, we 
suspect, attracted him more through his pe- 
culiarities than his intellectual gifts for there 
is a dash of caricature in his somewhat elab- 
orate portrait of this spectral and media3val- 
izing divine : 

"Two things impressed me when I first saw Dr. 
Pusey close: his exceeding slovenliness of person, . . . 
and the almost artificial sweetness of his smile, con- 
trasting as it did with the sombre gloom of his face when 
in repose. He lived the life of a godly eremite; reading 
no newspapers, he was unacquainted with the common- 
est names and occurrences; and was looked upon with 
much alarm in the Berkshire neighborhood, where an 
old lady much respected as a ' deadly one for prophecy,' 
had identified him with one of the three frogs which 
were to come out of the dragon's mouth. ... In con- 
trast with his disinclination for general talk was his 
morbid love of groping in the spiritual interiors of those 
with whom he found himself alone. He would ask of 
strangers questions which but for his sweet and cour- 
teous manner they must have deemed impertinent." 

Mr. Tuckwell goes on to relate the Doctor's 
attempts to play confessor with a surly groom 
who used to drive him in and out of Oxford. 
This man of Belial gruffly refused to have his 
" spiritual interior " vivisected, and was finally 
abandoned by the baffled Doctor as a " repro- 

In Pusey 's case the boy was certainly father 
of the man. When a boy (if such we may 
call him) he was once invited by his gratified 
father to select some valuable present commem- 
orative of a prize-winning success at school. 

He chose " a complete set of the Fathers " ! 
His mother used to relate how in the Long 
Vacations he would sit for hours in a shady 
corner of the garden reading his folios, with 
a tub of cold water at hand into which he 
would plunge his head whenever study made it 
ache. The immersions must have been frequent. 
But we must now take leave of Mr. Tuck- 
well's chatty and multifarious book, recom- 
mending it as an entertaining repository of 
familiar talk about old Oxford, its ways and 
worthies, from the pen of a shrewd and sym- 
pathetic observer whose sense of humor and 
appreciation of the original t)r the eccentric in 
conduct and character brightens his pages and 
freshens his descriptions. It would have been 
easy to make a dull book or a stale one about 
Oxford in the Thirties ; but Mr. TuckwelPs 
impressions, being both lively and his own, 
are worth recording. There are sixteen illus- 
trations, among them some quaint plates after 
old prints and portraits. E. G. J. 


Whoever sits down to the perusal of Mrs. 
Albee's " Mountain Playmates " will rise re- 
freshed and exhilarated. There has been a 
vivifying contact with a many-sided, cultivated 
personality, and what is more grateful than 
the privilege of such exceptional companion- 
ship ? The subjects treated by the writer are 
varied, now the external affairs of every-day 
life, now the deepest questions that stir an 
earnest soul. A sparkling humor lends its 
fascination to the lighter matters, while the 
graver themes lose no shade of interest from 
the more serious manner with which they are 

The " Mountain Playmates " are no other 
than Mrs. Albee and her husband, a " studious, 
inactive " and in their friends' account, " im- 
practical pair," who throw their united energies 
into the work of transforming into a congenial 
summer home a long-abandoned farm in the 
Sandwich range of the White Mountains. 
Their means will permit of very slender outlay 
for the repair and equipment of their new 
possession, hence their wits are called into 
active employment for the supply of necessary 
requisites. It was inexpedient to rob their 
city residence of coveted rugs, chairs, draperies, 
etc., and search was instituted " in the garret, 

* MOUNTAIN PLAYMATES. By Helen R. Albee. Boston : 

I lough toil, Miftlin & Co. 




the tool-house, and the corn chamber for pos- 
sible articles that could be made to serve a 
needful purpose. 

" Was there a dissipated wreck of a table, I took it 
firmly in hand and said ' Brace up; I intend to set you 
on your feet again, and shall put new life into you: 
there is a happy future awaiting those who behave 
themselves.' Was there a chair with an amputated leg 
or disintegrated vitals; a little surgical attention, a few 
stitches and supports, an iron tonic in the form of nails 
and screws, made another creature of it. ... With 
such good-will and purpose did I apply myself to re- 
formatory work that the lame and halt stood without a 
limp, the infirm and decrepit assumed a jaunty air of 
youth, the tramps of the corn chamber became useful 
and reliable members of our household." 

The masculine partner in the firm of the 
" Playmates," whom his companion individual- 
izes by the name of Adam, doubted the pru- 
dence of some of the lady's desperate aims at 
resurrection, and there arose lively controver- 
sies waxing at times into actual opposition on 
his part. She scored a victory in every in- 
stance, as courage and invention deserve to do, 
and flaunted defiantly his own vindicated prin- 
ciple " that economy is the handmaid of the 
art of living." After skimming " off a coating 
of household articles, enough, if spread thin, 
to cover the bareness of the cottage" with the 
help of the long-buried pieces ingeniously 
brought back to life, the couple proceeded to 
set up their penates in the new habitation in 
the wilderness. 

And now had they been ever so " inactive " 
in the past they were so no longer. A second 
tenet in Adam's complex creed was borrowed 
from Emerson : " Labor is God's education." 
The busy pair toiled with delightful earnest- 
ness from this time on. 

" The handmaid as an advance guard preceded us 
with soap and mop, we following at her heels with paint 
buckets and carpenter's tools. We painted floors, 
papered walls, whitewashed ceilings. We repainted 
and covered the furniture, adding curtains, portieres, 
and rugs to the cottage." 

The dilapidated old farm-house speedily as- 
sumed a picturesque aspect under the touch of 
such informed and determined fingers. The 
neighborhood was alive with interest as a 
rational consequence. Visitors would say on 
entering the house : 

" ' Have you done anything new since we were here 
last? We must see it.' Mark the wording; it was 
never ' Have yon bought anything new? ' We made 
it a principle never to buy the smallest thing we could 
construct, and in consequence our talents in that direc- 
tion became enormously developed. ... I, who had 
known only the ennui of city life and social amuse- 
ments, had never conceived of the pure joy this fresh 
plaything brought." 

The final strokes being applied to the in- 
terior, the outer walls of the old house de- 
manded attention. It was decided to shingle 
them. Adam early took a hand in order to 
hasten the slow progress of the carpenters. 
Then Eve, who always wanted to do whatever 
he did, joined in without delay. It proved 
such good fun the carpenters were dismissed, 
and the two " had beautiful hours together, 
each seeing who could do the best work in the 
quickest time." It was with reluctance that 
they gave themselves a respite when both were 
tired out. 

" ' Just hand me a few of those shingles,' he pleaded, 
'and in about three minutes more I shall have com- 
pleted my half of this course.' During the brief re- 
prieve, I became so engrossed with my own end of the 
line that we came nearer and nearer together, until we 
had not only finished the whole course, but had com- 
pleted several more. We did tear ourselves away at 
length, and I got eggnog, or fruit and wafers, generally 
the thing that would take longest to eat, and we sat in 
the shade while we chattered and laughed; and then 
we began the shingling again, which was only play, in- 
terspersed with discussions on philology and Celtic lit- 
erature between the strokes of the hammers." 

Was it not all a pure idyl ? It was bringing 
the ideal into the real. It was making poetry 
out of the prose of life. It was spiritualizing 
the material, an achievement constantly in view 
of the " Playmates," who strove to conform in 
thought and deed to the third prime article in 
Adam's creed : to make each day and each 
event as picturesque as possible. 

The cottage brought into harmony with ses- 
thetic tastes inside and out, the diligent pair 
set to work in the garden, which experienced 
a similar glorification through the instrumen- 
tality of seeds from the florist, and wild vines 
and ornamental trees and shrubs from the 
adjacent forest. Everything grew with won- 
derful luxuriance, because they put of their 
own heart and soul into it. " A miserable 
little thread of a Virginia creeper," for example, 
which had been barely able to keep hold on the 
breath of life in its struggle against thwarting 
circumstances, under their fostering care threw 
out stems and branches to the length of fifty 
feet or more in less than two years, covering 
the front and sides of the cottage with a rich 
green mantle. 

" What a beautiful vine ! ' people would exclaim. 
What do yon do to it ? We have a vine that we have 
tended for years and can't make grow.' ' We love it,' 
would be my reply; and then they would look at me 
with an incredulous smile, not understanding the truth. 
But really there was no further explanation to give, for 
that was all there was to it." 

A unique variation in the Playmates' diver- 



[Feb. 16, 

sified experiences was the uplifting and re- 
moval of huge rocks which spotted their lawn 
at too frequent intervals. " The gentle game 
of bouldering," the lady pronounces it, and it 
began in this wise: 

" One says to another, My dear, will you come out 
just a moment ? I want you to keep your hand on a 
bar; I have a boulder in the garden that I cannot 
manage alone.' The uninitiated partner thinks on the 
way out, This is a queer thing to ask a woman to do; 
this is a man's work,' which idea shows that she knows 
nothing about the game. She acquiesces, and acting 
under directions, with very little expenditure of power 
on her lever, she takes advantage of every slight gain 
he makes with his pry, and in less than half a minute 
they have laid bare to the sunshine that which is older, 
and has lain longer buried, than the oldest mummy in 
Egypt. This first triumph having been so easily won, 
the newly admitted member of the Society for Exca- 
vation becomes eager for another bout. A wily master 
will play upon the vanity of the neophyte, and will 
render unstinted praise of her skill and dexterity. By 
a proper stirring of her ambition she will ever be ready 
to lend a hand in an emergency. I know one such 
teacher, who by dint of encouragement secured the 
services of an ambitious pupil to exhume fifty boulders, 
some of them weighing a ton." 

It was after much studying of the ways of 
plants and trees in the woods and fields that 
the chronicler of the " Playmates " settled to 
her private satisfaction the great problem of 
the warfare of good and evil in the world. 
While Adam transplanted young cabbages in 
the garden, she unfolded to him the interpre- 
tation of life to which the inequality in con- 
ditions and the tragic struggle for existence 
in the vegetable kingdom, had conducted her. 
It fills one of the most interesting chapters in 
the volume. As she finds seeming injustice 
and real suffering present in the lower ranks 
of being, she is reconciled to their prevalence 
among mankind. It is the law of Nature 
which she robs of cruelty by the supposition 
that the germ of the vital principle of life, that 
which in man we call soul, exists primordially 
in the plant. It rises through ascending grades 
of the organic world in pursuance of the pro- 
cess of evolution until it is fit to inhabit the 
human frame. It then chooses the parentage 
and the environments that will best conduce 
to its continued development. Its destiny from 
the beginning is to go on and on by successive 
reincarnations, each new form starting on a 
level with the highest point attained in its 
last existence. 

" To my mind, this accounts for Nature's apparent 
indifference to the universal death and wanton des- 
truction of life in the world. Death is a token of 
growth the means by which spirit escapes and makes 
its ascent from one form to another. Knowing that 

when a thing dies, death does not involve annihilation 
of the spirit within, but merely facilitates its progress, 
Nature calmly sees one prey upon another, assured that 
the time will come, and it is only a question of time, 
when it will have less maw and more spirit. . . . 
Remember, I do not offer this as final truth, but I do 
claim that it interprets the seeming warfare of good 
and evil, that it gives me increasing peace of mind 
and happiness, and helps me to see a world not suffering, 
but growing." 

One may smile at the insufficiency of the ar- 
gument, but the force and earnestness with 
which it is presented command respect. 

That Adam and Eve are gifted with the 
artistic sense is early divined, but it is not until 
close to the end of her story that she discloses 
her identity with the inventor of the Abnakee 
rug, the manufacture of which forms an in- 
dustry for the comfort and profit of women 
shut away in the lone farmhouses of New 
England. Her account of the studious exper- 
iments which resulted in dyes and designs ap- 
propriate to the exaltation of the original 
crude hooked rug is as piquant and clever as 
everything else she relates. 

The " Playmates " have dwelt three summers 
and a winter in their mountain home, happy 
in each other and in the simple wholesome life 
they have led with the quiet and inspiration 
of Nature around them. " Let us go and do 
likewise," is the involuntary prayer of the 
reader who is allowed in the pages of their book 
a glance into their earthly Paradise. 



One of the leading British reviews, in com- 
menting on Mr. Abbott's " Songs of Modern 
Greece," cites his rendering of " The Woman 
of Chios " as proof of the allegation that the 
translator must have done his work poorly. 
The writer for the review in question is evi- 
dently a layman with opinions of his own. 
The truth is that Mr. Abbott's translations 
are remarkably accurate and sympathetic. 
They show evidence of his own familiarity 
with the Modern Greek, and they have been 
touched up by the hand of Mr. Gennadius, for 
years Greek Minister to London, beyond whom 
there is no appeal. 

In reading these translations, one must re- 
member that the soul of poetry is rather asso- 
ciation than meaning of words, and that when 

New York : The Macmillan Co. 




the association does not exist, the effect is lost. 
" The Woman of Chios " calls up a picture of 
girls washing clothing by the sea shore, a 
familiar sight in Greece from the times of 
Xausicaa down, and when a Greek hears it, 
who knows what image it may bring up before 
his mind ? A little village perhaps, his happy 
youth, the fishing boats drifting by, the saucy 
maidens with their lithe bodies and their swing- 
ing paddles flashing in the sunlight as they 
beat the clothes. 

Mr. Abbott has very wisely refrained from 
rendering these songs into rhymed verse. He 
has used prose in most instances and has thus 
been able to keep closely to the original. He 
has rendered a distinct service to the student, 
as many of the words of vulgar vernacular, 
which cannot be found in any of the wretched 
dictionaries in existence, are thus defined, and 
their actual use exemplified. 

This is by no means a complete collection, 
but it gives, on the whole, admirably selected 
examples in the various departments of Modern 
Greek folk song, which is, in its entirety, a 
very rich and interesting field. Several omis- 
sions are scarcely accounted for by the author's 
explanation that he has " avoided including any 
poems previously published in Western Eu- 
rope." The previous collections (Passow, Fau- 
riel, Legrand, Marcellus) are either out of 
print or difficult of access. Lucy Garnett's 
work is next to useless from the fact that the 
Greek text does not accompany the renderings. 

A large amount of space is given over to the 
distiches, those rhymed couplets of which 
every Greek peasant knows a hundred or more. 
These are extremely typical, but they would 
be more worthy of the space occupied if a 
little more care had been used in their selection. 
A prose translation gives a poor idea of a 
rhymed distich. In this case, perhaps the 
original spirit could have been better conveyed 
by means of two metrical lines. Here are a 
few of Mr. Abbott's renderings of these pithy 
poems which are so useful to the Greek swains 
when courting : 

4 ' Even if them wert a queen thou coaldst not be more graceful : 

a flower among maidens, the pride of the neighborhood." 
' ' Mountains bloom not ; birds sing not ; for my love has 

deserted me : mourn ye all." 
" School-mistress, please permit my Helen to come out, that 

I may see her for one instant ; for my life is ebbing out." 
" I want the sky for paper, the sea for ink to write to thee, 

my graceful one, all that passes through my mind." 

The dance songs being intended for occasions 
of unrestrained mirth are often risque, some- 
times quite coarse. Among the idyls and love 
songs, so dear to the heart of the common 

people, are many that are worthy to be trans- 
lated by a poet. Are there not sweet possi- 
bilities in this, entitled " Maria " ? 

" The star of Morn was just beginning to shine sweetly, the 
air to pour forth its perfume on the fair first of May 
before the songs, the sports, and the dances commenced, 
when thou, Maria, earnest forward first, first of all. 

"Thy hair fell in profusion o'er thy milk-white throat, and 
a fair maidenly rose adorned thy breast. 

" A year later I went the same way again, Maria; I passed 
by the desolate church where I saw thee for the first time. 
But, instead of meeting a pretty form, a heavenly, lovely 
glance, my eyes met a white stone with a cross upon it. 

" Alone in the desert I knelt close by thy grave, Maria, and 
kissed it gently. From among the scattered flowers I 
picked one alone a white, pure, and, like thee, virgin 
blossom and matched it to the one which thon hadst 
given me from the garden of lilies for cruel remembrance: 
the one an emblem of death, the other, of youth and beauty, 
and of joy which, here below, is ever sister to sorrow." 

Mr. Abbott's accompanying text is remark- 
ably clear and clean, and he has adopted the 
sensible method of representing elisions by 
means of apostrophes, following the English 
style in such words as " 'tis " and " aren't." 
The comprehension of the foreign reader is 
thus facilitated. 

An introduction and some quite searching 
notes, with numerous classical references, com- 
plete a book that must be a joy to all earnest 
students of that true dialect of Greek which is 
known as " Modern Greek." 


ESSAYS ox Music AXD Music CULTURE.* 

Lyric song is the most accessible and widely 
prevalent form of music, since it needs for 
performance no expensive orchestra, stage, or 
chorus, like symphony, opera, and oratoria ; 
yet, notwithstanding that the genius preeminent 
in this sphere must rank with the highest of 
composers, it is a branch of musical art that 
has always been inadequately treated by musical 
critics. " Songs and Song Writers," by Mr. 
Henry T. Finck, is perhaps the first book ever 
written with a view to providing a guide for 
amateurs and professionals in the choice of the 
best songs ; and the author has embodied his 
ideas, theories, and investigations in such a 
manner as to make his volume a very useful 
abstract a sort of omnium gatherum of 
matters pertaining to the Lied. 

SONGS AND SONG WRITEKS. By Henry T. Finck. Illus- 
trated. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

laigne. Translated from the French by Ellen Orr. Illus- 
trated. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 

FOB MY MUSICAL FRIEND. By Anbertine Woodward 
Moore. Illustrated. New York: Dodge Publishing Co. 



[Feb. 16, 

Although he dwells longest on his favorite 
song writers (Schubert, Franz, Grieg, and 
MacDowell), others are not dwarfed by an 
overbalancing praise of these few. Indeed, it 
may be laid down as a general principle that 
in such books as this the legitimate use of 
comparison stops at illustration and charac- 
terization. As evidence that the author's opin- 
ions evince a thorough knowledge of the subject 
we have but to point to the masterly review of 

While there may be a few who will contend 
that the popular purpose for which the book is 
designed would have been better served by 
some modifications in the way of both elision 
and amplification, the volume can never be 
classed as a compendium of useless knowledge 
about insignificant composers and antiquated 
songs. Mr. Finck has treated his subject 
conscientiously and enthusiastically, from a 
practical standpoint, and his treatise is just 
what he intended it to be : a sort of Song- 
Baedeker, with bibliographic foot-notes for the 
benefit of students who wish to pursue the sub- 
ject further. 

To try what may be called the emotional 
analysis of music is to offer a direct and peril- 
ous challenge to ridicule and cynicism. In 
view of the inherent difficulties it may seem 
inappropriate, if not unwise, that Camille Bel- 
laigue's volume, "Musical Studies and Sil- 
houettes," opens with lengthy chapters on 
" Sociology in Music " and " Realism and 
Idealism in Music." The author's theory is 
that " to humanize sound " is the mission of 
music, and that it has ever been the effort of 
great musicians of nature to translate into 
melodies, rhythms, and chords the impression 
or the reaction of material things upon us. 

This theory is logical. Was it not because 
Beethoven had felt and suffered all that there 
is in life to feel and suffer that he was able to 
strike chords more full of emotion and pathos 
than have ever been struck before or since? 
Both of the essays referred to evince a tireless 
study of the subjects, and are models of intel- 
ligent criticism ; yet, after all, there is more 
unembellished truth spoken in Joubert's words : 
" The more nearly a note or chord, a melody, 
rhythm, or sonority, touches a human senti- 
ment or a soul, the more nearly is it ideal, the 
more nearly is it real, and the more nearly 
does it attain to the perfection of beauty." 

M. Bellaigue has shown himself to be one of 
the most erudite of investigators into the his- 

tory of music and, more particularly, into the 
annals of opera in France. In fact, he is most 
successful in his studies of the lyric drama, 
and what he remarks has the value of a keenly- 
felt personal impression. But the attitude of 
the worshipper, although sometimes serviceable, 
is not always the best for the critic ; his up- 
lifted eyes are too likely to see only the head 
of fine gold, and to neglect the less noble parts 
of baser material. 

The chapters which furnish the most delight- 
ful reading are " Italian Music and the Last 
Two Operas of Verdi " and " Silhouettes of 
Musicians." Miss Orr deserves credit for her 
admirable translation ; the style is clear and 
forcible, and, above all, she has the gift 
which few translators possess when the subject 
considered is music of always putting the 
right adjective in the right place. 

It has been pointed out that it would be a 
vast gain to the growth of taste, and to all 
forms of art among us, if the present ambition 
to write books on aesthetics might, in some 
greater measure, give place to more serious 
and modest study of nature and standard art, 
as a means of cultivation and for the sake of 
cultivation. In a volume entitled " For My 
Musical Friend," Mrs. Aubertine Woodward 
Moore (whom we used to know as " Auber 
Forestier ") has compiled a series of essays on 
music and music culture. Its purpose is to 
indicate how the rational methods applied to- 
day in other branches of learning may be 
brought to bear on the music lesson, how reck- 
less waste of time and effort may be avoided, 
and how music may gain its rightful place as 
a beneficent influence in daily life. 

Mrs. Moore properly expounds the theory 
that to appreciate music we must possess a 
definite and systematic knowledge of it as a 
foundation, and though she does not tell us so 
totidem verbis, the real object of her book is to 
spread the opinion that such a knowledge 
should form part of general education. It 
would be unnecessary to insist on the value of 
this if it were not widely assumed that assthetic 
appreciation is a mere matter of taste. The 
chapters on " Rational Methods of Music 
Study," " The Technique That Endures," and 
" How to Memorize Music," are alike readable 
and instructive. Her work is pervaded by an 
enthusiasm which gives a peculiar zest to the 
critical portions. The index of twenty pages, 
in addition to a table of contents, is almost 
superfluous. INGRAM A. PTLE. 





Mr. Henry B. Fuller has a keen sense of the 
charm of the unexpected. He has essayed so many 
manners that we anticipate some sort of a surprise 
whenever a new hook appears hearing his name. 
For a time he seemed to delight in the kind of 
realism that is dear to Mr. Howells, and his skilful 
handling of unpromising material elicited our some- 
what unwilling admiration when The Cliff Dwell- 
ers " and " With the Procession " came to hand. 
But the creator of Pensieri-Vani and the Chatelaine 
was obviously a romanticist at heart albeit of a 
fantastic and refined type so that we are not sur- 
prised to find in "The Last Refuge" a reversion 
to the romantic manner. The story opens enter- 
tainingly with the description of a certain Freiherr 
of middle age, who finds his capacity for aesthetic 
enjoyment waning, and who seeks a sort of vicari- 
ous rejuvenation in the companionship of a youth 
in whom enthusiasm is undimmed, and upon whom 
the primal impulses of life act with undiminished 
force. To these two characters others are soon 
joined, each animated by a special idealism, and in 
search of the conditions under which it may be real- 
ized. For one reason or another, the fair island of 
Sicily appears to the imagination of all these people 
to be the spot of which all are in search to each 
of them individually it is a sort of ' last refuge " in 
a hitherto baffled quest. To Sicily they all repair, 
and their paths converge to the same ducal estate, 
where they find themselves gathered together under 
the game roof, and where they indulge in artistic 
revels. We leave the reader to find out the nature 
of these diversions and the upshot of the somewhat 
singular relations that grow up between the char- 
acters concerned. It must suffice us here to em- 
phasize the charm of Mr. Fuller's manner, and the 
fact that he has again (as in his first books) produced 
something that almost deserves the name of a new 
variety of literary composition. No one can hope 
to produce anything really new in literature at this 
late day and under the sophisticated conditions of 

*THE LAST REFUGE: A Sicilian Romance. By Henry 
B. Fuller. Boston : Honghton, Mifflin & Co. 

THE EAGLE'S HEART. By Hamlin Garland. New York : 
D. Apple ton & Co. 

Griffis. Boston : W. A. Wilde Co. 

IN HOSTILE RED : A Romance of the Monmonth Cam- 
paign. By J. A. Altsheler. New York: Doubleday. Page 

WHO GOES THERE ? The Story of a Spy in the Civil War. 
By B. K. Benson. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

CRITTENDEN : A Kentucky Story of Love and War. By 
John Fox, Jr. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Maurice Hewlett. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

New York : D. Appleton & Co. 

GWYNETT OF TnoRNHAUGH : A Romance. By Frederic 
W. Hayes. New York: The F. M. Lnpton Publishing Co. 

modern art, but something approximating originality 
may be predicated of a book that combines sugges- 
tions of Sterne and Stevenson and Mr. Stockton. 
So peculiar a blend as this is not often met with, 
and we give it welcome as a relief from the innum- 
erable story-books written upon conventional lines. 

There could not well be a greater contrast than 
is offered by placing this book side by side with 
Mr. Hamlin Garland's latest novel. Mr. Garland, 
we know by this time, will not surprise us, what- 
ever else he may do. In "The Eagle's Heart " he 
is the same plain blunt man that he was in Main- 
Travelled Roads," and has acquired little more of 
art than he had at the outset of his career. The sense 
of humor was left out of his composition, and of 
the finer graces of style his work has remained ioi- 
pertnrbably innocent. But he has other qualities, 
qualities of earnestness and rugged force, that are 
impressive, and never made by him more impressive 
than in this straightforward story of the wild free 
life of the Western cattle ranges. The cowboy 
period of our Western civilization is fast becoming 
a matter of history, and Mr. Garland has done us 
a service in thus preserving its spirit in a form that 
may make it seem real and vivid to coming genera- 
tions. There is even poetic feeling of a sombre 
sort in some of his descriptive pages, and a realiza- 
tion of the elemental and abiding forces in human 
character. Of characterization in the minuter sense 
in which the art of the novelist understands it there 
is little or nothing. The people of whom he writes 
are not convincing presences the eagle-hearted 
hero possibly excepted but rather lay figures 
decked out in such sentiments and attributes as the 
writer thinks appropriate to them. In a word, they 
are not viewed from within, but rather from the 
outside, and with somewhat unsympathetic vision. 

Dr. William Elliot Griffis has written many ex- 
cellent books of popular history, and is well-equipped 
for this work. But it is one thing to write a con- 
fessed history, and quite another to write a historical 
novel, and for the latter task Dr. Griffis does not 
seem to possess the necessary qualifications, if we 
may judge by his " Pathfinders of the Revolution." 
This book deals with Sullivan's expedition, made in 
1779, into the country of the Six Nations, an ex- 
pedition which broke the power of the Iroquois 
allies of the British, and proved an important fac- 
tor in the eventual triumph of the Revolutionary 
cause. The matter of this book is of great interest, 
and Dr. Griffis has shown himself an accurate 
student of the subject. But his manner, from the 
point of view of the art of fiction, is not that of the 
successful story, and he is obviously out of his ele- 
ment in attempting to write one. A single illus- 
tration will suffice to make our meaning clear. A 
considerable part of the narrative is made up of 
letters from the actors to their friends at home, and 
Dr. Griffis thinks nothing of beginning a letter at 
the end of one chapter, and continuing it into the 
next. The composition must be sawn into equal 
lengths, no matter what the artistic effect. 



[Feb. 16, 

Mr. Altsheler is one of the best of our novelists 
of American history, but he has done better work 
than may be found in the book entitled " In Hostile 
Red." The fact that this is an older and shorter 
story revamped into a full-sized novel probably ac- 
counts for its lack of proportion, and its extremely 
uneven quality. It is a story of the Monmouth 
Campaign and the operations in and about Phila- 
delphia just before the retirement of Sir William 
Howe. The central situation is rather effective. 
Two young Continental officers, having captured 
two recently -arrived Englishmen, are led by a reck- 
less impulse to assume the clothes and the characters 
of their captives. Thus transformed, they make 
their way into Philadelphia, and live for some days 
hand in glove with the British officers. At the end 
they make a clean breast of the affair, and are sent 
back by Howe, who is satisfied that they are not 
spies in the ordinary sense. When they interview 
General Washington on their return, they do not 
get off so easily, and spend the following night 
under guard, with the pleasant anticipation of being 
shot at daybreak. Having had their scare, which 
is richly deserved, they are given their liberty. 
The love interest of the novel is supplied by the 
daughter of a Philadelphia merchant, a young 
woman who pretends to be a royalist, but is at 
heart a patriot, and, as such, more than once in- 
strumental in helping the Continental forces to 
carry out their plans. 

"Who Goes There?" by Mr. B. K. Benson, is 
the story of a spy in the serious sense, and the 
time is that of the earlier period of the Civil War. 
The hero is a young man who suffers occasional 
lapses of memory, which may last for months or 
years. One of these attacks comes upon him when 
he is within the Confederate lines, and, as a conse- 
quence, forgetting that he is a Union soldier, his 
recollections revert to the time of his boyhood, 
which had been passed at school in a Southern 
city. He fights for a time in the ranks of his new- 
found friends, when accident restores him to his 
Northern comrades and to the memories that had 
failed him. The psychological part of this study 
is rather clumsily managed as a whole, although it 
becomes effective when it deals with the mental 
struggles of the hero to reinstate the section of 
conscious memory which he dimly feels to be miss- 
ing, but to which no clue seems obtainable. The 
fighting part of the story is given up to a great deal 
of the minute detail of skirmishing, and of battle- 
incidents as they appear to the individual partici- 
pant ; there are no broad effects, and there are no 
episodes of absorbing interest. 

The fourth American war story on our list is the 
" Crittenden " of Mr. John Fox, Jr. Here, at last, 
is a book written in the spirit of art not a great 
book, by any means, but a pleasant one, and dis- 
playing a talent for literature that sets it upon a 
far higher plane than any of the three previously 
mentioned. It is strictly up-to-date in its theme, 

being concerned with the war in Cuba, and having 
the San Juan charge for its culminating episode. 
It takes the popular view of that war and its heroes, 
a view which the author evidently holds in all sin- 
cerity, but which is possible only when we shut our 
eyes to the mad passion which brought the war 
upon us, and to the sinister administrative influences 
that shaped its developments. If we knew nothing 
of these things, we should be carried away by the 
fine enthusiasm of the book, besides being capti- 
vated by its tender poetic sentiment. It is probably 
as wholesome a book as could be made out of the 
material offered by our unfortunate war with Spain. 

" Richard Yea-and-Nay " is a work of fiction 
that seems in strange company when grouped with 
the artificial productions of current romance. It 
is a book of flesh-and-blood, a book of marvellous 
insight into a vanished historical period, a book of 
creative imagination in a very high sense, a book 
which possesses such distinction of style as few 
modern writers have at their command. The judg- 
ment which has prompted so sound a critic as Mr. 
Frederic Harrison to single this book out as pre- 
eminent among all the writings of the past year is 
hardly to be disputed, and those who come under 
the spell of Mr. Hewlett's vivid pages must feel 
that they are in the presence of veritable genius. 
It is not too much to say that the figure of Coaur- 
de-Lion is now made for the first time a real pres- 
ence in the world of romantic reconstruction of the 
past, a saying ventured with all due reverence to 
the memory of Scott, and of such lesser story-tellers 
as have attempted to deal with this complex and 
fascinating personality. And what we may say of 
Richard may be said with almost equal truth con- 
cerning John and Henry the father of both, con- 
cerning the fair Jehane and Berengaria of Navarre, 
and Bertrand de Born, and a host of other person- 
ages. It was the troubadour just mentioned who 
fixed upon Richard the name that serves Mr. Hew- 
lett as a title for his work, and the strange self- 
contradictions exhibited by that masterful ruler are 
portrayed with a power that almost places this book 
in a class by itself. The archaic and incisive char- 
acter of Mr. Hewlett's diction is in itself a triumph 
of art, and the art is one so difficult that it comes 
as a sort of shock to the reader of easy conventional 
romance. One thing is clear : this is no book to be 
skimmed, but one to be read word for word, and 
deeply pondered at that, if the reader wish to pos- 
sess himself fully of its import. 

Thin indeed, and hopelessly unreal, in compari- 
son with Mr. Hewlett's extraordinary production, 
seems such a book as Mr. M. M. Blake's "The 
Glory and Sorrow of Norwich," which is yet a fair 
example of its class, and not so bad a romance after 
all. We would not make it suffer unduly by setting 
it in this unfair juxtaposition, and hasten to say 
that the generality of those who read historical 
fiction for their entertainment will be likely to find 
their satisfactory account in this tale of the days of 




the third Edward, the French wars, and the Black 

Mr. Albert Lee, who wrote " The Key of the 
Holy House,'' has again taken a theme from the 
history of the Dutch uprising against the Spanish 
oppressor, and produced, in " King Stork of the 
Netherlands," a historical novel of more than usual 
interest and merit. King Stork is, of course, the 
Duke of Anjou, whom the great Prince trusted 
with such unfortunate consequences, and the story 
deals with Spanish intrigue, and the deeds of the 
familiars, and the exploits of the beggars, all deftly 
interwoven with the private romance which gives 
unity to the story. But we feel all the while that 
the real hero is William of Orange, and when that 
heroic leader at last becomes the victim of the 
assassin foiled so many times we care little 
for the outcome of the book as far as the other 
characters are concerned. 

When we reviewed '' A Kent Squire," by Mr. 
Frederic W. Hayes, a few months ago, we com- 
plained that the romance had been hurried to a 
conclusion without resolving half of the perplexities 
in which the plot had become involved. It seems 
that our judgment was over-hasty, for the author 
never really meant to leave us thus unsatisfied, as 
is now evidenced by his " Gwynett of Thornhaugh." 
This romance takes up the threads that were drop- 
ped in the earlier volume, and proves a worthy 
successor to that fascinating production. Its period 
is the year or two following the death of the Roi 
Soleil. and it deals, among other material, with the 
Jacobite rising of 1715, the last impotent efforts 
of Marlborough to turn traitor, and the whole web 
of intrigue that characterized the early years of the 
Regency. The scene is mostly in France, and the 
adventures of Ambrose Gwynett are quite as sur- 
prising as " A Kent Squire " would naturally lead 
us to expect. The Regent himself, however, is the 
most interesting figure of all, and is presented to 
us in a more favorable light than history would 
seem to warrant. The suggestion may seem far- 
fetched, but we have been more than once reminded 
by him of the use which Mr. Sienkiewicz makes of 
the figure of Petronius in " Quo Vadis." That is, 
he says most of the good things, and is the most 
attractive of the characters presented. It has 
seemed to us fair to say that this novel, taken to- 
gether with its predecessor, comes nearer than 
almost any other English product has done to re- 
producing the characteristic charm of the romances 
of Alexandre Dumas. There is the same brilliancy 
of invention, the same intimate familiarity with the 
public and private life of the period concerned, and, 
we regret to add, the same readiness to resort to 
illegitimate sensational devices. Mr. Hayes had 
no need of endowing his hero with quasi-miraculous 
powers ; he would have been interesting enough 
without them. As for the episode of the messe noire, 
we can only say that the grewsome picture offered 
is only in part atoned for by the striking manner of 
the presentation. WLLLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 



, and 

Two historical works intended for 
popular reading and instruction have 

beeQ written by Mr . Edwin Erie 

Sparks, associate professor of history in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. One of these is given the 
timely name of " The Expansion of the American 
People, Social and Territorial " (Scott, Foresman 
& Co.), and is a dispassionate account of the ex- 
tension of the English-speaking people over the 
North American continent, a preliminary chapter 
or two introducing the more specific questions re- 
lating to the United States. In the modern manner, 
Dr. Sparks refrains for the most part from philoso- 
phizing. What philosophy is to be gained from 
the book is hardly that peculiar form of pessimism 
which has been masquerading recently under the 
phrase, " the higher morality," but it is of the sort 
which will give comfort to the advocates of that 
persuasion. In the later chapters of his book, those 
dealing with the recent assumptions by the Amer- 
ican Government of the policies of Europe, Dr. 
Sparks sees only obedience to laws which have, 
throughout history, governed the conduct and decay 
of nations. Judging the future by the past, he 
even prophesies the retention of Cuba as a part of 
the territory under the American flag, with other 
dependencies to be governed in the European man- 
ner, while the United States lays off her garment 
of national righteousness for the uniform of the 
soldier and the acceptance of the title " world 
power " in the continental sense. " We cannot 
escape it," writes the historian, "because we have 
no desire to escape it." The other book from this 
same hand is styled " The Men Who Made the 
Nation " (Macmillan), and is a history in the more 
usual sense. The name given the book is slightly 
misleading. The various chapters bear each the 
name of the leading American of one specific period. 
It is natural to think each chapter, therefore, an 
essay upon the individual whose name it bears. 
Rather is the work a homogeneous whole, begin- 
ning with the voyages of Benjamin Franklin to 
England as the agent of the American colonies and 
ending with the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, 
the name at the head of each chapter serving as a 
means of identifying the precise era. The numer- 
ous illustrations in both volumes are appropriate 
and interesting. _ 

During the years from 1891 to 1897 
M - Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer 
gave to the public six ample volumes 
on the history of the different nations of Europe 
during the nineteenth century. The volumes were 
reviewed at length in our columns, and a favorable 
judgment was pronounced upon them as being of 
much interest and usefulness to the general reading 
public. Mrs. Latimer makes no pretensions to 
historical research and disclaims technical training. 
But through a long life she has mingled in the best 
social circles of Europe, and has thus been able to 



[Feb. 16, 

tell the story of Europe during the century largely 
from the inside, and with the grace that comes 
from such social experience. She has now issued 
a volume made up of supplements to these hooks, 
with the title " The Last Years of the Nineteenth 
Century" (McClurg). From the nature of her 
task the author has not been able to invest these 
brief supplements with the charm of the original 
chatty volumes. They have been compiled from 
newspapers and magazines, and from the notebooks 
of Richard Harding Davis, G. W. Steevens, and 
others, thus lacking freshness as well as the per- 
sonal element. The volume is, however, of value 
for reference where the facts are undisputed, and 
some parts of it are full of interest for the story they 
tell, especially the account of Lord Kitchener's 
Soudan campaign. There is quite a complete nar- 
rative of the Boer war. Altogether, the book is a 
valuable one, and we are glad Mrs. Latimer has 
added it to her series. 

Two more of the compact, pleasant 
little " Beacon Biographies" (Small, 
Maynard & Co.) are at hand, one 
dealing with Thomas Jefferson, from the pen of 
the Hon. Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, and the 
other with Ulysses S. Grant, written by Mr. Owen 
Wister. Mr. Watson writes a readable book, but 
from the outset seems burdened with the thought 
that his space will not avail for a proper treatment 
of his subject. He avoids controversy, and in doing 
so fails also to present Jefferson as the greatest 
original political philosopher this country has ever 
produced. " I have no space," Mr. Watson re- 
marks in his preface, "for his speculative opinions, 
for his political theories, for his daring suggestions 
in science, mechanical arts, education, and state 
socialism." The collectivists have been saying that 
if Jefferson were alive to-day he would be of their 
number. Mr. Watson here goes further, and his 
own views being well known, it seems a pity that 
he could not have hinted somewhere what it is in 
the great individualist's writings that gives support 
to " state socialism." There seems to be a certain 
lack of sympathy throughout the narrative. But 
the intention to be wholly fair and impartial is also 
manifest, and nothing before the people to-day con- 
tains so much worth reading in as little room, so 
far as Jefferson is concerned. To devotees of the 
leader of the Northern armies, General Grant, Mr. 
Wister's book will doubtless seem lacking in sym- 
pathy as well. To lovers of mankind it will be a 
treasure, and the biographer has done an honest 
and a daring thing in telling the truth. He gives 
the real reason why Grant left the army before the 
war, and shows him as he was in Galena in 1860, 
a man without a future and on the downward grade 
in fortune. From that to the presidency, where 
fortune did not smile upon him, traversing in the 
meantime the heights of military glory, and subse- 
quently receiving the homage of the world in his 
extended tour, thence to his pitiful failure as a 

financier and his partial triumph over death in 
completing his wonderful memoirs, Grant's career 
is eminently human, and can gain nothing by con- 
cealment of the obvious facts. Both of the small 
volumes are carefully printed and bound, charac- 
teristic portraits of their subjects serving as frontis- 

To that interesting series of biogra- 
Thoma* Sydenham, hies known ag Masters of Medi- 
leech and wamor. .,.,-,- \T-VT 

cine (Longmans), Dr. Joseph Frank 
Payne now adds the life of Thomas Sydenham. 
Dr. Payne prepared the article in the Dictionary 
of National Biography on this eminent seventeenth 
century leech and warrior, and the present volume 
is an expansion of that article, much more in detail 
and adding many documents complete from which 
insight into the life of the physician and his times 
can be gained. The times, indeed, were interesting, 
and few did more to make them so than the Syd- 
enhams. They were frankly on the side of the 
Parliament, and Thomas left Oxford before gradu- 
ation in order to take part in the border warfare 
then waging in his native county of Dorset. Later 
the field of revolt broadened and the exertions of 
the Sydenhams with it. Of this family, five brothers 
served on the independent side, Colonel William, 
Major Francis, Major John, and Captain Richard, 
the latter in a civil capacity, ranging themselves 
with Thomas Sydenham, who himself gained the' 
rank of captain, a fact which Dr. Payne has been 
among the first to bring to the world's attention. 
With this goes the further fact of service in the 
second war, after a time spent in the rehabilitation 
of Oxford. The wars over, the trooper went to his 
study of medicine in Montpellier, and thence to 
London, where he accumulated an excellent practice 
and, in good part, prepared those treatises on dis- 
ease which have gained him the world's esteem. 
The book is in every way a worthy one. 

In his recent volume, " London Mem- 
ories " ( Lippincott), Mr. Charles 
W. Heckethorn is not quite so happy 
as in his preceding book noticed last year in these 
columns, " London Souvenirs." It is, perhaps, as 
full of valuable information not easily accessible else- 
where, and it has the distinct advantage of a good in- 
dex ; but the subject matter has not so much living 
interest, since it is less a transcript of life, and houses 
and bridges and priories figure in it more than men 
and women. Some of the chapters are, " Horrors of 
Old London Executions," "Old London Hermi- 
tages," " London's Immortal Animals," and " Wells 
and Springs in Old London," titles sufficiently sug- 
gestive of the character of the book. Mr. Hecke- 
thorn has collected a great deal of matter of curious 
interest and presents it pleasantly, although per- 
haps at times his style has too much the air of col- 
loquial carelessness. For the student of manners 
and customs it will be of real value, and the general 
reader will find in it much to surprise him as well 
as much to give him occasion for reflection, so great 

Manners and 
customs of 
old London. 




a change have a hundred years made in our ways 
of thinking and doing. Especially interesting and 
valuable is the concluding chapter, "The River 
Thames," touching, as it does, upon so much of the 
living history of the metropolis of the world. 

The brilliant author of "With Kitch- 
London, Parit, ener to Khartum," George W. 

and Berlin. , ' , & . , 

Steevens, succumbed to fever in the 
siege of Ladysmith. Among his posthumous papers 
and some of his " Daily Mail " correspondence, he 
left some racy writing descriptive of three great 
peoples as represented in their capital cities. 
" Glimpses of Three Nations " (Dodd) is the title 
of a volume on London, Paris, and Berlin. The 
hundred pages devoted to the great world centre 
are brimful of information about London as a 
hustling, bustling commercial city. One can almost 
walk the streets and see over again the crowded 
thoroughfares, hear the confused roar of the ve- 
hicles, and experience the unparalleled prevalence 
of dirt. The English people, however, almost en- 
tirely escape characterization. Paris, on the other 
hand, is described in a characterization of its people. 
The boulevards, caf^s, and races, are depicted in 
the manifold and multiplex French character, who 
frequent such places. The author went about with 
eyes and ears open, and with rare skill describes 
just what he saw and heard in the great French 
capital. Berlin receives slight attention, but the 
German people, and especially the army, come in 
for liberal treatment. Precision, plenty of time, 
and authority, seemed to him to be about the most 
striking traits of Germany. The Kaiser's army 
impressed him as the best organized and the most 
formidable among the nations of the earth. He 
was apparently awe-stricken thereby, and sounds a 
note of warning to England. Though somewhat 
scrappy at times these glimpses are good reading. 

^ touching account of filial "piety 
pervades Miss Beatrice Marshall's 
modest biographical sketch of her 
mother, Emma Marshall (E. P. Button & Co.), a 
popular and wholesome writer in the genre of domes- 
tic fiction, whose two hundred or so volumes afford 
a purer and saner form of enjoyment than the 
more highly spiced wares which the popular taste 
now asks for. In more than one regard Mrs. 
Marshall's placid and uneventful, yet in its gentle 
way strenuous and earnest life, recalls Mrs. Oli- 
phant's. It was the lot of both these excellent 
women and devoted mothers to ply unceasingly the 
laboring oar in behalf of their loved ones ; both 
toiled on with unflagging cheerfulness to the end. 
Happily, public appreciation of the fruit of their 
efforts was not lacking ; so that in both cases one is 
spared the painful record of actual privations and 
hope deferred. Mrs. Marshall's life was mostly 
spent in the cool seclusion of cathedral cities, in the 
shadow of their reposeful minsters, and within the 
sound of the chimes which one seems to hear echo- 

quiet i\fe. 

ing from the pages of the books in which she mir- 
rors the life in these " pleasant places " where the 
spirit of an age more devout than ours still broods. 
The author has divided her narrative under the 
chapter-headings Norwich, Wells, Exeter, Glouces- 
ter, Bristol each chapter thus embracing the 
period spent by Mrs. Marshall in the town indi- 
cated. In fine, the volume is a readable one in its 
unpretentious kind, engagingly written, and strewn 
with letters not uninteresting in themselves and 
worth preserving for the sake of the signatures 
they bear. The pleasing illustrations call for special 

We do not know if youths nowadays, 
Life m the even in the sea-board towns, are so 

tnercndnt semce. . . . . . . . 

commonly bitten with the yearning 
to " go to sea " as were youths of a half-century 
or less ago. But to those who are so bitten we can 
honestly recommend Mr. Frank T. Bullen's little 
book entitled " The Men of the Merchant Service " 
(Stokes) as precisely the one for them to read, 
mark, learn, and inwardly digest, before setting 
foot on the first ratline of the arduous ascent to 
maritime prosperity. Mr. Bullen has aimed to 
supply the want of a comprehensive, readable, and 
so far as possible untechnical account of the con- 
ditions of life in the Merchant Service, to which 
the boy who means to go to sea, or who thinks he 
might possibly like to go to sea if only he could 
get a fair notion of what sea-faring is like before- 
hand, may turn with confidence ; and Mr. Bullen 
has succeeded, as usual. Conditions on steamships 
and sailing-ships (Mr. Bullen confesses to a pardon- 
able predilection for the "wind-jammer"), on 
" tramps " and on liners, the duties and qualifica- 
tions of Masters, Mates, Bos'uns, Carpenters, Sail- 
makers, Stewards, Cooks, Able and Ordinary Sea- 
men, Engineers, " Boys " the entire personate 
of the merchantman, in short, are discussed in 
detail, and with the authority of ample experience. 
Mr. Bullen writes most interestingly, and his book 
stops a gap in sea literature. 

A book 
of whale*. 

No better title could have been found 
for Mr. F. A. Beddard's really 
erudite work than A Book of 
Whales " (Putnam). Not only is it all it asserts 
itself to be, but it is the first book in the English 
language devoted exclusively to a popular account 
of these large, useful, and good-natured beasts. 
Mr. Beddard is convinced that the biggest of the 
existing species of whales, Sibbald's rorqual, is the 
largest living creature of which the earth has record, 
not even the Jurassic period with its wealth of 
monstrous reptiles having any brute transcending 
it. While the work is sufficiently technical, it is 
not without much interest from a purely popular 
point of view. A section devoted to the blood- 
thirsty grampus, which fearlessly attacks its larger 
cousins, has some of the fascination of Hugo's story 
of the big squid. It is interesting, too, to read 


[Feb. 16, 

that evolution seems to point to the ancestral or 
potential whale as being akin to the armor-clad 
armadillo or pichiciago, possibly through the glyp- 
todonts. As a whole the book is clearly written, 
and it is a worthy addition to the " Progressive 
Science Series," of which its author is the general 

Some of the " The Red Bad g e * Courage" es- 

great battles tablished the reputation of the author 

of the world. of great Battles of the World" 
(Lippincott). Stephen Crane's vigorous pen pur- 
sued a brief but notable career. It is therefore 
with the greater interest that we examine the con- 
tent of the present volume. Nine great battles are 
described with more or less detail. They are Bunker 
Hill, Vittoria, the Siege of Plevna, the Storming 
of Burkersdorf Heights, Leipsig, Lutzen, the 
Storming of Badajos, the brief Campaign against 
New Orleans, and the Battle of Salferino. But it 
is with a sense of disappointment that we lay down 
the book. The author in most of the cases is not 
the same vivid portrayer of events that we have 
been accustomed to see in his other works. There 
is a kind of unevenness in the style, almost a lack 
of energy in places, that grows wearisome. But 
in a few cases, as those connected with the Swedish 
Campaign, and the battles of Leipsig and Lutzen, 
there is more wholesouledness and movement that 
grips the reader and carries him on to the end. 
This posthumous work will not increase its author's 
reputation, but it is a treasure to his friends because 
it embodies some of Crane's last literary work. 

An argument After an argument between Brain 
forpeaee and Brawn extending through the 

a, again* war. pageg of Mr James jj MacLaren's 

" Put up Thy Sword " (Revell), the author decides, 
somewhat obviously, in favor of peace as against 
war. That such a demonstration should be neces- 
sary at the beginning of the twentieth century is, 
perhaps, the most remarkable thing about the book. 
All the ground has been thoroughly threshed over 
by the wise in former ages, all the pleas for war 
as a development of character have been answered 
by the statement, attributed to President David S. 
Jordan, that all America's wars then should be civil 
wars, in order to give ourselves the entire good of 
them ; and the whole matter seemed settled in the 
estimation of thoughtful men and women long ago. 
But the appearance of this compact little volume 
makes it apparent that there is still demand enough 
for a knowledge of the Ten Commandments and 
the Golden Rule to warrant its publication. 

Letioni in 
rational comfort. 

A sensible and timely plea away 
from the " strenuous life " to one of 
common sense makes up Mrs. Mary 
Perry King's "Comfort and Exercise" (Small, 
Maynard & Co.). The lesson that so many Ameri- 
cans need far more than they do a gospel of nervous 
prostration and paresis is one of rational comfort, 
whether in education, at work, for the home, in 

dress, or during the time for exercise. Each of these 
topics forms a chapter of this pleasantly written 
book ; and it seems certain that our civilization 
would be advanced by the adoption of many of 
Mrs. King's suggestions, even to the point of toeing 
straight ahead instead of toeing out. The best of 
the teaching in the book goes to prove that comfort 
and money are not necessarily synonymous terms, 
a fact which makes all reform in our national 
habits possible if it can ever be realized. 

A readable "Eton" (Macmillan), by Mr. A. 

sketch of Glutton-Brock, is a compendious but 

Eton College. readable historical and descriptive 
account of the famous school where Udall and 
Keate flogged, and Shelley mused, and which Gray 
celebrated in a poem that Dr. Johnson disparaged. 
This is the third volume in the " Great Public 
Schools " series, the object of which is to give a 
brief yet for the general reader satisfactory account 
of these schools as they are to-day. Mr. Glutton- 
Brock outlines in his opening chapters what it is 
essential to know of Eton's historic past ; but his 
space is mainly devoted to describing the present 
buildings, studies, usages, etiquette, sports, and so 
on. The forty-six photographic plates are fairly 
good in their kind. 


Mrs. Margaret E. Sangster has her own audience, 
gained by many years of careful, thoughtful work. 
Her " Winsome Womanhood " (Revell) carries on the 
work with which her name has been associated, being 
addressed to women of all ages from fifteen years 
onward to the point where, her work as wife and mother 
done, she is " waiting for the angels." Photographs of 
great beauty and artistic posing from the faces and 
figures of beautiful women and girls add to the attrac- 
tiveness of the book, which is one of much spiritual 

The sentiments contained in Mr. Austin Bierbower's 
" How to Succeed " (Fenno) do him every credit, and 
the world would be a happier, a better, and a wiser 
place if it should adopt them literally. While lacking 
any striking originality, the book is based on the fun- 
damental moralities of the existing world rather than 
on the teachings of Jesus, which contain too lofty an 
ideal, seemingly, to be " practical." It would be hard 
to imagine a book based on the certain knowledge that 
the rich have no more chance in the Kingdom than the 
camel has to pass through the eye of a needle, with 
the unavoidable inference that riches are to be shunned 
as Heaven is to be sought! 

The Baltimore " Sun " is planning to make a some- 
what more elaborate feature of its literary criticism 
than is usual with daily newspapers. Beginning this 
month, it will have a page or more of such matter every 
week, under the editorship of Dr. Guy Carleton Lee, of 
the Johns Hopkins University, with the collaboration of 
many writers from the various colleges of the country. 
This is the way in which the thing ought to be done, 
and we wish that other journals would follow so excel- 
lent an example. 





" A Shorter Course in Munson Phonography," by Mr. 
James E. Munson, is a recent publication of Messrs. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

"An Elementary Grammar of the Spanish Language " 
and " An Elementary Spanish Reader," both the work 
of Mr. L. A. Loiseaux, have just been published by 
Messrs. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. publish " A School Gram- 
mar of the English Language," by Professor Edward 
A. Allen. It is an excellent book, prepared by a man 
who is both a sound scholar and an experienced teacher. 

Herr Heyse's " Das Madchen von Treppi " (Heath), 
edited by Professor Edward S. Joynes, and Herr Hein- 
rich Seidel's " Wintermarchen " (Holt), edited by Dr. 
Corinth Le Due Crook, are German texts recently pub- 

Volume IV. of "The Letters of Cicero," in Mr. 
Evelyn S. Shuckburgh's translation, has just been pub- 
lished by the Messrs. Mac mil Ian as a number in the 
Bohn Libraries," for which they are the agents in 

The Macmillan Co. publish " Miscellanies," by Ed- 
ward FitzGerald, as a " Golden Treasury " volume. 
Most of the matter has been reprinted before, but there 
are a few additions, and we are glad to have " Enphra- 
nor " and the other things in this convenient form. 

The Carnegie Library of Pittsbnrg send us a " Graded 
and Annotated Catalogue of Books in the Carnegie 
Library of Pittsburg for the use of the City Schools." 
It is a most helpful publication, and other large city 
libraries would do well to imitate the example thus set 
for them. 

The Oxford edition of " La Divina Commedia," pub- 
lished by Mr. Enrico Frowde, contains no word of En- 
glish. It gives us Dr. Moore's text and Mr. Paget 
Toynbee's index of proper names, all in a beautifully-; 
printed and tastefully-bound volume at a moderate 

The Macmillan Co. publish new editions of "The 
Prairie " and " The Pathfinder," in volumes having a 
semi-holiday appearance, with illustrations by Mr. 
Charles E. Brock. We are not informed as to whether 
these two books are the advance guard of a complete 
Cooper, or merely sporadic issues. 

That old-time favorite, Sir George Webbe Dasent's 
translation of " The Story of Burnt Njal," has been re- 
produced by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. in an attractive 
edition, which, we regret to say, omits the maps and 
plans, the appendices and index, and has even cut 
down the preface to much less than its original dimen- 

" Cinq Sce'nes de le Come'die Humaine " (Heath), 
edited by Dr. B. W. Wells; Lamartine's " Graziella " 
(Heath), edited by Professor F. M. Warren; Corneille's 
" Nicome'de " (Macmillan), edited by Professor James 
A. Harrison; aud M. Andre* Theuriet's "La Sainte- 
Catherine " (Jenkins), unedited, are the latest French 
texts for school use received by us. 

The American Book Co. publish " The Elements of 
Latin," by President W. R. Harper and Mr. Isaac B. 
Burgess. The same publishers send us other text- 
books, as follows: "Outlines of Roman History," by 
Dr. William C. Morey; a revised edition of the "Man- 
ual of the Constitution of the United States," prepared 
a quarter of a century ago by Israel Ward Andrews, 

and now brought up to date by Mr. Homer Morris; 
and an abridgment of the " Madame The'rese of Erck- 
mann-Chatrian," edited by Mr. C. Fontaine. 

"Abraham Lincoln: His Book," just published by 
Messrs. McClnre, Phillips & Co., is a facsimile repro- 
duction of a small leather-covered memorandum book 
owned by Lincoln during the campaign of 1858. It 
reproduces both the newspaper clippings and the auto- 
graph notes which the owner put into it, and constitutes 
a curious and interesting souvenir of the great President. 

" Who's Who " for 1901 appears with commendable 
promptitude, and is supplied in this country by the 
Macmillan Co. It is indispensable as a book of ref- 
erence concerning living Englishmen, and a sprink- 
ling of American names gives it some degree of special 
usefulness on our side of the Atlantic. But this feature 
does not make our own " Who's Who in America " any 
the less indispensable. 

With close attention to the words and rhythms of 
the original, and an almost exact reproduction of the 
rhymes, Mr. J. M. Morrison has translated " The Poems 
of Leopardi," into acceptable English. Only three of 
the thirty-four " Canti " are omitted from this version, 
which is to be commended for its faithfulness to the 
text, and for the not infrequent felicities of its diction. 
Messrs. Gay & Bird, London, are the publishers. 

The second volume of Mr. Samuel Albert Link's 
" Pioneers of Southern Literature," published by 
Messrs. Barbee & Smith, Nashville, deals with various 
war poets, humorists, and political writers, and with 
one great singer. The chapter on Poe will naturally 
attract the most attention, but the other chapters are 
the more valuable for students of our literature, merely 
because they present much information not easily ac- 
cessible elsewhere. 


[The following list, containing 92 titles, includes book* 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.} 


The Constitutional History of the United States, 1765- 
1895. By Francis Newton Thorpe. In 3 vols., 8vo, gilt 
tops. Chicago : Callaghan & Co. $7.50 net. 

The Times History of the War in South Africa, 1899- 
1900. Edited by L. S. Amery. Vol. I., illus. in photo- 
gravure, etc., large Svo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 392. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. Sold only in sets of 5 vols., $25. net. 

History and General Description of New France. By 
Rev. P. F. X. De Charlevoix, S.J.; trans, from the orig- 
inal edition, and edited, with notes, by Dr. John Gilmary 
Shea ; with new memoir and bibliography of the trans- 
lator by Noah Farnham Morrison. Vol. I., with steel 
portraits and maps, 4to, uncut, pp. 286. New York: 
Francis P. Harper. Sold only in sets of 6 vols., $18. net. 

The French Monarchy (1483-1789). By A. J. Grant, M.A. 
In 2 vols., 12mo, nncut. " Cambridge Historical Series." 
Macmillan Co. $2.25 net. 

Operations of General Gurko's Advance Guard in 1877. 
By Colonel Epanchin ; trans, by H. Havelock. Large 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 310. " Wolseley Series." Charles Scribner's 
Sons. $3.50. 

American History Told by Contemporaries. Edited by 
Albert Bushnell Hart. Vol. III., National Expansion, 
1783-1845. 8vo, pp. 668. Macmillan Co. $2. 

Canada under British Rule, 1760-1900. By Sir John G. 
Bourinot, K.C.M.G. With maps, 12mo, uncut, pp. 346. 
" Cambridge Historical Series." Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

An Essay on Western Civilization in its Economic As- 
pects (Mediaeval and Modern Times). By W. Cunning- 
ham, D.D. 12ruo, uncut, pp. 300. " Cambridge Historical 
Series." Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 



[Feb. 16, 


Lord Monboddo and Some of his Contemporaries. By Wil- 
liam Knight, LL.D. Illus. in photogravure, etc., 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 314. E. P. Dutton & Co. $5. 

Philip Vickers Fithian: Journal and Letters, 1767-1774. 
Edited for the Princeton Historical Association by John 
Rogers Williams. Illus. in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 320. Princeton University Library. 
$3. net. 

A History of Chinese Literature. By Herbert A. Giles, 

M.A. 12mo. pp. 448. " Literatures of the World." D. 

Appleton & Co. $1.50. 
English Satires. With Introduction by Oliphant Smeaton. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 298. "Warwick Library of English 

Literature." Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
Abraham Lincoln, His Book : A Facsimile Reproduction 

of the Original. With Explanatory Note by J. McCan 

Davis. 32mo. McClure, Phillips & Co.' 
Die Griechische Tragodie im Lichte der Vasenmalerei. 

Von John H. Huddilston ; neu durchgesehene ansgabe 

iibersetzt von Maria Hense. Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 215. 

Freiburg I. Br.: Friedrich Ernst Fehsenfeld. Paper. 
The Story of Burnt Njal. From the Icelandic of the Njals 

Saga. By the late Sir George Webbe Dasent, D.C.L. 

With frontispiece, 12mo, gilt top, pp. 333. E. P. Dutton 

& Co. $1.50. 
The Poems (' Canti ') of Leopardi. Done into English by 

J. M. Morrison, M.A. 16mo, uncut, pp. 140. London : 

Gay & Bird. 
The Art of Translating. With special reference to Cauer's 

" Die Kunst des Ueberaetzens." By Herbert Gushing 

Tolman, Ph.D. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 79. Benj. H. Sanborn 

& Co. 70 cts. net. 
Pioneers of Southern Literature. By Samuel Albert 

Link. Vol. II., 16mo, pp. 225. Nashville, Tenn.: Barbee 

& Smith. 75 cts. 
Spoil of the North Wind: Poetical Tributes to Omar 

Khayyam. Collected by Edward Martin Moore. 12mo, 

uncut, pp'. 91. Chicago: Blue Sky Press. $1. 
Pebbles from a Brook. By John Eglinton. 12mo, pp. 115. 

Kilkenny : Standish O'Grady. Paper. 
Webs. By Bert Finck. 12mo, pp. 35. Louisville: John 

P. Morton & Co. 


Ye Gods and Little Fishes : A Travesty on the Argonautic 
Expedition in Quest of the Golden Fleece. By James A. 
Henshall, M.D.; with designs by J. L. Ludlow. 8vo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 213. Robert Clarke Co. $2. net. 

The Story of Valentine and his Brother. By Mrs. M. O. 
W. Oliphant; paraphrased by Susannah Bay. Illus., 
12mo, gilt top, pp. 39. New York : Wm. R. Jenkins. 


The Oresteia of ^Jscbylus. Translated and explained by 
George C. W. Warr, M.A. Illus. in photogravure, 12mo, 
gilt top, pp. 220. "The Athenian Drama." Longmans, 
Green, & Co. $2. 

The Letters of Cicero : The Whole Extant Correspondence 
in Chronological Order. Trans, by Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, 
M.A. Vol. IV., B.C. 33-43, completing the work. 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 386. Macmillan Co. $1.50 net. 

Cassell's National Library. New volumes : Bacon's The 
Advancement of Learning, Shakespeare's Measure for 
Measure, Hakluyt's The Discovery of Muscovy, Herodo- 
tus's Egypt and Scythia, Mungo Park's Travels in the 
Interior of Africa, Vol. II., Tales from the Decameron, 
Spenser's The Shepherd's Calendar. Each 24mo. Cassell 
& Co., Ltd. Per vol., paper, 10 cts. 


Linnet: A Romance. By Grant Allen. With portrait, 12mo, 
gilt top, pp. 394. New Amsterdam Book Co. $1.50. 

Mrs. Clyde : The Story of a Social Career. By Julien Gor- 
don. 12mo, pp. 363. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

Eastover Court House. By Henry Burnham Boone and 
Kenneth Brown. 12mo, pp. 318. Harper & Brothers. 

Studies in Love. By Maude Egerton King. 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 275. E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.50. 

A Daughter of the Fields. By Katharine Tynan. 12mo, 

pp. 312. A. C. McClurg & Co. $1.50. 
Nell Gwynne of Old Drury, Our Lady of Laughter : A 

Romance of King Charles II. and his Court. By Hall 

Downing. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 310. Rand, McNally 

& Co. $1.25. 
A Hero in Homespun: A Tale of the Loyal South. By 

William E. Barton. New edition; 12mo, pp. 393. D. 

Appleton & Co. $1. 
Tangled Flags. By Archibald Clavering Gunter. 12mo, 

gilt top, pp. 282. Home Publishing Co. $1.25. 
Wellesley Stories. By Grace Louise Cook. 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 340. Boston : Richard G. Badger & Co. $1.50. 
The Conquest of London. By Dorothea Gerard (Madame 

Longarde de Longgarde). 12mo, pp. 321. F. M. Buckles 

& Co. $1.25. 
A Quaker Scout. By N. P. Runyan. 12mo, pp. 277. Abbey 

Press. $1.25. 
Through Stress and Storm. By Gregory Brooke. 12mo t 

uncut, pp. 240. The Abbey Press. $1. 
Sweetbriar. By L. M. Elshemus. With portrait, 12mo, 

pp. 235. Abbey Press. $1. 
Love: Stories from McClure's. With frontispiece, 16mo, 

uncut, pp. 172. McClure, Phillips & Co. 50 cts. 

The Inhabitants of the Philippines. By Frederic H. 

Sawyer. Illus., large 8vo, uncut, pp. 422. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. $4. net. 
The Shakespeare Country. By John Leyland. Illus., 

4to,gilt edges, pp. 102. "Country Life Library." Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $3.50. 
Where Black Rules White: A Journey across and about 

Hayti. By Hesketh Prichard. Illus., large 8vo, uncut, 

pp. 288. Charles Scribner's Sons. $3. 
Winchester. By R. Townsend Warner. Illus., 12mo, gilt 

top, pp. 217. '' Great Public Schools." Macmillan Co. 

Complete Hand-Book of Havana and Cuba. By Albert 

J. Norton. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 324. Rand, McNally 

& Co. $1.50. 


Encyclopeedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Bible. 
Edited by Rev. T. K. Cheyne, M.A.. and J. Sutherland 
Black, M.A. Vol. II., E to K. Illus., 4to, pp. 600. 
Macmillan Co. $5. net. 

The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconcilia- 
tion. By Albrecht Ritschl ; English translation edited 
by H. R. Mackintosh, D.Phil., and A. B. Macaulay, M.A. 
Large 8vo, pp. 673. Charles Scribner's Sons. $4. net. 

Christian Marriage : The Ceremony, History, and Signifi- 
cance. By the Rev. J. Foote Bingham, D.D. 12mo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 342. E. P. Dutton & Co. $2. 

With Christ at Sea: A Personal Record of Religious Ex- 
periences on Board Ship for Fifteen Years. By Frank T. 
Bullen. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 325. F. A. Stokes Co. $1.50. 

The Teachers' Commentary on the Gospel according to 
St. Matthew. By F. N. Peloubet, D.D. Illus., 8vo, pp. 380. 
Oxford University Press. $1.25. 

The Bartered Birthright: Forty Brief Expository Ad- 
dresses on the Life of Jacob. By Rev. F. A. D. Launt, 
D.D. 8vo, gilt top, pp. 240. E. P. Dutton & Co. 


Gardens Old and New : The Country House and its Garden 
Environment. Illus., folio, gilt edges, pp. 295. " Country 
Life Library." Charles Scribner's Sons. $15. 

How the Garden Grew. By Maud Maryon. Illns., 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 255. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 

Elizabeth and her German Garden. Illus., 12mo, pp. 18&. 
Laird & Lee. 75 cts.; paper, 25 cts. 

The Bird Book. By Fannie Hardy Eckstorm. Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 276. D. C. Heath & Co. 60 cts. net. 


The American Negro, What he Was, What he Is, and 
What he May Become : A Critical and Practical Discus- 
sion. By William Hannibal Thomas. 8vo, gilt top, un- 
cut, pp. 440. Macmillan Co. $2. 

The History of Tammany Hall. By Gustavus Myers. 
12mo, pp. 357. New York : Published by the Author. 




Factory People and their Employees : How their Rela- 
tions Are Made Pleasant and Profitable. By Edwin L. 
Shuey,M.A. Illus., 12mo, pp. 224. New York: Lentilhon 
& Co. 75 eta. net. 


The Child : A Stndy in the Evolution of Man. By Alexander 
Francis Chamberlain, M. A. Illus., 12mo, pp. 498. "Con- 
temporary Science Series." Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The Romance of the Earth. By A. W. Bickerton. Ulna., 
12mo, pp. 181. MacmillanCo. 80 cts. 


Hans Memlinc. By W. H. James Weale. Dins, in photo- 
gravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 110. " Great Masters in 
Painting and Sculpture." MacmillanCo. $1.75. 


The Teaching of Latin and Greek in the Secondary School. 

By Charles E. Bennett, A.B.. and George P. Bristol, A.M. 

12mo, pp. 336. " American Teachers Series." Longmans, 

Green, & Co. $1.50. 
Manual of the Constitution of the United States. By 

Israel Ward Andrews, D.D.; revised by Homer Morris, 

LL.B. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 430. American Book 

Co. $1. net. 
The Elements of Latin. By William R. Harper, Ph.D., 

and Isaac B. Burgess, A.M. Illus., 12mo, pp. 320. Amer- 
ican Book Co. Si. net. 

Outlines of Roman History. For high schools and acad- 
emies. By William C. Morey, Ph.D. Illus., 12mo, pp. 348. 

American Book Co. $1. net. 
Earth, Sky, and Air in Song. By W. H. Neidlinger ; Ulna. 

in colors, etc., by Walter Bobbett. Large 8vo, pp. 127. 

American Book Co. 70 cts. net. 
A School Grammar of the English Language. By Edward 

A. Allen. 12mo, pp. 169. D. C. Heath & Co. 60 cts. net. 
Silver Series of Classics. New volumes : Ruskin's Sesame 

and Lilies, edited by Agnes S. Cook; Goldsmith's The 

Traveller and The Deserted Village, edited by Frederick 

Tupper ; Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum and Other Poems. 

edited by Joseph B. Seabnry ; Tennyson's Lancelot and 

Elaine, edited by James E. Thomas. Each with portrait, 

12mo. Silver, Bnrdett <fe Co. Per vol., 30 cts. net. 
An Elementary Spanish Reader. By L. A. Loiseauz, 

B.S. 12mo, pp. 162. Silver, Bnrdett & Co. 
An Elementary Grammar of the Spanish Language. 

By L. A. Loiseaur, B.S. 12mo, pp. 192. Silver, Burdett 

Madame The'rese. Par Erckmann-Chatrian ; edited by 

C. Fontaine, B.L. 12mo, pp. 191. American Book Co. 

50 cts. net. 
Key and Flora to Bergen's Botany, Northern and Central 

States Edition. By Joseph Y. Bergen, A.M. Illus. 12mo, 

pp. 257. Ginn & Co. 45 cts. net. 
The Arithmetic Primer. By Frank H. Hall. Illus.. 12mo, 

pp. 108. Werner School Book Co. 
A Survey of English History. By Mary Tremain, A.M. 

12mo, pp. 58. Ainsworth & Co. Paper, 10 cts. 


Ethics, Descriptive and Explanatory. By S. E. Mezes, Ph.D. 
Large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 435. Macmillan Co. $2.60 net. 

Girls' Christian Names : Their History, Meaning, and 
Association. By Helena Swan. 18mo, uncut, pp. 516. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. $1.50. 

A Noah's Ark Geography: A True Account of the Travels 
and Adventures of Kit, Jnm-Jum, and the Cockyolly 
Bird. Faithfully set forth and pictured by Mabel Dearmer. 
Illus. in colors, 4to, pp. 221 Macmillan Co. $1.75. 

List of Books Relating to the Theory of Colonization, 
Government of Dependencies, etc. By A. P. C. Griffin. 
Second edition, with additions; 8vo, pp. 156. Govern- 
ment Printing Office. Paper. 

Domesday and Feudal Statistics. With a Chapter on 
Agricultural Statistics. By A. H. Inman. 12mo, pp. 161. 
London : Elliot Stock. 

How to Reason Infallibly : A Practical and Exact System 
of Logical Reasoning by Means of the Reasoning Frame. 
By Thomas D. Hawley. 12mo, pp. 225. Chicago : Pub- 
lished by the author. 

Report of the Librarian of Congress for the Year Ending 
June 30, 1900. 8vo, pp. 47. Government Printing Office. 

The New Dispensation at the Dawn of the Twentieth 
Century. By J. Wilson. 8vo, pp. 320. New York: 
Lenicke & Buechner. 

How to Enjoy Matrimony. By Rosa Marie. With por- 
trait. 18mo, pp. 96. Abbey Press. 25 cts. 

Books of All Publishers on 



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Royal 8vo, with portrait. $2.25 net 


A Biography. By CLARA L. THOMSON 
Royal 8vo, with plates. $2.25 net 

M. F. MANSFIELD & CO., Publishers 
14 West Twenty-second Street : : : NEW YORK 

Study and Practice of French. 

By L. C. BONAME, 258 South 16th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

A carefully graded series for preparatory schools, combining thor- 
ough study of the language with practice in conversation. Part I. 
(60 cts. 'and Part II. (90 cts.), for primary and intermediate grades, 
contain .subject-matter adapted to the minds of young pupils. Part 111 . 
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ments for admission to college. Part IV., Hand-book of' Pronuncia- 
tion (35 cts.), is a concise and comprehensive treatise for advanced 
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851 & 853 SIXTH AVENUE (cor. Forty-eighth Street) 

Catalogues sent to any address when requested. 

By Captain A. T. MAHAN 

The War in South Africa 

More than 400 Illustrations. Drawings by REMINGTON, 

THLLSTRLP, REUTERDAHL, and many others. 

Price, $5.00. 

For tale by all Jiooktellrrs, or 

R. H. RUSSELL, 3 W. 29th St., New York. 



%cconDcirp School anD College 
Celt 15ooks 




[Feb. 16, 

JAPANESE ART NOVELTIES Imported direct from 
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120 THE DIAL [Feb. 16, 1901. 

1765 1895 




1765-1895 r 

Illustrated with Map. Analytical Table of Contents and Index. 

Author of "Constitutional History of the American People, 1776-1850" (sometime 
Fellow and Professor of American Constitutional History in the University 
of Pennsylvania, 1885-1898). 

Three Octavo Volumes, Cloth, $7.50 net. 

This exhaustive work is the result of the continuous labor of more than twenty 
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American National System of Government 

and is undoubtedly the most complete narrative of our National Constitutional 
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clearness, amplitude, and unity. 

The Historical Trinity on the Federal Constitution 

THORPE . . 1765=1895 . Cloth, 3 volumes, $ 7.50 net 
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The variations in the treatment of their theme by these great authors indicate 
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in Constitutional Literature conflicts with the others. 





Jfiitrarg Critirism, gismsston, sirtr 

EDITED BY ) Volume XXX. 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE, j .to. 353. 

n/TAT>rui IOAI J0 efr. a copy- J FINK AKTS B0m>iKo. 

, M.AKL/H. 1, 19U1. S2.ayar. \ Room. 610-630-631. 


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OUR OPPPP We wl " send y u the entjre set of thirty- seven volumes, charges pre- 
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[March 1, 




A BOOK OF REMEMBRANCE. By Mrs. E. D. GILLESPIE. Illus. Crown 8vo, $2.50. (Ready about March 15.) 
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UP FROM SLAVERY. By Booker T. Washington. 

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For Sale Everywhere, or at the Publishers, 



126 THE DIAL, [March 1, 




A Romance of Old Anjou. By ELEANOR C. PRICE, author of "In the Lion's Mouth," "Brown 

Robin," etc. One vol., 12mo, 382 pp , cloth, $1.50. 

Anyone who begins this fascinating story of life two hundred years ago will not readily stop till the last page is 
read. "The Heiress of the Forest " will take its place as one of the best novels of the day, both from the standpoint 
of historic fiction and from that of pure romance. 


A Study of Racial Character and Present- Day Conditions. By C. RUSSELL and H. S. LEWIS. With 
an introduction by Canon BARNETT, and a preface by the Right Hon. JAMES BRYCE. Vol. XVII. 
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In seven thrilling chapters Mr. Sanderson recounts the exploits of more than a dozen patriotic soldiers. Even in 
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By the REV. S. BARING-GOULD, author of "Lives of the Saints," etc. One vol., 12mo, 400 pp., 
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By the HONORABLE JOSEPH H. CHOATE. One vol., 12mo, 38 pp., 35 cents. 

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By LORD ROSEBERY. One vol., 12mo, 35 pp., 35 cents. 

Lord Rosebery's Rectorial address was delivered before the students of the University of Glasgow on the 16th of 
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By HENRY OSBORN TAYLOR, author of " Ancient 
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Columbia University Press. 


Trans, from the second German edition by ALEXIS F. 
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WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE: Poet, Dramatist, and Man 

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By WILLIAM H. THOMAS. Cloth, $2.00. "Very remarkable." Boston Transcript. 



By FRANCIS G. PEABODY, Harvard. Cloth, $1.50. 
His teaching as to problems of modern society. 



the Globe Series. Cloth, $1.75. 



A strong story of life with the army at the frontier in the time of the Indian troubles in the latter seventies. 

By GWENDOLEN OVERTON. Cloth, $1.50. 



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"Far, far above all the novels of the year of 

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Cloth, $1.50. 

" Bold and daring . . . dramatic, picturesque, and 
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THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, 66 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

128 - THE DIAL, [March 1, 1901, 


A Sell 1 Or S Log I A book that will attract extraordinary attention. This prediction 
will be justified next month when we announce the name of its author. 

A Landmark History of New York : A sort of historical guide-book 

on a rather unusual plan. By Mr. ALBERT ULMANN, a New York merchant. It will be fully illustrated. 

Pleasures Of the TeleSCOpe : A Descriptive Guide for Amateur Astron- 
omers and all Lovers of the Stars. By GARRETT P. SERVISS, author of " Astronomy with an Opera- 
Glass," which has met with such brilliant success. It is an 8vo, and will cost $1.50. 

Some Ill=Used Words: A manual for the use of those that desire to write 
and speak correctly. By ALFRED AYRES, who gives simple and available rules and many illustrative 
examples for words frequently ill-used. It is a small, convenient book, and will cost $1.00. 

All the above books except the " SAILOR'S LOG " will be published March 10. 

In March, a/so, we shall Publish: 

China I Travels and Investigations in the "Middle Kingdom" A Study of its 
Civilization and Possibilities. Together with an Account of the Boxer War, the Relief of the Legations, 
and the Re-establishment of Peace. By JAMES HARRISON WILSON, A.M., LL.D., late Major-General 
United States Volunteers, and Brevet Major-General United States Army. Third edition, revised 
throughout, enlarged, and reset. 12mo, cloth, $1.75. 

General Wilson has been twice in China and has had extraordinary opportunities of observation, so 
that this work, which is practically new, will be invaluable to all who desire to understand the CHINA 

Valuable for a reasonable understanding of Oriental character is Professor GILES'S 

History of Chinese Literature, i vol., i2mo, 557 PP ., index, doth, $1.50. 

" Mind your own business, follow out your destiny, live in accord with the age, and leave the rest with 
God." MAXIM OF CHU YUNG-SHUN (1617-1689). 

" Few recent histories of literature are more pregnant with new and interesting material than this. There 
is nothing like it in any library, and one may say with assurance that there is not a dull page in it." BOSTON 

The tenth volume in the Literatures of the World Series. 

Mrs. Clyde, by JULIEN GORDON, a story of "high life" in Boston, New York, 
Newport, and Rome, attained its sixth edition almost immediately. It was recognized not only as a good 
story, but also as history, and many persons guessed correctly the original study. 

Life and Letters, by his son Leonard Huxley, though in 2 vols., 
and costing $5.00 net, is in its third edition. 

David HarUITl has been read by probably three million people. More than 505,000 
copies have been sold! 


Sttnf*iiS0ntfjl2 Journal of ILiterarg Criticism, Sisrasston, ano Information. 

No. S5S. 

MARCH 1, 1901. Vol. XXX. 




" A Distressing Misquotation. " Edmund C. 

Dr. Fitzedward Hall : An Appreciation. Ralph 

Olmsted Williams. 
Professor Triggs on Professor Wendell. Gardner 

Oar Public Libraries : A Suggestion. Duane 



Richards 133 


W. Gookin 137 

LITERATURE IN INDIANA. Martin W. Sampson 138 


Joseph Jastrow 139 

RECENT POETRY. William Norton Payne ... 140 
Hardy's Songs of Two. Miffliu's The Fields of 
Dawn. Jordan's To Barbara. Hudson's The 
Sphinx. Keeler's Idyls of El Dorado. Suther- 
land's Jacinta. Cro wninshield's Pictoris Carraina. 
Cole's In Scipio's Garden. Thaw's Poems. 
Wellea's The Lute and Lays. Painter's Lyrical 
Vignettes. Knowles's On Life's Stairway. Miss 
Peabody's Fortune and Men's Eyes. Mrs. Dorr's 
Afterglow. Carman and Hovey's Last Songs from 
Vagabondia. Thomson's A Day's Song. Shee- 
han's Cithara Mea. Pooler's Translations. 


The origin and development of the alphabet. An 
English sailor's lively narrative. Writings of a 
royal scribbler. Babylonians and Assyrians. A 
handy, lucid book on the Reformation. An inter- 
esting account of the siege of Peking. A hand-book 
of Havana and Cuba. The art of translating. 
Pictures of Shakespeare's country. 


NOTES 149 




The attention of the Illinois Legislature will 
soon be occupied by a number of bills relating 
to the State system of public schools, and it 
may be expected that the educational pot will 
boil briskly at Springfield during the present 
month. Besides numerous bills of minor im- 
portance already before the General Assembly, 
there will soon come up for consideration three 

measures of the utmost significance, for the 
consideration of which the legislative mind 
will need all of its wisdom. The measures in 
question are these : First, the appointment of 
a Commission for the purpose of unifying 
and modernizing the school law of the State, 
second, a revision of the so-called pension law 
of 1895, and third, a comprehensive measure 
prepared for the special needs of the school 
system of Chicago. If the Legislature shall 
deal intelligently and soberly with these three 
great questions, the result ought to prove of 
incalculable benefit to the educational interests 
of the community. 

The resolution for the appointment of a 
State Commission is a recognition of the cha- 
otic and patchwork condition of the existing 
school laws. Made from time to time, as 
special exigencies have arisen, these laws have 
never been subordinated to any set of control- 
ling principles, and leave many essential things 
unprovided for things demanded by the 
present condition of public education, and in 
many cases already incorporated into the sys- 
tem, although without express statutory au- 
thority. The school law of the State, in its 
existing form, is a thing of shreds and patches, 
at least a generation behind the age in many 
of its aspects, and self-contradictory at more 
than one point. It is greatly in need of in- 
telligent revision, and now seems likely to 
obtain it. To give but a single instance of its 
shortcomings, we may say that it gives no 
specific authority for schools of secondary edu- 
cation, although public opinion long ago settled 
the question of their justification. What is 
needed in this direction is not merely the 
specific mention of high schools, but a declar- 
ation similar to that of the Massachusetts 
statute, which compels high school education 
to be provided throughout the State for all 
who may desire it. 

The other two measures that are to come up 
for discussion relate only to the schools of 
cities having over one hundred thousand in- 
habitants which means, of course, the schools 
of Chicago alone. This, it may be explained 
to the uninitiated, is the ingenious way in which 
the Illinois Assembly gets around the consti- 
tutional objection to special legislation. Such 
a law, although special in its purpose, is gen- 



[March 1, 

eral in form, and does not contravene the con- 
stitutional prohibition. 

The question of providing pensions or an- 
nuities for retired teachers of the Chicago 
schools does not seem in a fair way of satis- 
factory solution. The existing statute is glar- 
ingly defective, but the substitute about to be 
proposed is very much worse. What is needed 
is a simple law, and the substitute is ridiculously 
complicated. What is needed is a law that 
shall be mandatory in all essential respects, 
and the substitute leaves large discretionary 
powers to an elective administrative board. 
The existing law needs to be amended, but the 
process of amendment should not overload it 
with intricate subtleties, nor should its whole 
spirit and purpose be changed thereby. If the 
Legislature deals wisely with this matter, it 
will make three changes in the present statute, 
and no more. It will make the term of service 
equal for men and women, iti will make the 
annuities proportional to the annual assess- 
ments, and it will remove the slight ambiguity 
now found in the paragraph which secures 
permanence of tenure subject to good behavior. 
With these three amendments, the law would 
be made impregnable as far as the courts are 
concerned, and it would work automatically 
for an indefinite period. It would not secure 
a fixed annuity, but it would secure a fair 
division of the funds annually available among 
the annuitants. To secure fixed annuities of 
reasonable amount, a very different method 
must be resorted to ; namely, the method of 
supplementing the assessments made upon 
teachers by a diversion of public funds to the 
extent found necessary. If the Legislature 
really desires to occupy an advanced educa- 
tional position upon this difficult question, it 
will adopt the method here suggested, and 
might do worse than frame its law upon the 
New York model. We could not well conceive 
of anything that would do so much to increase 
the dignity and stability of the teaching pro- 
fession in Illinois as the adoption of a statu- 
tory provision securing reasonable annuities to 
teachers retiring after a quarter-century of 

The third measure, and by far the most 
comprehensive one, to come under the consid- 
eration of the Legislature is the bill drafted 
under the auspices of the Civic Federation of 
Chicago. This bill is the product of much 
thought and investigation, and is, in the main, 
an enlightened and admirable document. Year 
before last, a Commission of one hundred mem- 

bers was appointed by the Civic Federation for 
the purpose of examining the whole question 
of legislation for the Chicago schools and the 
allied question of the methods of their admin- 
istration. This Commission was a representa- 
tive body, including in its membership men and 
women, educators and non-educators, clergy- 
men, lawyers, and men of affairs. It has held 
many general meetings and committee meet- 
ings, has called in a great deal of expert testi- 
mony, has listened to much discussion, and has 
at last framed a comprehensive report. A part 
of this report is the bill now before the State 
Legislature; the remainder consists of admin- 
istrative recommendations not suitable for legis- 
lative action, but intended to be addressed 
directly to the Chicago Board of Education. 
It is with the bill alone that we are now con- 
cerned, and a few words may be given to the 
statement of its most important features. 

In the first place, it provides for a reduction 
of the Board of Education from its present 
membership of twenty-one to nine. Such a 
reduction of membership is in accord with the 
best professional opinion in this matter, and 
would bring about the condition of things 
happily expressed by President Eliot when he 
said that a Board of Education should never 
consist of more persons than could sit around 
a table of moderate size, and discuss the ques- 
tions before them in ordinary conversational 
tones. The bill then provides for the super- 
intendency by giving its incumbent a legal 
status, great administrative powers in educa- 
tional matters, and a long term of service dur- 
ing which he cannot be removed except for 
some gross' dereliction of duty. The business 
manager of the schools is also given a legal 
status, enlarged powers and responsibilities, 
and tenure for a term of years. The appoint- 
ment of teachers is vested in the Superintendent, 
subject to preliminary competitive examina- 
tions to test the capabilities of candidates, and 
subject also to confirmation by the Board of 
Education. The certificate of the Chicago 
Normal School is accepted, as is entirely proper, 
in lieu of a special examination, but all appoint- 
ments are made upon probation for three years, 
after which time they become permanent dur- 
ing efficiency and good behavior. 

These are the main features of the plan now 
presented to the Legislature. They are all 
highly desirable features of a school law, and we 
find open to serious criticism only the one pro- 
vision that gives to the Superintendent the 
power, seemingly too arbitrary, of the dismissal 




of teachers, subject to the confirmation of his 
action by the Board of Education. In this 
respect the law now existing is better than the 
one proposed, for it provides a safeguard for 
the teacher in requiring written charges, to be 
investigated by the Board of Education, before 
a dismissal can take effect. It is no more than 
simple justice that this requirement should be 
insisted upon. In voting against it, the Com- 
mission was carried away, in the words of 
" The School Weekly," by the eloquence of 
one or two vigorous personalities who were 
seemingly controlled by two ideas to the exclu- 
sion of all others. " One was that the Chicago 
school system was going to the dogs because of 
a surplus of incompetent teachers. The second 
was that giving to the Superintendent of Schools 
supreme power would remedy all this." The 
simple fact is that it ought to be difficult to 
dismiss from the schools a teacher who has 
passed the probationary period. Make it as 
difficult as you will for a person to secure ap- 
pointment, make the tests as exacting as you 
please, but when the appointment is given, let 
there be given with it a sense of security that 
cannot possibly coexist with the power of any 
one officer to destroy a professional career once 
entered upon in good faich. It is only upon 
these terms that a really effective service can 
be built up ; it is only subject to this condition 
that the best class of men and women can be 
persuaded to enter the educational ranks. 

What the fate of this measure will be at the 
hands of the Legislature we do not pretend to 
say. If we may judge by the fate of the not 
dissimilar bill presented two years ago, the 
outlook is not hopeful. That bill, like the 
present one, was in the main admirable, and 
needed, like its successor, only a little judicious 
amendment to be made a model example of 
educational legislation. But instead of intel- 
ligent consideration, it received only derision, 
it was assailed by interested persons in all sorts 
of mean and petty and unworthy ways, and 
was finally rejected with contumely. Let us 
hope, at least, that the General Assembly now 
in office will have a better sense of its dignity 
and responsibility, and that the new measure 
will be accorded the respectful attention it so 
richly deserves. Its enactment, after some 
slight revision, would set Illinois in the front 
rank, as far as educational interests are con- 
cerned, among our Commonwealths, and would 
doubtless become, as our Library Act of nearly 
thirty years ago has become, a model for the imi- 
tation and the emulation of other communities. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL) 

A correspondent (" S.") in your issue of February 1 
tartly refers to what seems to him a lapse ou the part of 
the editor of " An American Anthology." One of Poe's 
" gems " he finds to be " marred by one of the most dia- 
bolical blunders of misquotation in all the annals of 
printing." Quoting, from "To One in Paradise," 
" And all my nightly dreams 
Are where thy dark eye glances 

And where thy footstep gleams," 

he truthfully states that, " instead of dark ' eye, Mr. 
S ted man has gray eye." 

If " S." will consult the Stedman-Woodberry edition 
of Poe's Works (the latest complete text), he will see 
that " gray," and not " dark," was the adjective finally 
used by the author of " To One in Paradise." Doubt- 
less Poe might have stuck to his early draft of that 
ballad, instead of carefully rewriting it, if he could 
have known that " S." was to say of " gray eye glances " 
that the " distressing alliteration would have ruined the 
fame of Milton." 

On page 190, Vol. X., of the Edition cited, the vari- 
orum notes show the poet's many radical emendations, 
one of which is the substitution in question. After 
my labors with Professor Woodberry in the editorship 
of Poe, I could hardly be expected to prefer any text 
before our own, and I would be apt to scrutinize the 
proof of selections therefrom with unusual care. One 
of the claims of our text to the title of "definitive" 
is that it follows Poe's own copy of his last book of 
verse, with the marginal revision by his own hand. 
Occasionally his changes from a crude early draft are 
open to criticism, but nineteen times in twenty they are 
most felicitous (as in the ballad of "Lenore"). Pos- 
sibly this may not be said of the change from " dark " 
to " gray," yet it will be recalled that Poe had a pas- 
sion for alliteration, and, again, that such a change was 
sometimes determined by other than technical consid- 
erations. In standing by the text of the " Anthology," 
I may be guilty, but certainly not of the " blunder " 
which is proverbially worse than a crime. 


Bronxvilk, N. F., February 19, 1901. 


(To the Editor of THE 

Apropos of the recent death of Dr. Fitzedward Hall, 
some brief public expression of appreciation of his ser- 
vices to students of modern English may be fit and 
proper, especially as coming from a controversial op- 
ponent. My controversies with Dr. Hall, although con- 
tinuing through several years, have passed from notice 
and, except for a few, from memory. But I have long 
wanted to say something of this kind, and I hope it may 
be said in THE DIAL, because most of the discussions 
between Dr. Hall and myself were printed in its columns. 

It is not necessary to enlarge on Dr. Hall's attain- 
ments, his enormous industry, the breadth of his reading, 
the acuteness of his perceptions, the subtlety and truth- 
fulness of his distinctions. Nobody, I suppose, has ever 
examined his printed work in English without astonish- 
ment at the mere labor that produced it. Its solid 
value is unquestionable, in fact, incomparable. Dr. 
Hall was the first to show how questions of good and 



bad English (to refer to a single line of his pursuits) 
must be studied in order to reach safe conclusions. If 
anybody ever got a slight and temporary advantage 
over Dr. Hall in discussions of this kind, it was because 
he had learned the art frt)tn his master, Dr. Hall him- 
self. It is no wonder that Dr. Hall's authority became 
almost papal. I have spoken of his acuteness and 
subtlety. He did more than anybody else, more 
perhaps than all others, in bringing to the attention 
of American readers obscure, unsuspected differences 
in sense between American and British uses of the 
same words. He himself was keenly alive to such 
differences, and combated strenuously the prevalent 
notion in the United States that the differences between 
British and American English are slight. 

Dr. Hall's studies were not restricted to English. 
He printed much in other departments. But of this I 
do not venture to speak. It seems to me very desirable 
that Dr. Hall's letters and contributions to periodicals 
should be re-printed in book form for the shelves of 

New Haven, Conn,, February 18, 1901. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The communication of Mr. Oscar Lovell Triggs in 
THE DIAL of February 16, concerning Professor Bar- 
rett Wendell's " A Literary History of America," point- 
ing out " the strength " on which he brought himself to 
consider this volume, is more complimentary to the 
writer of the editorial in THE DIAL of December 16 to 
which Dr. Triggs refers, than to Professor Wendell's 
standing in literary and educational circles, perhaps; but 
before questioning the questioner I must cry mea maxima 
culpa, since Pmust be uncomplimentary myself and ac- 
knowledge that I have read neither editorial nor book. 

However, it has struck me as something to be regret- 
ted that Mr. Triggs should have seemed to have con- 
founded his desire to communicate, with his desire to 
review Professor Wendell's book, and Mr. Triggs's 
eight little paragraphs of big questions scarcely appear 
as food for thought so much as for a pedagogic exami- 
nation test. 

If it is the function of a pedagogue to put questions, 
it is supposed to be his function to be able to answer 
them. It is forbearance then on the part of Mr. Triggs, 
perhaps, that he has not embodied these questions with 
others, all answered, in a definitive review or a volume 
on the same subject. At least I imagine the time has 
not yet come for a precise history of our literature, when 
Professor Wendell's sins of literary omission shall be 
made forgotten. 

If Mr. Triggs actually expects his eight series of 
questions to be answered, one might remind him, con- 
cerning one question of the second, that English litera- 
ture has two meanings. The term may be interpreted 
as literature in English or as literature in England. I 
believe Professor Wendell would have the former sig- 
nificance in mind in writing such a book as " A Literary 
History of America," and that may account for his non- 
consideration of Yiddish literature in America. 

Perhaps Professor Wendell's volume is out of place 
in its series, " conceived by an European from an Euro- 
pean point of view," yet not more out of place than a 
literary ambassador at the court of St. James. Just 
what Dr. Fiske's not being dazzled by kings and queens 
would have to do with a conscientious effort on the part 

of Professor Wendell, is problematical, yet Dr. Fiske 
and the others have been wise enough to consider kings 
and queens, and it is not uninteresting to note the effect 
King George III. of Great Britain and Ireland had on 
the life work of Mr. George Washington of Mt. Vernon 
and elsewhere. At present it is a question whether a 
preface should exclude a text, but there is the consola- 
tion always that second editions are possible. 

As to devoting 479 of 518 pages (this may include 
the index; I do not know) of a volume of the sort to 
BOSTON (and New England), one must cry out " Let 
the Punishment Jit the Crime!" Let Professor Wendell 
be compelled to demand a new edition of his book 
wherein a certain number of pages shall be devoted to 
chronicling the literary doings of the United States 
county by county, parish by parish, each county and 
each parish having its own section. But where a county 
or a parish has no literature to present, let the pages 
assigned to such a county or such a parish remain blank, 
or decorated with an appropriate quotation from Walt 
Whitman or Homer's catalogue of ships. In this man- 
ner a comprehensiveness might be attained of great in- 
terest to a leisurely statistician. Finally, let Professor 
Wendell apologize for forgetting to mention that the 
West has been won ! 

As soon as I finish reading Mr. Triggs's excellent 
" Selections from the Prose and Poetry of Walt Whit- 
man," I will lend it to " Mrs. Harris," and " Mrs. 
Harris," who is now reading Professor Wendell's book, 
will exchange with me. Perhaps when I come to read 
" A Literary History of America " myself, I will under- 
stand Mr. Triggs's temptation, but the form of his com- 
munication seems to me to be in need of absolution. 


East Brewster, Mass., February 20, 1901. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

May I have place in THE DIAL for a word to say 
that I think the work of our public libraries, which you 
discuss so sanely in your issue of Feb. 1, does not properly 
cease at the circulating point. Especially, in the larger 
cities, it seems to me, there should be free reading 
rooms in several different parts of the municipality, 
accessible for all classes and at all reasonable times of 
the day and evening. The reading room would seem 
to supplement the circulating feature and add to the 
usefulness of the library as a whole. The free reading 
room at a central point is practically foreclosed against 
that class who most need its advantages. The laboring 
people cannot go from their homes on the outskirts of 
the city and get much good from reading after they 
have done a full day's work and taken their evening 
meal. Besides, the item of transportation is not incon- 
siderable for the poorer intelligent classes. And an 
opportunity to keep in touch with current events as 
they appear in daily and weekly papers, and in the 
periodicals, ought not to be denied this important and 
large part of our population. The free reading room 
will do much to lessen gambling and drunkenness, and 
is a wise policy for any municipality to foster viewed 
merely from the economic standpoint. It is a work 
that should provoke the active interest of philanthropic 
persons. It is somewhat singular that this democratic 
move has not awakened a greater impetus among those 
to whom the stewardship of great wealth has been en- 
trusted. DUANE MOWRY. 

Milwaukee, Wis., February SO, 1901. 




WB* Stfa gks. 


Dr. Allen has given us a remarkable biog- 
raphy in his " Life and Letters of Phillips 
Brooks." He has portrayed a remarkable 
man. Perhaps no richer personality has ma- 
tured on American soil. The biography has 
great excellences and some obvious faults. 

Like most such works in modern times it is 
excessive in bulk. As if Hesiod had never 
lived, writers refuse to consider the half to be 
more than the whole. Publishers protest and 
readers complain, but still the volumes grow. 
Sixteen hundred closely printed pages are a 
good many to devote to one man. They might 
suffice for the chronicle of an important period. 

If Carlyle thought the days of hero-worship 
past he should be living at this hour. On 
every page of these volumes are heard the 
trumpets and shawms. The misfortune of being 
idolized which pursued Phillips Brooks through 
his lifetime follows him to his grave. While 
he lived he overtopped the curling incense, 
and he emerges unharmed above it even now. 
You distinguish the man with all his noble 
features even when set forth as a demigod. 
It may heighten the verisimilitude of the por- 
trait to give it the atmosphere which Phillips 
Brooks breathed for thirty years. Yet above 
his dear remains there are those who would 
prefer to see a more severe and chastened 

Nor did the career and personality of Phillips 
Brooks require copious interpretation. Some 
people need no introduction. Before a great 
landscape, a great picture, a great man, silence 
is the more reverent homage. The admirable 
cicerone irks us ; our admiration is chilled be- 
cause demanded. We are ready to resent the 
intrusive interpretation and to look the other 
way. Give us the facts of the great man's life, 
what he said and did, what he enjoyed and 
suffered, the things he liked, the things he 
hated, and let us sift and group them and make 
our inferences from them as we may. 

Let us not be thought ungrateful. Happily 
in these volumes there is much to praise. After 
throwing out all that is redundant and irrele- 
vant, there remains a true vision of a noble 
man. Dr. Allen knows him as he was. When 
we doubt the biographer's judgment he has 

ander V. Q. Allen. In two volumes. New York : E. P. Button 

himself supplied the material upon which to 
form our own. He has made large use of 
carefully kept note- books and diaries whose 
existence was unsuspected by lifelong friends, 
and has drawn so much from them that these 
volumes might bear the old-fashioned title, 
" Life and Remains." The notes are not shape- 
less memoranda, but well-wrought paragraphs, 
not to be likened to the scrawls of an artist's 
sketch-book but to delicate and finished draw- 
ings. They indicate in the writer a character- 
istic sense of form and instinct for perfection. 
There is wealth without exuberance. Before 
Phillips Brooks was of age he had learned his 
tools and was a master of expression. The 
earliest notes no more spurt with the spasmodic 
cleverness of youth than the latest dribble with 
the enforced parsimony of age. It is the flow 
of a quiet stream, welling up and gliding on: 

The letters are numerous, not often import- 
ant or brilliant, but delightful with the charm 
of slipshod ease. They are anybody's letters, 
not a touch of art about them. They are full of 
most gracious fooling. Precisians will regard 
them as unduly frolicsome. They touch and go 
lightly. They are not crammed with wit or 
wisdom. They are not often quotable. For 
axioms or epigrams you must look elsewhere. 
They are for a friend's amusement, for the 
writer's relaxation. They are like good talk, 
and especially like Phillips Brooks's good talk, 
which mostly kept the valley road. When he 
would climb peaks or thread crevasses he wrote 
a sermon or made an entry in a note-book. 
The fire kindled when he mused rather than 
when he chatted. He said what came to the 
surface and let his fancy loose. If too many 
began to listen, the talk was apt to dissolve in 

Was the great preacher's nature as complex 
as Dr. Allen imagines ? The public instinct is 
with those who look on it as essentially simple, 
as simple as his career, which was only except- 
ional in its felicity. Born in the Brahmin 
caste of New England, he inherited through 
half a dozen generations piety, scholarship, and 
public spirit. He grew up in a household 
which added deep conviction to plain living 
and high thinking. His mother was a woman 
of rare almost tragic intensity of spirit. 
His father was a Boston merchant of the best 
stamp, energetic, orderly, diligent, unpretend- 
ing, a man content with a modest livelihood, 
of sound sense and conservative judgment, glad 
to reserve strength and leisure for public aims. 
Through the Adams School and the Latin 



[March 1, 

School Phillips Brooks passed to Harvard 
College. Unambitious of college rank, but 
alert and eager for knowledge and culture, he 
stood high among his classmates, winning their 
liking while retaining a certain aloofness and 
reserve, which in after years wore off the sur- 
face yet clung to the core of his being. After 
an attempt to teach rough and indocile lads, 
which proved a failure and caused momentary 
discouragement Dr. Allen has perhaps dwelt 
on the mishap somewhat unduly, he found 
his lifework in the ministry of the Episcopal 
Church, in which, from four years old, he had 
grown up. He passed three years at a Semi- 
nary of that church near Alexandria, Virginia. 
They were years of quiet growth, unincumbered 
by too much instruction. Some men are 
their own best teachers, and Phillips Brooks 
"browsed on the sprouts of his own mind," 
pursued his own studies, began to value and 
record his thinking, and came into knowledge 
of himself. At his graduation he was so easily 
first among his fellows that there was no doubt 
of his ultimate rank in the ministry. After 
two years in a somewhat obscure post where 
he could not be hid, he took charge of one of 
the foremost parishes in the church, that of 
the Holy Trinity, Philadelphia. He was in 
no haste to assume larger tasks, but he had no 
fear of them. Under the influence of a great 
position at a momentous period, the years of 
the Civil War and of Reconstruction, he grew 
rapidly. He stood firmly for the Union and 
for the Freedmen, when it cost something to 
be outspoken. After ten years of rich service, 
being not yet thirty-five years old, he was 
drawn back to his native city, there for two and 
twenty years to preside over an historic parish. 
But he insensibly widened his pastorate to in- 
clude all who called upon him for his ministries 
in Boston and parts adjacent. In the great 
fire of 1872 his church was burned. The 
seeming catastrophe became a blessing. It 
precipitated a difficult decision to remove an 
old parish to a more favorable neighborhood. 
Four years later there had risen, under the 
spell of his eloquence, at the hands of a large- 
minded and generous corporation, using the 
unique gifts of Richardson the architect and 
Lafarge the painter, a building that marks 
an epoch in our architecture, the noblest church 
edifice yet built in this country. The building 
and the man who had no small part in making 
it what it was went well together. It was 
thronged with all sorts and conditions of men, 
to whom his word was life. There he was as 

if enshrined or enthroned for the rest of his 
days, and now it is his monument. It seemed 
as if no more changes could come to him, but 
upon Bishop Paddock's death in 1891, by 
common consent of city and state Phillips 
Brooks was marked as his successor. Those 
not of his own communion claimed him as " our 
bishop." There was some delay in the con- 
firmation of the election by the standing com- 
mittees and the bishops. Dr. Allen has told 
the story with little comment. He has declined 
to erect a pillory in his pages, however just 
the right of anyone to occupy it. 

Phillips Brooks did not seek the episcopate, 
yet rather to the surprise of some he welcomed 
it and rejoiced in a new opportunity. He felt 
it also to be a release from crushing burdens. 
But he had not fully measured its own strains. 
He set himself an exacting standard of official 
duty. He was already overwrought when dis- 
ease struck an enfeebled frame and found him 
an easy prey. He died after a few days of 
illness, on the 23d of January, 1893. He was 
fifty-seven years old. 

It was a career whose events were sermons, 
addresses, lectures, changes of rectorships, 
refusals of parishes, professorships, and presi- 
dencies, the building of a great church, and 
the consecration as Bishop. Its relaxations 
were books, friends, and foreign travel. It 
differed from other ministerial careers less in 
kind than in degree. So with the character 
formed and revealed by it. It differed from 
the characters of other men in the range, pro- 
portion, and completeness of its powers. It was 
pure, high-minded, devoted, earnest to enthusi- 
asm yet ever sound and sane, the temperament 
and force of genius combined with saving com- 
mon sense, the habits of industry, fidelity, 
patience, sobriety, which ensure success in 
whatever field. A large intellect, a right con- 
science, a commanding will, a noble heart, were 
fitly tabernacled in a mighty frame that worked 
without jar or friction almost to the end. The 
whole grand nature was subdued and conse- 
crated to the one task of living and proclaiming 
the gospel of Christ. If just balance, and 
equipoise of powers or their concentration upon 
the highest aim, involve subtlety, the character 
may be deemed complex ; otherwise it was 
simplicity itself. 

Very early in his life Phillips Brooks recog- 
nized his peculiar powers and the work to which 
they pointed him. It was not the mission of 
the seer who declares truths which perhaps 
only posterity may comprehend at their just 




value. It was rather that of the prophet who 
discerns in the religion of his time eternal 
verities, needing restatement ; who takes the 
lessons of all time and makes them live again 
to-day. What the marvellous preacher was 
capable of becoming as a metaphysician deal- 
ing with fundamental thought, what he might 
have been as a formal theologian eliciting from 
Holy Writ its essential dogmas and system- 
atizing Christian Truth, it is idle to inquire. 
Genius is a well-nigh incalculable force, and 
may apply itself in numberless directions. 
Anyone who would judge the capacity of Phil- 
lips Brooks for abstract thought upon religion 
may well study the ten pages of the second 
volume of this biography, in which to clear 
his own mind he reviewed his religious experi- 
ence and put on record his inmost convictions 
in theology. Nothing could be simpler or more 
lucid. But while we may believe his genius 
capable of many things which it left unat- 
tempted, we must see that its special province 
was to take great truths out of the rubbish 
heap of dead phrases, revitalize and freshly 
illustrate them, and cause them mightily to 
prevail over the hearts and lives of men. There 
was power for men to live by, if it could only 
get at them, in the old theology that in this 
period of the New Reformation was everywhere 
finding restatement and elucidation. What 
had grown obscure and was in danger of be- 
coming obsolete, what had been familiar in 
words and was in danger of passing into the 
realm of cant, what was really new in its form 
and was in peril of becoming a heresy by 
standing alone, Phillips Brooks seized with a 
certain swift and fine apprehension and re- 
deemed for the service of life. That was his 
peculiar province in which he stood peerless, 
the application of truth to common living, 
bringing Jesus Christ, with all the glow of 
divine light upon His face, down among every- 
day men and things. As he believed in God 
the Father of a world of men, so he believed 
in man the potential Son of God. For the 
lowest, meanest, most germinal type of hu- 
manity, he cherished an undying hope. 

That large hopefulness was perhaps the 
salient feature in the character of Phillips 
Brooks. Other men were as brave and devoted, 
but who was ever as hopeful as he? When 
others walked in darkness anxious well-nigh to 
despair, on his face there was no " glimmer of 
twilight " but ever " glad, confident morning." 
Transient sorrows might disturb, immediate 
difficulties might perplex him, but he had 

never a doubt as to the final issue. Such sure 
hope was with him both a native gift and a 
Christian grace. And out of such hope grew 
joyousness irrepressible, lightness of heart free 
and frolicsome as that of a child. It was cheer 
and courage for all about him. It was a per- 
petual fountain sparkling in the sun and water- 
ing every thirsty grass-blade and wilting flower. 
Whether he outstretched his hand to greet a 
friend, to console a mourner, to lead a prodigal 
home, there was a thrill in the grasp as of a 
strong glad son of God, delighting in His 

How quietly Phillips Brooks rose above or 
stood apart from contentions and controversies! 
The unruffled atmosphere of Dr. Allen's biog- 
raphy is in just keeping with the life por- 
trayed. Some remote murmur of battle past 
seems dying away in the distance, but around 
the great central figure of the scene there is 
truce or peace. Always independent in opinion 
and frank in utterance, Phillips Brooks was 
never bitter in speech nor did he nurse grudges 
in his heart. If he ever seemed to over- 
emphasize a truth or unduly reject what he 
thought an error, his spirit was always gener- 
ous and tolerant. Nor was it the tolerance of 
arrogant unconcern but of honest respect and 
sympathy, of hearty recognition of neighbor's 
right to question what it was his own duty to 
assert or acclaim. He rarely laid stress on the 
things he rejected. He was busy inculcating 
what he believed God's truth. There might 
be tempting occasions for firing a volley after 
a retreating foe, or rolling the drums and flut- 
tering the flags after an enforced surrender, 
but Phillips Brooks had neither time nor heart 
for such things. Dr. Allen, with a large wis- 
dom which is habitual to him, tells the story at 
such times without provocative comments. In- 
deed, there are pages where the reader is dis- 
posed to inject a little human temper between 
the mild benignant lines. 

It will be a pity if the younger clergy the 
young men, indeed, of every calling fail to 
note the lesson of Phillips Brooks's systematic 
and orderly industry. If ever man might trust 
to slight preparation, it was he. His mind 
worked at lightning speed. Lucid utterance 
seemed instinctive with him, and logical ar- 
rangement. Thoughts never tumbled forth 
from his mind like apples from a barrel or 
jackstraws from a box. They fell in place. 
From a seminal thought sprang with the ra- 
pidity of East Indian juggling the stem, 
branches, and terminal twigs of a shapely tree, 


[March 1, 

each leaflet and each rootlet where the laws of 
tree life require that they should be. I once 
saw Phillips Brooks compelled to exercise on 
the instant his faculty of quick choice and in- 
stantaneous mastery of a theme. Before a 
large audience he was suddenly called to his 
feet after a definite promise that he should not 
be. Only on that assurance had he consented 
to be present. Unfortunately the promise had 
come from a venerable presiding officer, and 
the call, peremptory and irresistible, issued 
from a tumultuous throng of young men. As 
the cries for " Brooks, Brooks ! " rang out, I 
saw his face darken, his eyes seemed to look 
inward for one swift instant, his whole frame 
quivered and his whole being gathered from 
all sides its forces to concentrate them upon an 
intense process of thought. Then he rose, 
drew up that grand form of his to its full 
height, and as quietly as if the scene had been 
rehearsed beforehand seemed to distribute his 
ideas each into its fitting place and began an 
address as logical in order, as substantial in 
matter, and as choice in phrase as if he had 
given hours instead of seconds to its prepara- 
tion. With such electric facility, such gift of 
instantaneous summoning up the forces of the 
brain, most men would have felt diligent and 
laborious preparation for them needless. Phil- 
lips Brooks never trusted to his genius until 
humbler powers had done their part. He held 
it in reserve to fuse into a glowing whole what 
diligent study and thought had accumulated. 
He was as careful and methodical as if he had 
been dull and undisciplined. His study-table 
was never " snowed under." It was as neat as 
a lady's dressing table, as a precise bookkeep- 
er's desk. Its orderliness was typical. 

Dr. Allen very discriminatingly notes the 
autobiographical character of Bishop Brooks's 
sermons and lectures ; how he confided to the 
great popular heart what he would withhold 
from close personal friendship. What he saw 
in himself, with the inward eye which is the 
bliss of solitude, he revealed as if it belonged 
to all mankind. He was not unaware of his 
own genius. He knew well enough his relative 
place among men. But he perpetually lost 
sight of it. He was a somewhat stern judge of 
his brethren in the ministry if they fell below 
his ideal of what a minister should be. So 
easily was he all he was, that he forgot that to 
lag very far behind him might sorely hurry 
the pace of those less gifted. So as he gave 
glimpses of the history of his soul it seemed to 
him that he was only portraying the common 

processes through which his fellows went, and 
he made it seem to them as if they had already 
trod where he was leading them. Thus his 
noblest sermons, so far from dismaying his 
brethren with the thought of their incomparable 
power, were to many among them but an inspi- 

Justly has Dr. Allen emphasized Phillips 
Brooks's relation to his own church and to the 
Christian world beyond it. So much was he 
at last " the Bishop of Massachusetts " to mul- 
titudes who regarded Episcopacy askance, to 
whom his orthodoxy was incomprehensible and 
his churchmanship a curious and unaccountable 
accident, that men of his own flock and creed 
were not unnaturally disposed to question his 
fealty to his own flag and to ask, Can this 
man be quite loyal to the Church of the Prayer 
Book, who is the accepted leader of unliturgical 
Christendom? If they will read his little 
tractate on " Tolerance " they will be better 
able to understand him. His attitude toward 
his own communion and that of others may be 
well illustrated in words of Daudet quoted by 
Rene Dourmic. 

" Truly I belong to my own boat and I love it, but 
all those others setting sail or entering port are as dear 
to me as my own. I signal them, I hail them, I try to 
hold communication with them, for all of us, whether 
leaders or followers, are threatened by the same dan- 
gers; for all our barks the currents are strong, the 
winds -treacherous, and the night comes down so fast." 

Ah, too fast that night came down, it well 
may seem, on one so well loved and trusted, 
who bore so clear a light and shone so far. 
The world was indeed indefinitely the poorer 
by his departure as it had been indefinitely 
richer for his sojourn. But for him it was well 
to go. He had done his work. He had sown 
seed of which coming generations will reap the 
harvest. He enjoyed life, few men more 
keenly. Speaking of one who lingered a little 
late upon the stage, he wrote, " One would not 
like to stay quite as long as he has, but, with 
the world such as it is, there is great tempta- 
tion to linger at the feast." " Such as it is," 
the world of men and things was very dear to 
him. It was far from a perfect world, but 
there was much in it richly to enjoy. His 
Father spread a generous table and he could 
tarry the Lord's leisure about the board. But 
when he heard that Agassiz was gone in his 
" fresh, joyous, simple " prime, he thought of 
him as " falling without decay and setting 
without twilight." And when Sumner a few 
months later fell, his mood was akin to that of 
Huxley when he said of a friend who had 




" vanished in the middle of an unfinished art- 
icle," " after all, that is the way to die, better 
a thousand times than drivelling off in a fatu- 
ous old age." With Phillips Brooks we might 
have looked for a long autumn of ripening and 
golden days, but God saw otherwise. The 
grand frame crumbled before one touch of de- 
cay had fallen on the splendid intellect, the 
commanding will, the warm throbbing heart. 
So best. The sun went down unquenched. In 
some memories will long linger a tender after- 
glow. The world will go on and seem to for- 
get Phillips Brooks. His matchless eloquence 
will be but a tradition. His thoughts will 
pass into the common fund, be but an element 
in the air that coming generations breathe. 
But his spirit will not die. His work will last 
in a purer earth and a more open and visible 
Heaven. Q A . ^ R ICH ARDS. 


From time immemorial the weaving of car- 
pets and rugs has been the chief manufacturing 
industry pursued by the peoples inhabiting a 
large part of southwestern Asia. The fabrics 
produced by these peoples have always been 
highly prized both for their serviceable quality 
and as works of art. Few products of human 
skill have equalled the best of them in beauty 
of coloring. Choice specimens are eagerly 
sought after and treasured by collectors ; lovers 
of them are counted by thousands, for what 
person of taste is insensible to their charm ? 

Hitherto, accurate information about the 
different makes and makers has been well-nigh 
inaccessible. The principal source of knowl- 
edge has been the statements of native dealers, 
themselves not always well informed, nor free 
from the proverbial unreliability of their kind. 
Of books upon the subject there have been 
none save a few costly publications such as 
Vincent Robinson's " Eastern Carpets" ; and 
the sumptuous " Teppicherzeugung im Orient " 
issued in 1892 by the Imperial and Royal 
Austrian Commercial Museum, Vienna, com- 
prising five " elephant " folio volumes of litho- 
graphic illustrations of some of the rarest and 
most beautiful rugs and carpets owned by 
European collectors and by the Museum. 
Copies of these books are seldom to be found 
even upon the shelves of the great libraries. 
Instead of serving the purpose for which they 

* ORIENTAL RUGS. By John Kimberly Mumford. Illus- 
trated. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

were intended they have been bought for the 
most part by mercantile houses who have uti- 
lized the designs for reproduction in modern 

Mr. John Kimberly Mumford's recent book 
on " Oriental Rugs " finds, therefore, practic- 
ally a vacant field, and will be welcomed by 
all who are interested in the topic of which it 
treats. The author has performed his task 
with intelligence and painstaking thoroughness, 
and has accomplished the rare feat of writing 
an entertaining book on a technical subject. 
The history of the art, the rug-weaving peoples, 
the materials, dyers and dyes, method of 
weaving, the designs, and the classifications 
by localities and kinds, are severally dealt 
with in detail and the essential facts set forth 
in a manner which is a model of clearness. 
As an example of Mr. Mumford's style, and 
for its own sake as a graphic presentation of 
the picturesqueness of life in the East, his 
remarks about the dyers are worthy of being 
quoted at some length. He says : 

" This preeminence in dye-working carries with it, 
in Oriental countries, a dignity almost akin to that of 
priesthood. As a tree is known by its fruits, the dyer 
has place among his fellows by his hues. In proportion 
as the color he excels in is valued in popular judgment, 
the dye-master is honored in his town; and even if 
there were a lotion which could obliterate from dress 
and cuticle the traces of his trade, he would scorn to 
use it. His color is the badge of his ancient and hon- 
orable calling, dear to him as the insignia of rank to the 
soldier, or churchly black to the ecclesiastic. He glories 
in being bedaubed, and the shades of his particular 
color, upon hands, feet, and raiment, are earnest of his 
skill. He is a walking sampler of bis dyes; the proofs 
of his proficiency are upon him. 

" Traversing a village street in the East, you are 
aware of the dyer from afar off. Red, green, or purple 
from head to heels, he challenges sight when he is yet 
half a mile distant. There is the pride of a sultan in 
his carriage, and in his soul, it is plain, a chromatic 
joy which religion cannot give. He is a fine bit of 
color against the tame background of the town. In 
baggy knee-nethers and white camisole, his head all 
swaddled in a mighty turban, and his fat leathern 
pouch for pipe, tobacco, knife, money, and trinkets, 
belted about his middle, he is a type. But add to all 
these his dye, which in many values of the same color 
illumines him, from the crown of his turbaned head to 
the tips of his bare toes, he is a radiant being such as 
Occidental civilization has not known, save upon circus 

" The mind of this worthy is pervaded by a profound 
and, in a way, justifiable belief that he is the saving 
clause of the whole carpet industry. The mainspring 
of his life is the conviction that he really lends to the 
fabrics of his bailiwick, and of his native land, for that 
matter, all they possess of high aesthetic value. In his 
own view, he is the uplif ter of an otherwise slavish and 
mechanical craft. Through him weaving becomes an 
art, and all the processes from first to last, are merely 



[March 1, 

incidental to the main affair his coloring of the yarns. 
So he dips and struts his complacent life away, and to 
be an al boyaji a dyer of reds is to be one beloved 
of the Prophet." 

" Color," as Mr. Mumford happily phrases 
it, u is the Orient's secret and its glory." This, 
if not the whole truth, is at least true of that 
part of the Orient where the rug-makers live. 
It is a singular fact that retrogression in per- 
ception of color harmony should be the con- 
comitant of advancement in the scale of civili- 
zation. Yet the works of primitive peoples 
are almost without exception distinguished by 
excellence of coloring ; while among civilized 
peoples the power of producing color combina- 
tions of the highest order is one of the rarest 
of gifts. To a considerable extent the superi- 
ority in this regard of the products of barbaric 
or semi-civilized peoples is due to simpler and 
more artistic methods. As scientific knowledge 
increases, these methods are gradually sup- 
planted by others which lower the cost of pro- 
duction but also cheapen the product and 
substitute mechanical effects for the more 
artistic results of individual handiwork with 
its freedom of selection and variation. Though 
the mechanism of modern printing presses and 
looms is indeed marvellous, the most beautiful 
color-printing the world has yet seen was done 
by Japanese artizans by simply laying sheets 
of paper face downward upon engraved blocks 
inked with a brush, and pressing them by rub- 
bing with a pad held in the hand ; and some 
of the loveliest fabrics ever produced were 
wrought by Oriental weavers upon looms con- 
sisting of little more than two upright beams, 
" mere trunks of trees roughly trimmed, 
with the shanks of the lopped-off branches left 
to support the rollers." The past tense is used 
advisedly in this connection, for though the 
rug industry, under the stimulus of foreign 
orders, flourishes as never before, and the rug- 
weaving peoples imbued with the inertia of the 
Orient, continue to live as lived their fore- 
fathers before them for many generations, 
nevertheless they have succumbed to the in- 
roads of modern commercialism and have fallen 
victims to the seductive cheapness of analine 
dyes. Fortunately, however, there is at least 
a chance of stemming the tide before it is too 
late. In some of the rug-weaving districts 
there appears to be a growing appreciation, 
which it is to be hoped may continue and in- 
crease, that the adoption of European designs 
and the use of foreign dyes is a fatal error; 
though it must be admitted that so far the at- 

tempts on the part of the Persian and Turkish 
governments to repel the invasion have not 
met with unqualified success. Here at least is 
a real instance of the banal influence of the 
" money power." 

The illustrations in Mr. Mumford's book 
are altogether admirable. The only cause for 
regret is that they could not have been extended 
to include reproductions of all, or nearly all, 
of the typical patterns in use, even though it 
were necessary to resort to a cheaper and less 
satisfactory process for the additional cuts. 
This would have made the book of greater 
value to students. There are sixteen color 
plates by the new photochrome process, which 
reproduce in a really marvelous manner the 
color, texture, and quality of the old rugs se- 
lected for illustration. Other plates in mono- 
chrome reproduce typical rug designs, and 
there are several interesting half-tone plates 
from photographs taken by the author showing 
scenes in the rug-making districts. 



Indiana is a State about which it is possible 
to hold very divergent opinions. In the matter 
of general literary standing, it has, among its 
sister States, certainly no enviable reputation ; 
within its own borders, the rather resentful 
attitude toward the foreign opinion emphasizes 
unduly the importance of what the State has 
actually achieved. As might be guessed, 
neither opinion is exactly right : Indiana de- 
serves more credit than she has been given by 
outsiders ; and it will be some time before her 
merits will justify her own present estimate. 
This sort of comment might be made of any 
State that has literary aspirations ; but because 
the very fact that Indiana has literary aspira- 
tions seems droll to the outside world, the com- 
ment or truism is especially in point. Nettled 
by the persistent charge of illiteracy, and hav- 
ing anyway a real liking for literary things, 
the Indianian (Hoosier he calls himself, but 
does not like others to call him so) has set 
himself to the cultivation of literature, and has, 
despite sneers and sarcasms, accomplished 
things that are distinctly worth while. Of 

*THE HOOSIEBS. By Meredith Nicholson. "National 
Studies in American Letters." New York : The Macmillan Co. 

lection of the Poetry of Indiana, 1800 to 1900. Compiled and 
Edited by Benjamin S. Parker and Enos B. Heiney. New 
York : Silver, Burdett & Co. 




what the State has done in print, Indiana has 
most emphatically no cause to be ashamed. 
She does, indeed, estimate this production far 
too charitably, but she will arrive at a critical 
apprehension of her actual literary value, 
probably, before the scoffers have done 
with their uncritical scoffing. In the mean- 
time, the two books before us, Mr. Nicholson's 
study of letters in Indiana and Mr. Parker's 
selections from Indiana poets, will do a good 
deal toward tempering the extreme views re- 
ferred to. 

Mr. Nicholson's book is a self -restrained, 
conscientious effort to set forth the facts in the 
case. The writer traces the growth of the in- 
tellectual life within the State, from its terri- 
torial beginnings to the present day ; the 
varying make-up of its population ; the indi- 
vidual marks of its most characteristic institu- 
tions and towns : in short, he soberly essays a 
chapter in American cultur-geschichte, dealing 
with the State whose life he knows from within. 
The result is an excellent piece of work. The 
chapter on New Harmony (that most interesting 
and charming of Indiana towns), narrating 
at length the fortunes of a community that 
from the early Bappite days has always kept 
its face toward the light, must have more 
than local interest. The brief essays, in part 
biographical, in part critical, on Eggleston, 
Wallace, Riley, Thompson, and others, send 
one with an awakened interest to the pages of 
the other volume under review. And yet it 
must be said of Mr. Nicholson's book, that it 
does not prove its case. It shows beyond cavil 
that things intellectual happen in Indiana as 
well as elsewhere ; but when all is said, it leaves 
the reader with the feeling that something he 
did not know much about has been made clear, 
rather than that here is something new and 
preeminently worth knowing. 

The second book, the volume of selections, 
has been well managed by its editors. Their 
aim was to show fairly what Indiana has done 
in poetry in a century. No fewer than one 
hundred and forty-six names are on the list of 
writers. A book of one-tenth as many poets, 
with ten times as much from each one as is 
here allowed, would have been a book of far 
better literary quality, but it would have been 
correspondingly less representative. One turns 
the pages respectfully. Here is no revelation 
of new poetic power, but many a verse that 
one is glad to read, and many more that will 
not attract a second time. The best things 
are already well-known ; the hitherto unknown 

rarely have the unmistakable note of passion 
or of charm. But if they fail to make the 
final appeal, they nevertheless are, as a rule, 
dignified and sincere. They show that Indiana 
has an absolute craving to express itself in lit- 
erary form, and this means that the State has 
encouraged, and will encourage, literature. 
But there is too much rushing into print. The 
craving to express oneself is not the same as 
the need to express oneself, and this means 
that much of the Indiana poetry is uncon- 
sciously imitative, and therefore expresses no 
genuine message. That in the three hundred 
or more poems which make up the volume 
there should be so comparatively little that is 
futile speaks highly for the good taste of Mr. 
Parker and his associate. 

Indiana's real contribution to literature is 
Mr. Riley, a true poet, if I may arrogate 
the right to judge. Of the rest of the choir, 
one notes here and there a genuinely poetic 
voice : of the men, Maurice Thompson, whose 
lamented death has been but recently an- 
nounced ; of the women, Miss Evaleen Stein ; 
perhaps half a dozen besides. The many others 
who sing have their reward in singing, and in 
knowing that they have greatly helped to clear 
their commonwealth of an oft-repeated charge. 
The " Hoosier literary zeal " is an honest im- 
pulse that no American State may live without. 



Professor Loeb's manual to which he gives 
the title, " Comparative Physiology of the Brain 
and Comparative Psychology," is not at all a 
compendium devoUed to a survey of accepted 
facts and principles in regard to the way in 
which the nervous system performs its func- 
tions, but is an original contribution to the 
fundamental conceptions of what a nervous 
system is and does. 

The work is indeed radical in its tendencies 
and calls into question certain generally ac- 
cepted and basal notions. An elaborate and 
ingenious series of experiments upon the lower 
forms of animal life leads the author to the 
conclusion that the responses which these or- 
ganisms make are essentially physico-chemical 
in their nature ; " life-phenomena are deter- 

parative Psychology. By Jacques Loeb, M.D. "Science 
Series." New York : Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 



[March 1, 

mined by physical and chemical conditions 
which are outside the realm of histology." In 
accordance with this view, the function of the 
central nervous system is considerably lowered ; 
instead of the currently accepted conception 
of a centralizing and coordinating power, it is 
maintained that " the central nervous system 
does not control response to stimulation "; 
" the assumption of special centres of coordi- 
nation is superfluous "; the nervous system 
simply acts as a more speedy means of con- 
ducting the impressions, and the nervous sys- 
tem consists of a series of segmental reflexes 
each capable of going through a certain me- 
chanical activity. The essential intellectual 
function is associative memory, and it is in the 
complexity and variety of development of this 
function that comparative psychology finds its 

" Accordingly we do not raise and discuss the ques- 
tion as to whether or not animals possess intelligence, 
but we consider it our aim to work out the dynamics 
of the processes of association, and find out the physical 
or chemical conditions which determine the variations 
in the capacity of memory in the various organisms." 

The views thus set forth by Professor Loeb 
are far-reaching in their consequences and 
seem certain to play an important role in 
biological controversy for the immediate 
future. They particularly antagonize the doc- 
trines of the localization of functions in the 
brain, and for the moment seem to favor the 
position of the uniform value of brain areas, 
a doctrine in vogue before the "localizationists" 
came forward with their brilliant experiments. 
It may be, however, that a reinterpretation of 
these experiments, and a bringing into harmony 
of many puzzling exceptions, may result from 
the changed mode of approach to these prob- 
lems advocated by Professor Loeb. 

In the discussion of the* inheritance of ac- 
quired characteristics (and the mechanism of 
all heredity, according to Loeb, must be found 
again in chemical qualities) we have an ex- 
ample of how quickly a view that at first sight 
seems to run counter to current facts and beliefs 
soon comes into good standing and gathers to 
its support an astonishing array of apparently 
unobserved facts. Possibly the same fate 
awaits these well-stated and clearly developed 
views ; and no student of this most interesting 
phase of the problems of life can afford to re- 
main in ignorance of the wide range of facts, 
and the suggestive series of interpretations 
which Professor Loeb has brought together in 
this volume. JOSEPH JASTROW. 


The perfect typography of the Merrymount 
Press, which fittingly enshrines Mr. Arthur Sher- 
burne Hardy's " Songs of Two," is not more ex- 
quisite than the verses themselves, with their 
unfailing grace and their crystalline purity of dic- 
tion. Mr. Hardy is an infrequent seeker of print, 
for he has the artistic conscience as few possess it, 
and we know that when his name 'does adorn a 
title-page, what follows will be noteworthy. This 
sheaf of a score of lyrics, accompanied by a dozen 
miscellaneous pieces, embodies an utterance of the 
rarest grace and the most absolute sincerity. Here 
is one of the score of " Songs of Two." 

"We thought when Love at last should come, 

The rose would lose its thorn, 
And every lip but Joy's be dumb 

When Love, sweet Love, was born ; 
That never tears should start to rise, 

No night o'ertake our morn, 
Nor any guest of grief surprise, 

When Love, sweet Love, was born. 

" And when he came, O Heart of mine ! 

And stood within our door, 
No joy our dreaming could divine 

Was missing from his store. 
The thorns shall wound our hearts again, 

But not the fear of yore, 
For all the guests of grief and pain 

Shall serve him evermore." 

* SONGS OF Two. By Arthur Sherburne Hardy. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE FIELDS OF DAWN, and Later Sonnets. By Lloyd 
Mifflin. Boston : Hough ton, Mifllin & Co. 

To BARBARA, with Other Verses. By David Starr Jordan. 
Palo Alto, Cal. : Privately Printed. 

THE SPHINX, and Other Poema. By W. H. Hudson. San 
Francisco : Elder & Shepard. 

IDYLS OF EL DORADO. By Charles Keeler. San Fran- 
cisco: A. M. Robertson. 

Howard V. Sutherland. New York : Doxey'a. 

PICTORIS CARMINA. By Frederic Crowninshield. New 
York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

IN SCIPIO'S GARDENS, and Other Poems. By Samuel 
Valentine Cole. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

POEMS. By Alexander Blair Thaw. New York: John 

THE LUTE AND LAYS. By Charles Stuart Welles, M.D. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 

LYRICAL VIGNETTES. By F. V. N. Painter. Chicago: 
Sibley & Ducker. 

ON LIFE'S STAIRWAY. By Frederic Lawrence Knowles. 
Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

FORTUNE AND MEN'S EYES. New Poems with a Play. 
By Josephine Preston Peabody. Boston : Small, Maynard 

AFTERGLOW. Later Poems. By Julia C. R. Dorr. New 
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Richard Hovey. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co. 

A DAY'S SONG. By John Stuart Thomson. Toronto: 
William Briggs. 

CITHARA MEA. Poems by the Rev. P. A. Sheehan. Bos- 
ton : Marlier, Callanan & Co. 

TRANSLATIONS, and Other Verses. By C. K. Pooler. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 




Among Mr. Hardy's miscellaneous pieces, the verses 
called " Iter Supremum " seem to stand out above 
the rest by force of their sheer imaginative vision 
and their grave beauty. 

"Oh, what a night for a soul to go I 
The wind a hawk, and the fields in snow ; 
No screening cover of leaves in the wood, 
Nor a star abroad the way to show. 

" Do they part in peace, soul with its clay ? 
Tenant and landlord, what do they say ? 
Was it sigh of sorrow or of release 
I heard just now as the face turned gray ? 

"What if, aghast on the shoreless main 
Of Eternity, it sought again 
The shelter and rest of the Isle of Time, 
And knocked at the door of its house of pain ! 

"On the tavern hearth the embers glow. 
The laugh is deep and the flagons low, 
But without, the wind and the trackless sky 
And night at the gates where a soul would go ! " 

The sonnets of Mr. Lloyd Mifflin exhibit a con- 
siderable degree of mastery over the mechanics of 
their verse-form, and usually have enough of sub- 
stantial thought and imagination to make them ac- 
ceptable. The collection entitled " The Fields of 
Dawn and Later Sonnets " includes an even hun- 
dred pieces, which are characterized by even excel- 
lence. Since there is little choice among them, we 
select, almost at random, the following : 

"There is a legend the Algonqnins tell 

Of power and splendor of the Great White One ; 
The God of Light he is, and of the Sun, 
And in their strange lore hath no parallel. 

He, in the Summer, from his citadel. 
Comes to the gates of his dominion, 
And throws them open when the day 's begun, 
And shuts them in the evening. But a spell 

Saps his puissance when the Autumn haze 
Spreads its dim-shimmering silver on the rills ; 
Then to the mountain-tops he slowly wends 

And, idly drowsing on the dreamy hills, 
Puffs at his pipe, and as the smoke descends. 
Behold our mellow Indian Summer days ! " 

The sequence of nearly fifty sonnets from which 
this is taken sings very effectively of the procession 
of the seasons in Southern Pennsylvania, as reflected 
in the youthful consciousness of the poet during a 
single year. 

The modest collection of verses written during 
the past ten or twelve years by President David 
Starr Jordan shows that the more tender and fan- 
ciful sides of a man's nature need undergo no 
atrophy from the most strenuous pursuit of severe 
intellectual ideals. These verses reveal an aspect 
of their author that may be strange to those who 
think of him in his public character who think 
of him as the energetic educational administrator, 
the strong toiler in the difficult fields of science, 
the uncompromising upholder of the principles of 
political morality but they are no surprise to his 
friends, and it is to his friends that they are ad- 
dressed. The opening lines " To Barbara " are too 
intimate for discussion, and in view of the writer's 
recent bereavement, too sacred for anything more 

explicit than this veiled comment. Let us quote 
rather from the graceful song of " Vive'rols." 

" Beyond the sea, I know not where, 

There is a town called Vive'rols ; 
I know not if 't is near or far, 
I know not what its features are, 

I only know 't is Vive'rols. 

"I only know, should thou and I 

Through its old walls of crumbling stone 

Together wander all alone, 
No spot on earth conld be more fair 

Than ivy-covered Vive'rols ! 
No grass be greener anywhere, 
No blner sky nor softer air 

Than we should find in Vive'rols. 

"Love, we may wander far or near, 
The sun shines bright o'er Vive'rols ; 

Green is the grass, the skies are clear. 

No clouds obscure our pathway, dear ; 
Where love is, there is Vive'rola, 
There is no other Vive'rols." 

Thus Dr. Jordan strikes the note of sentiment ; 
but a deeper note is struck when his mind contem- 
plates the grave problems of man's destiny. 

"When man shall come to manhood's destiny, 

When our slow-toddling race shall be full grown, 
Deep in each human heart a chamber lone 

Of Holies Holiest shall builded be ; 

And each man for himself shall hold the key. 
Each there must kindle his own altar fires, 
Each burn an offering of his own desires, 

And each at last his own High Priest must be." 

Here is the expression of a faith that can contem- 
plate undismayed the breaking down of beliefs that 
have had their day, and can find a firm refuge in 
ideals far nobler than were ever revealed to souls 
in the bondage of superstition. 

Another little book of verse from the far West 
the work of one of Dr. Jordan's associates is 
taken up with the same deep matters, but reveals a 
mind still restless from the onslaughts of science 
upon superstition, and uncertain concerning the 
ultimate goodness of the soul of things. 

"Says Science : ' Lo, I lift the veil. Behold ! ' 

But when we turn, with eyes that almost fail, 
Before the Face in darkness from of old 
Shrouded, there hangs a yet unlif ted veil." 

Thus discourses Mr. William Henry Hudson in 
" The Sphinx and Other Poems." He has no clear 
vision of what may be beyond that other unlifted 
veil. But what the intelligence fails to discern 
seems sometimes to be foreshadowed in dreams. 
"Was it a dream ? I know not. This I know 
The memory of that evening long ago, 
Though oftentimes I yet have sought in vain 
To catch that wind-borne melody again, 
Has linger'd in my life, a sacred part 
Of all my deepest being ; for to me. 
With some strange hint of some strange mystery, 

That murmur brought a solace for the heart, 
An inward sense that everything was well, 
A touch of peace, of which no words can tell ! '' 

But the old doubt recurs, and the waking hour dis- 
credits the vision seen in sleep. The author's mood 
is that of the " Pathetic " symphony of Tschai- 



[March 1, 

kowsky ; it is the mood of Arnold rather than that 
of Tennyson. Let us once more contrast it with 
that of Dr. Jordan, as expressed in " The Bubbles 
of Saki." 

" I do rejoice that when ' of me and thee ' 

Men talk no longer, yet not less but more 
The Eternal Saki still that bowl shall fill, 
And ever stronger, fairer bubbles pour. 

" A humble note in the Eternal Song, 

The Perfect Singer hath made place for me, 
And not one atom in Earth's wondrous throng 
But shall be needful to Infinity." 

This is the effective major resolution of the minor 
harmonies of the other poet. 

Mr. Charles Keeler's " Idyls of El Dorado " are 
Californian lays and legends, picturesque in their 
portrayal of the Pacific coast in its physical aspects, 
and reflecting the free expansive spirit of its in- 
habitants. As a bit of local coloring, these Mon- 
terey stanzas are effective : 

" The sea throbs faintly at my feet, 
Amid the rocks it swashes low, 
In pale green sweeps 
And purple deeps 
It undulates with tireless beat, 
It pulses in unending flow. 

" All green and brown the seaweed clings 
To pallid rocks, wave-worn and grim ; 
The mountains rise 
To misty skies, 

The wind amid the cypress sings 
And sea-birds wander dark and dim." 

But the writer is not content with the natural 
beauty of the land which is his home, and his vision 
foresees the added beauty of art in some future day. 

"Beauty shall here hold court upon the heights 

And men shall fashion temples for her shrine, 
With chantings high of praise and starward flights 
Of silver chords and organ's throb divine. 

"The sculptor here shall hew the formless stone 

To shapes of beauty dreamed on cloud-throned crest, 
The painter shall reveal what he alone 
Saw as he brooded on th' earth-mother's breast." 

All this may well be. Meanwhile, we note with 
more satisfaction than all this prophecy the fact 
that the writer's voice is raised in indignant protest 
against the madness, springing from the lust of 
foreign conquest, that has of late made a mock of 
all our political ideals, and that has infected the 
Pacific Coast more fatally than any other section 
of the country. It is from Alaska that a text is 
taken for the following fine stanza : 
" We who have failed to rule a wilderness 

Now preach of liberty in tropic seas ; 
Forsooth our sway the Orient hordes shall bless 

While politicians trim to every breeze, 

Ood, must our dear sons be slain, such men to please ? " 

Still another Californian volume is Mr. Howard 
V. Sutherland's " Jacinta." It is a very small 
volume, and the narrative poem which serves it for 
a title makes up the greater part of the contents. 
A simplicity and a sentimentality that seem to be 
alike affected are the characteristics of this versified 
tale. Instead of quoting from it, we prefer to 

select one of Mr. Sutherland's miscellaneous pieces, 
and it shall be this " Prayer for a Man's Passing." 
" Let me not pass till eve, 

Till that day's fight is done ; 
What soldier cares to leave 

The field until it's won ! 
And I have loved my work and fain 
Would be deemed worthy of the ranks again. 

" Let twilight come, then night, 

And when the first birds sing 
Their matin songs, and light 

Wakens each slumbering thing, 
Let Someone waken me, and set 
My feet to steps that lead me upward yet." 

Mr. Frederic Crowninshield has written a cen- 
tury of sonnets, and appended to them a few short 
pieces in other lyrical forms, all for the purpose 
of illustrating the thesis that painters have emotions 
peculiar to their own special art, and that they 
alone can give them adequate verbal expression. 
" Pictoris Carmina " is the title of this volume of 
verse, which does not mean that all of its contents 
are poems for pictures, although a series of eight 
illustrations to some extent bear out this suggestion. 
These poems exhibit refinement and the culture 
that comes from wide reading and journeying; 
they also display considerable technical ability. 
That they are far from faultless in this respect 
may be illustrated by such a line as the second of 
these two : 

" We of the East, who you but y ester bore, 
Were aliens, and variations racial show." 
Another illustration is this opening of the sonnet 
u To Science ": 

" In the world's race, Science, you sore strain 
Our credence with the miracles that bring 
Great gain perchance not bliss." 

Mr. Crowninshield's diction is not essentially poet- 
ical, and it is the thinker rather than the singer 
whose voice speaks from these pages. There are 
too many words not yet mellowed to poetic uses, 
too many startling and cacophonous collocations, 
and the poet's hand is clearly not subdued to the 
material in which it works. Yet there are frequent 
phrases that arrest the attention by their vivid 
presentation of truth, and a certain not easily de- 
finable pleasure may be derived from these stiff- 
jointed measures. To exhibit the writer at his 
best, we will select the sonnet called " Decadence." 

" When fields are green with aftermath of Fall, 
When trees parade in rich vermillioned dress, 
Wan exhalations from the vales possess 
The full, ripe forms of Earth, and cast a pall 

Impalliding o'er mellowed hues. Withal 

Not charmless but the charm that doth impress 
Pale fever on some deep-eyed shepherdess 
Near Rome, who croons her morbid madrigal. 

Yet when the waxing sun with lusty rays 
Burns into nothingness the vapors white, 
And bares the splendid view of mount and lea, 

Then gladsome Nature chants his ringing praise. 
0, Life, consume the pale malarious blight 
That hangs o'er Art, and give us Sanity ! " 

" Withal not charmless " this is the final verdict 
upon Mr. Crowninshield's labored but interesting 




The poems of Mr. Samuel Valentine Cole open 
with a group of pieces inspired by classical asso- 
ciations, with a tribute to Lucretius, whose 
" Voice goes singing through the world, 
And in it the troth-seeking soul of man," 

a tribute to Virgil, who 

" In the interval between 
Great Homer and the glorious Florentine, 
Builded his dream of mingled fate and faith. 
Now swaying toward the dreary pagan doubt, 
Now, by prophetic vision a mere chance, 
Toward the dear Hope so soon to light the world." 

These poems suggest the Tennysonian manner, and 
suggestion becomes somewhat too obviously imita- 
tion in the poems that follow. In The Song of 
Silenus," for example, we read that 

"So he sang till on the water melted evening's golden bar, 
Till the fire died on the hilltops, sang until the evening star, 

Till we saw the silent Archer climb his zenith-winding stair, 
And across the northern heavens stream the dark Egypt- 
ian's hair." 

And in " The Bees of Aristaeus " we find such evi- 
dent Locksleyisms as these : 

" Summers of the stormlesa heaven, summers of the windless 

Linked together by as little of the winter as could be ; 

"Fountains singing in the covert or asleep like liquid glass, 
And no poison in the flowers, and no serpent in the grass ; 

" Meads of unlaborious tillage, seas without the toiling oars ; 
Magic ships of cloud and sunshine dropped all treasures on 
all shores ; 

" And no iron-handed terror smiting at the hearts of men ; 
Justice blindfold ruled the people, War lay chained within 
his den." 

Mr. Cole's verse discourses of many themes, bat 
the Tennysonian strain is ever recurrent, and the 
classical interest reappears on almost every other 
page. The verse is always pleasing, smooth-flowing 
in its movement, and kindled with the fire of the 
idealism that never becomes outworn. 

The " Poems " of Mr. Alexander Blair Thaw are 
admirable in technique and sincere in feeling. 
They are abstract rather than picturesque, and their 
imaginative quality is of the conventional sort. 
This sonnet to the Venus of Melos is a characteristic 
example : 

" We dare not hope to reach thy lofty place, 
Nor with dark Fate to be quite reconciled. 
Thy seeming sightless eyes, benignly mild 
As of the early gods, or of some race 
Of men almost divine, look into space 
Beyond our mortal vision ; with no wild 
Swift passion torn, so hast thon ever smiled 
Great love immortal lighting thy calm face. 

" Born of the womb of earth, who doth beguile 
Both gods and man to woo her, for all time 
Thou art a thing of worship. Ah, sublime 
Mother of men ! We may not reconcile 
The darkness with the dreaming ; yet still we climb 
The starlit heights to win thy sacred smile." 

The author of " The Lute and Lays," in the 
opening poem of his volume, thus discourses of the 
themes he has sought to set to music : 

" I sing of beauty as the birds 
Awake in gladness and rejoice 
That God hath given each a voice 
To sing their joy, though not in words. 

' ' I sing a heart-felt happiness 

The glad contentment of the soul 
When joy breaks forth beyond control 
And utters more than words express. 

" How shall I then my gladness hide, 
As down the drift of life I roam ? 
All nature is my boundless home, 
And love my only perfect guide. 

" For in love's light my song takes wing ; 
Her star pervades my universe, 
And all my rhapsodies are hers 
It is her beauty that I sing." 

Mr. Welles fills something like a hundred pages 
with pleasant little verses of this simple type. They 
are full of tender sentiment, but exhibit little 
variety, and call for no detailed comment. 

The "Lyrical Vignettes" of Mr. F. V. N. 
Fainter are simple studies in verse, no one of them 
overrunning a single page, and indicative of a very 
modest ambition. 

' ' I would with Wordsworth sing in humble lays, 

But true in every tone, 
The simple joys and woes that fill our days 
With merriment or moan." 

This is the sort of thing that Mr. Painter gives as, 
commendable in sentiment and commonplace in 
expression . 

More than once, in his volume entitled " On Life's 
Stairway," Mr. Frederic Lawrence Knowles exhorts 
his fellow-poets to rise to the height of their great 

"Unravel all your tangled cheats. 
Your triple-twisted thread conceits, 
Your subtle sonnets fling afar ! 
Stand up and show what man you are ! 

"O juggler with the fire divine, 
O hoarder of God's bread and wine, 
Your dark and doleful sprigs of verse 
Nod like the plumes above a hearse. 

" We want again the note of joy, 
The immortal rapture of the boy, 
The flame lit quenchless in the dust, 
The lips that sing because they must." 

But in spite of such brave words as these, Mr. 
Knowles has contented himself with the " sprigs of 
verse," very pretty sprigs sometimes, as in his 
" Secrets." 

"O Rose, climb up to her window 

And in through the casement reach, 
And say what I may not utter, 
In your beautiful silent speech ! 

"She will shake the dew from your petals, 

She will press you close to her lips, 
She will hold you never so lightly 
In her warm white finger-tips. 

" And then who can tell ? She may whisper 

(While the city dreams below), 
' I was dreaming of him when you woke me, 
But, rose, he must never know.' " 

Miss Josephine Preston Peabody is one of the 
most promising of our younger group of poets, but 



we cannot say that her second volume quite renews 
for us the pleasure given by " The Wayfarers." 
The new collection includes one long piece an 
Elizabethan play and a number of essentially 
lyrical compositions. Of the play, in which W. S. 
himself has a part, we must say that it is ingenious 
but not convincing. The other pieces suffer from 
too much of what may be called pale abstraction. 
They are best when they are most simple, as in these 
stanzas : 

"Now the roads, hushed with dark, 

Lead the homeward way, 
I will rest, I will hark 

What the weeds can say ; 
Wondering in the afterglow, 

Heart's-ease of the day. 

"One day more, one day more. 

Ay, if it were new ! 
There the city smoke goes soft, 

Melting in the blue ; 
And the highways, vext with dust, 

Heal them in the dew." 

Mrs. Dorr's " Afterglow," in which her later 
poems have been collected, is serene with the soft 
radiance of the just accomplished twilight. The 
writer has been a graceful and melodious singer 
through all her years, and her song is still sweet 
and sincere. We may quote the following sonnet 
as expressive of the spirit that breathes through 
these chastened pages. 

" Whom the Gods love die old ! Oh life, dear life, 
Let the old sing thy praises, for they know 
How year by year the summers come and go, 

Each with its own abounding sweetness rife ! 

They know, though frosts be cruel as the knife, 
Yet with each June the perfect rose shall blow, 
And daisies blossom and the green grass row, 

Triumphant still, unvexecl by storm or strife. 

They know that night more splendid is than day ; 
That sunset skies flame in the gathering dark, 
And the deep waters change to molten gold ; 

They know that Autumn richer is than May ; 

They hear the night-birds singing like the lark 
Ah life, sweet life, whom the Gods love die old 1" 

The "Last Songs from Vagabondia" form the 
third booklet in the series which embodies the 
joint activity of Mr. Bliss Carman and the late 
Richard Hovey. The poems are credited to their 
respective writers, but this precaution is hardly 
necessary with two men whose lyrical styles are so 
widely diverse. There are few pieces in the book 
which a careful critic could not certainly assign to 
its proper authorship without the warrant of any 
formal indication. Richard Hovey's sonnet " From 
the Cliff " may be taken as a characteristic example 
of his work. 

" Here on this ledge, the broad plain stretched below, 
The calm hills smiling in immortal mirth, 
The blue sky whitening as it nears the earth, 

Afar where all the summits are aglow, 

I feel a mighty wind upon me blow 

Like God's breath kindling in my soul a birth 
Of turbulent music struggling to break girth, 

I pass with Dante through eternal woe, 
Quiver with Sappho's passion at my heart, 

See Pindar's chariots flashing past the goal, 

Triumph o'er splendours of unutterable light 
And know supremely this, O God, Thou art, 
Feeling in all this tumult of my soul 

Grand kinship with the glory of Thy might." 

One could not find a better description of Richard 
Hovey's talent than the very phrase which speak a 
of " turbulent music struggling to break girth." 
His verse always seems to chafe against the limita- 
tions of form, and he recks little for such minor 
verbal infelicities as the use of " grand " in the 
closing line. On the other hand, the more surely 
artistic instinct of Mr. Carman makes the author- 
ship of such a piece as " Marigolds " absolutely un- 

"The marigolds are nodding ; 
I wonder what they know. 
Go. listen very gently ; 
You may persuade them so. 

"Go, be their little brother 
As humble as the grass, 
And lean upon the hill- wind. 
And watch the shadows pass. 

"Put off the pride of knowledge, 

Put by the fear of pain ; 

You may be counted worthy 

To live with them again. 

"Be Darwin in your patience, 
Be Chaucer in your love ; 
They may relent and tell you 
What they are thinking of." 

Even when the note becomes grotesque or didactic, 
departing widely from the ordinary lyrical gamut, 
the distinctive qualities of the two poets are none 
the less apparent. He would be a dull observer 
who would not be sure to whom to attribute " The 

" It was the little leaves beside the road. 

" Said Grass, ' What is that sound 
So dismally profound, 

That detonates and desolates the air ? ' 
' That is St. Peter's bell,' 
Said rain-wise Pimpirnel ; 
' He is music to the godly, 
Though to us he sounds so oddly, 
And he terrifies the faithful unto prayer.' 

"Then something very like a groan 
Escaped the naughty little leaves. 

"Said Grass, 'And whither track 
These creatures all in black, 

So woebegone and penitent and meek ? ' 
' They 're mortals bound for church,' 
Said the little Silver Birch ; 
' They hope to get to heaven 
And have their sins forgiven, 
If they talk to God about it once a week.' 

" And something very like a smile 
Ran through the naughty little leaves. 

"Said Grass, 4 What is that noise 
That startles and destroys 

Our blessed summer brooding when we 're tired ? ' 
' That 's folk a-praising God,' 
Said the tough old cynic Clod ; 
' They do it every Sunday, 
They '11 be all right on Monday ; 

It 's just a little habit they 've acquired.' 

" And laughter spread among the little leaves." 




And the reader would be no less doll who should 
hesitate for a moment abont the proper ascription 
of the following sonnet. 

" Our Gothic minds have gargoyle fancies. Odd, 
That there will come a day when yon and 1 
Shall not be yon and I, that we shall lie 
We two, in the damp earth-mould, above each clod 
A drunken headstone in the neglected sod. 
Thereon the phrase, Hie Jacet, worn awry 
And then our virtues, bah ! and piety, 
Perhaps some cheeky reference to God[! 

And haply after many a century, 
Some spectacled old man shall drive the birds 
A moment from their song in the lonely spot 
And make a copy of the quaint old words 

They will then be quaint and old and all for what ? 
To fill a gap in a genealogy." 

Mr. John Stuart Thomson belongs to the group 
of young Canadian singers who have contributed 
so largely to American literature during the past 
score of years, and who have helped to bring into 
our poetry that penetrative interpretation of natural 
beauty which is one of the most marked character- 
istics of American song. Reviewing an earlier 
volume by Mr. Thomson, we said : " It is remark- 
able how close to the heart of nature these young 
Canadian poets contrive to keep. They have the 
faculty of observation minute, accurate, and at 
the same time sympathetic in a degree quite ex- 
traordinary even to-day, and almost unknown in 
English poetry before Tennyson opened our eyes." 
Recalling this half-forgotten comment, we wish to 
supplement it by noting in " A Day's Song," Mr. 
Thomson's new volume, something of the quality 
of rich sensuousness of which Keats had so imperial 
a mastery. Our warrant for this saying shall be 
an extract from the ode which Mr. Thomson, 
greatly daring, has dedicated to Autumn." 

" Now dreams fall in the valleys of the night ; 

The last red poppy stills its ardent breast ; 

No more the morning, with a hand of light, 
Will wake its petals from their dreamy rest ; 

Sighs from each breeze the sad, sweet slumber song ; 

Sleep, like the dew, falls from the Evening's wings, 
And every Beauty veils its eyes in tears ; 

What woes to thee belong, 
Most mournful time, that not a robin sings, 

To melt thy heart shut up in friendless fears. 

" Departing glory leaves the world forlorn ; 

E'en as the moon, above the Delian shrine 

Forsaken, through these barren fields of corn 
A pallid light, a sorrow half divine, 

Falls on the silent moody wilderness ; 

No harvest bells, laughter of lovers young. 
No music of the ringing scythe, is heard ; 

Almost a god's distress 
Hangs o'er these valleys, where of eld was sung 

The fluted joyance of a summer's bird." 

The glorious poem from which these two stanzas 
are taken would adorn the coronal of a singer of 
high renown; it offers renewed evidence of the 
truth expressed by him who wrote, " The poetry of 
earth is never dead." 

We read "My New Curate," by the Rev. P. A. 
Sheehan, a few months ago with so much quiet 
satisfaction that the name of the writer became at 

once a passport to favorable consideration for 
whatever else he might publish, and when a volume 
of verse of the same authorship appeared not long 
since, we anticipated from its reading a genuine 
pleasure. That anticipation has not been disap- 
pointed, for " Cithara Mea " is a collection of pieces 
that stir the deepest emotions, and appeal to the 
most spiritual part of our being. Technically, they 
are very faulty, but they contain so much of the 
substance of true poetry, that we may well pardon 
the occasional redundancies and cacophonies. As 
befits the writer's calling, these poems are mainly 
religious in their inspiration, and the note is boldly 
sounded in " The Hidden " and " The Revealed," 
the two pieces which open the volume. Those 
moods of rapture and mystical exaltation which are 
the very essence of religion are not often imparted 
to readers as this verse succeeds in imparting them, 
and the spirituality of the utterance is no more 
striking than ia the imaginative splendor of the 
diction when at its best. 

" God's vesture curves and floats around His throne, 
As float ensanguined clouds at eventide ; 
His Heaven is thickly peopled ; yet alone 
In their majestic solitude abide 

" The Holy Ones. No angel wing hath swept 
The golden dust of all the centuries, 
Or tears the lonely JEons have bewept, 
And sunk into the silence of eternities, 

" There where His footstool stretches thro' the cloud ; 
Yet, the vast silences of God are stirred 
By all the pauseless waves that cry aloud 
In anthems that afar are feebly heard, 

" Although the orbed heaven reels and quakes 
Under the thunders that are ever rolled 
From shrill-voiced spirits o'er the quivering lakes 
Of spaces populous, or of worlds nnsonled." 

More than once, in reading these companion poems 
of doubt and faith in alternation, we have been re- 
minded of the great central poem of the century 
upon this subject the supreme expression of 
Tennyson's genius. Father Sheehan's blank verse 
is sometimes very fine indeed, as in his story of 
" Sentan the Culdee," the monk who dallied with 
the imaginings of heathen philosophers until his 
faith was on the point of losing its moorings. He 
is ordered, for the saving of his soul, to become a 
hermit, and these are the words of the Abbot who 
pronounces the decree of exile : 

41 Thy bed the heather, salted by sea- winds ; 
Thy books the open manuscripts of God ; 
Thy food whate'er the sea- fowl bring to thee. 
Once and again, thou mayst near approach 
The cells, where dwell the brethren of Ardmor, 
To shrive thee, and receive the Paschal guest. 
But thou shalt shun all intercourse with men, 
And love the silent solitudes of God. 
Perchance in some far off and distant time, 
When thou, through fires of discipline and prayer, 
The dim mists cleansed from thy half-blinded eyes, 
Hast, in the sacred silence of the seas, 
Pondered the dread exorbitance of God : 
Thou mayest go forth to see the blinding face 
Of Him, to whom the stars are blackened slags. 
And angels' faces blurred and stained with sin." 



[March 1, 

Such verse as this is rare enough in our modern 
time, as rare, perhaps, as the lost faith bemoaned 
by the poet, when he sings of 

" These leaden days, from which the sun 
Of God's sweet Face hath vanished into night, 
And in the depths His voice hath died away." 
Although religious inspiration gives the breath of 
life to Father Sheehan's volume, there are occasional 
pieces of lighter strain, such, for example, as the 
lyric " Cosette," with its pathetic invocation to the 
spirit of a lost child : 

" Across the gray sands of Dinan, 

Cosette ! 
Contest thou, bird of sea and song, 

Cosette ! 

Thy hair-cloud streaming far behind, 
Vexed by the teasing, amorous wind, 
Light in thy laughing eyes, and kind, 

Cosette I " 

Finally, to do anything like adequate justice to 
this volume, we must reproduce this noble sonnet 
upon the " Mer-de-Glace." 

" Hither God brought His rebel seas to try 

How high His wrath could lash them, unrelieved 

By sinking spaces or by lowering sky 
But they, by loftiest altitudes deceived, 
Leaped to his lash as if they fain believed 

They too could sweep the skies, and there decry 
His mandate when the smoking altars heaved 

And sullen waters left the hill-tops dry. 

" But He, resenting such Titanic pride, 

Transfixed them in columnar ice and stone, 

Leaving vast valleys in their solitude. 
There till the scythes of the last lava-tide 
Shall level all things, all proud things dethrone. 
The spirits of those Stylites dream and brood." 

Here is splendor of imagination and to spare. There 
is not a poet living who might not be proud to 
have written this sonnet. 

It is not often that one thin volume displays the 
versatility of Mr. C. K. Pooler's " Translations and 
Other Verses." Taking the contents in order, we 
find (1) some graceful translations from the Latin, 
ranging all the way from Catullus to Landor, (2) 
a section of pieces, mostly lyrical, in conventional 
forms, (3) a few ballads in Ulster dialect, combining 
humor with pathos, and both genuine, (4) some 
excellent fooling in the form of parodies on Brown- 
ing, Mr. Kipling, Mr. Swinburne, Morris, Burton 
(of the " Anatomy "), and Bacon (of the "Essays "), 
and (5) an appendix of neatly-turned Latin verses. 
Three of these sections we leave to be read by title, 
reserving our quotation space for a specimen each 
of the lyric and the parody. Our lyric shall be 
" The Evening Campion." 

" Thy form will lure no maiden's eye, 

White flower that flowerest free, 
Nor here will flaunt the butterfly, 

Nor hither stoop the bee, 
And faintest airs of the blue sky 

Unsweetened float by thee. 

" Yet lips unknown to morning's light 

Drink here beneath the moon ; 
Scarce mark our eyes the glimmering flight, 

Scarce heed our ears the tune 
Of softer winglets of the night 
Than any wings of noon." 

And our parody shall be an excerpt from " Saturnia 
Regna," after whom we need not specify. 

" But too long hath the gold of the merchant been locked 

from the heart of greed, 
Too long hath the harvest whitened for the hand that gave 

the seed ; 

Too long is the palace mosaic and its light of starry lamps 
Blind to the Cadger and dumb to the honest shuffle of 

And the harp of the Singer of Sigurd wreathed green with 

the bay-leaves' due 

To ' After the Ball,' and ' Daisy,' and ' Linger Longer Loo,' 
But O, for the Sun that we see not, and the Moon whereof 

none knows, 
Save the Year of the Flowering Yule-tide, and the Field 

of the Thornless Rose, 
Where the Pen shall be as the Shovel, and the Night shall 

be as the Day, 
And the Greed of the Heart shall perish and its Longing 

pass away ; 
Where the lute shall be dumb and the viol, and dumb in 

the happy years 
The music cradled of sorrow, the song that blossoms for 

Thither when comes the Spoiler, what need of a Battle 

Where each hath less than a little, and little, belike, have 

Should he tarry for nought who hath nothing ? Nay, hard 

over holt and heath 
He will hie as the Dog to his kennel with all that is his in 

his teeth. 
So all that is ours shall be all men's the heart and the 

hand and the brain, 
When over the ghost of a nation shall the risen Balder 


This is fooling, no doubt, but it is more than that, 
and we are glad that the socialist is met with his 
own weapons, and shown how effective they may 
prove in hostile hands. 



The origin One ^ * ne ^ e8 * accoun ts of the origin 

and development and development of the alphabet is 
oj the alphabet. Mr Edward Clodd's recent contri- 
bution to the " Library of Useful Stories " (Apple- 
ton), entitled " The Story of the Alphabet." In a 
volume of two hundred pages, including ninety 
illustrations, he contrives to tell with surprising 
fullness the history of the leading alphabets of the 
world. If any justification of the book were needed, 
Mr. Clodd's, as given in his preface, would suffice : 
that it fills a gap in discussing with comparative 
fullness " those primitive stages of the art of 
writing, knowledge of which is essential for tracing 
the development of the art, so that its place in the 
general evolution of human inventions is made 
clear "; and in stating the evidence furnished by 
the discoveries of Professor Flinders Petrie in 
Egypt (a summary of which is found in the " Jour- 
nal of the Anthropological Institute," xxix. 204- 
206, 1899) and Mr. Arthur J. Evans in Crete, no 
reference to these discoveries occurring in the 1899 
reprint of Canon Taylor's book. It is interesting 
to note that whereas the first edition of Taylor 




(1883) disposed of the Cretan alphabet in a foot- 
note of two lines (ii. 64), Clock! has found it neces- 
sary to devote thirty-six pages to " The Cretan 
and Allied Scripts." His able summary of Evans's 
"Cretan Pictographs and Pre-Phoanician Script" 
is one of the most interesting parts of the book. 
He draws no conclusion, but declines to accept M. 
de Rough's theory, which Taylor supports, that the 
Pboanician letters came from the Egyptian hieratic 
writing, preferring to look for a future confirma- 
tion of Evans's theory that "the rudiments of the 
Phoenician writing may after all have come in part 
at least from the ^gean side." He differs further 
from Taylor in regard to the Indo-Bactrian alpha- 
bet of the Asoka edicts, with Burnell considering 
it as of Iranian origin, whereas Taylor regards it 
as coming from the Sabean ; and he does not ac- 
cept Taylor's theory of the Greek origin of the 
runes, leaving the problem unsettled. The book is 
marked by catholicity of view and freshness of 
style. Two misprints have been noted: p. 71, 1. 13, 
read Taylor ; p. 172, 1. 13, Pelasgia. 

An English 
taiior't lively 

That a bundle of manuscript origi- 
nally prepared for publication should 
have waited seventy-six years before 
finding a publisher may in general be taken as fair 
presumptive evidence that the matter is scarcely 
worth printing. But such is not the case with the 
memoirs, diary, and correspondence of Captain 
John Boothby, of the Royal Engineers, a British 
officer of Napoleonic times, which writings are now 
at last issued, under the title of " Under England's 
Flag" (Macmillan). Captain Boothby was a gal- 
lant soldier, and a pious, cheery soul withal, who 
saw much picturesque adventure and some hard 
fighting under Sir John Stuart and Sir John Moore. 
As a raw young subaltern he accompanied Sir 
James Craig on the expedition to Italy and Sicily 
in 1805. In 1808 he went to Sweden with Sir 
John Moore, and in the same year he sailed to join 
that gallant soldier in the Peninsula. The closing 
chapters of the volume narrate Captain Boothby's 
experiences in the Peninsular campaigns, and in- 
clude an account of the Battle of Corunna. The 
style of the book, notably of the many letters it 
contains, is lively and graphic, and one gets from 
it an impression of a rarely pure and engaging 
character. Some of the Spanish and Portuguese 
adventures remind one not a little of Borrow 
though we do not mean to charge the Captain, who 
is clearly the soul of truth, with honest Lavengro's 
addiction to the long bow. There are a number 
of illustrations, including some quaint pen-drawings 
from the author's diary. 

As a literary man King James the 
First of England has fared better 
than many of his contemporaries of 
eqnal or greater ability. His " Counterblaste to 
Tobacco," for example, has been published in no 
less than eight different editions : 1604, 1616, 1619 

(in Latin). 1672. 1689 (in Latin), 1869 (Arber's 
edition). 1872 (Hindley's edition), and 1900, in 
Mr. R. W. Rail's neat little volume entitled "A 
Royal Rhetorician" (Brentano's). To be sure, the 
" Counterblaste," while of no great literary value, 
is not bad entertainment for an hour's smoke ; it 
is certainly one of the most readable of the king's 
works. With it Mr. Rait has printed " Ane Schort 
Treatise on Scottis Poesie " and extracts from 
" Essay es of a Prentise " and " The Psalms of 
David Translated." The texts are those of the 
first editions somewhat modernized, qu being re- 
placed by w, and y being used where Mr. Arber 
printed z, which, whatever its history, cannot now 
stand for the sound of z. On page 12, line 11, 
read abow ; line 3, f . b. read it ; on page 85, line 3, 
f. b. add the date, 1620. Difficult woids are en- 
closed in brackets an improvement in convenience 
on the ordinary glossary. Prefixed is an interesting 
study of the writings of King James, in which Mr. 
Rait does full justice to his author without losing 
sight of the mediocrity which marked this royal 
scribbler ; and appended is a list of the king's chief 
writings. The volume is embellished with a portrait 
of the; king, and with facsimiles of the title-page 
of Bishop Montague's edition of 1616 and of the 
Psalms translation published in 1636. 

Sixth in the " Semitic Series " 
(Scribners) the Rev. A. H. Sayce, 
professor of Assyriology at Oxford, 
puts forth " Babylonians and Assyrians," a title 
borne by no less than four volumes of the thirteen 
announced. Mr. Sayce has made an interesting 
book, though he has not been able to escape the 
flavor of the class-room, and he moves slowly amid 
a mass of material that would have been illumina- 
ting if it could have been realized. Among the 
important disclosures of the narrative is the knowl- 
edge given of the great money lending and banking 
firm of Egibi, founded somewhat before the day of 
Sennacherib, and extending its history down through 
the period of the Persian conquest. This institu- 
tion was as dominant a factor in this ancient and 
almost forgotten world as the Rothschilds are in 
the world to-day, its records constituting a most 
valuable discovery. It would appear that in this 
most important branch of commerce, the finance 
of the twentieth century after Christ is no great 
advance upon that of the ninth century before 
Christ, just as the wars of conquest of the two 
periods show " practical " Christianity to be little 
more effective in international morals than the 
worship of Sennacherib's particular Lord of Hosts. 
There is no index an unpardonable omission. 

A handy, lucid The ninth volume of the "Epochs 
bonk on the of Church History" series is Mr. 

Williston Walker's work on "The 
Reformation" (Scribners). The purpose of the 
series, in presenting church history, is apparently 
secured by an omission of purely political relations, 


[March 1, 

and an expansion of theological and doctrinal ques- 
tions. There is nothing new in the book, either in 
matter, treatment, or arrangement ; it is merely a 
restatement of the essential facts of the period. 
Nevertheless, the author's work is not without merit, 
for his style is lucid and his presentation interesting. 
It was of course impossible, in the limited space at 
his disposal, for Mr. Walker to cover every detail 
of the Reformation, yet he has succeeded in con- 
veying a very fair impression of the intellectual 
and religious side of the movement. This has been 
done for all European countries save England, for 
which a separate volume in the series is reserved. 
There is a noticeable impartiality of treatment in 
the inevitable comparison between the principal re- 
forming leaders, though the author falls in line 
with modern church writers in ascribing to Me- 
lancthon a liberality and efficiency not commonly 
attributed to him by political and socialistic students. 
These latter more frequently find his actions not 
in harmony with the elevated and non-partisan 
character of his writings, and criticize him for 
very apparent inconsistencies. Mr. Walker's book 
is very readable, and will be of service for handy 

An interesting Doubtless the horrors of the Chinese 
account of capital during the recent murderous 

the siege of Pekmg. p ro t e st against European aggression 
are not likely to divest even the most pronounced 
Christians present of the old Adam that is in them. 
Still, it is difficult to see why the Reverend William 
Alexander Parsons Martin, D.D., LL.D., lately 
president of the Chinese Imperial University and 
a mandarin of the second class, should have clad 
himself in heavy marching order, repeating rifle 
and all, and posed before an American camera for 
the frontispiece to "The Siege of Peking" (Revell), 
announced by the publishers as " the first to tell 
the story," and the outbreak it describes as "the 
most unique event in history." Dr. Martin says 
the siege was the act of the imperial government 
of China itself, and he breathes the threats against 
the Chinese, innocent and guilty alike, which have 
made us wonder recently if Islam and Christendom 
are not exchanging their places in respect of the 
manner of tenets and propaganda. There is nothing 
in Dr. Martin's work to show what has been done 
by the Christian Powers to provoke the attack, 
though he admits it was not " wholly unjustifiable." 
His account is a mixture of the old " Trust in God 
and keep your powder dry," which has proved so 
efficacious upon other occasions in the history of 
the American people, and is interesting, even though 
it does not make the most of its opportunities to 
describe the horrors of the siege. 

A " Complete Hand-Book of Havana 
* Cuba" (Rand, McNally & Co.) 
has been prepared by Mr. Albert J. 
Norton, who made a tour through the island last 
year. Mr. Norton is a firm believer in " Cuba 
Libre," to which his book is dedicated, and his 

The art 

of translating. 

really valuable work, filled with illustrations and 
maps as it is, is noteworthy among its kind for the 
sympathy it shows for the natives. There is no 
attempt at literary expression in the book, but its 
plain, matter-of-fact manner is more praiseworthy 
than much fine writing and false patriotism. The 
hand-book fills a need, and will be useful and 
valuable to all who would know something of the 
island that has played so prominent a part in the 
world's history, and has changed so vastly American 
policy and traditions. 

Teachers and translators of foreign 
languages will find in Professor 
Herbert C. Tolman's little book 
on " The Art of Translating " ( B. H. Sanborn & 
Co.) much sound doctrine and helpful suggestion 
agreeably presented. It is plainly inspired by 
Cauer's " Die Kunst des Uebersetzens," a practical 
little manual designed for the use of teachers of 
the classics, which we would like to see translated 
into English, Professor Tolman's work being in no 
sense a translation or an adaptation of it. Professor 
Tolman also acknowledges his debt to Professor 
W. G. Hale, to whom, he justly adds, " more than 
to any other American scholar we owe the practical 
method of reading Latin now so generally adopted." 
Professor Tolman's eighty odd pages are replete 
with the marks of ripe scholarship, and reflection 
bred of practical experience, and they are so 
brightened with epigram and extract that the reader 
is lured on pleasantly from chapter to chapter for- 
getful of the didactive purpose of the author. 

Pieturetof There is nothing pleasanter in its 

Shakespeare's kind that we know of than a leis- 
country. urely jaunt through leafy Warwick- 

shire, rich in shrines and scenic allurements, and 
as a good pictorial substitute, or preparative, for 
such a jaunt we take pleasure in calling attention 
to John Leyland's copiously illustrated thin octavo 
volume entitled " The Shakespeare Country " 
(Scribners' Importation). The work is essentially 
a picture-book, though the plates are accompanied 
by the indispensable quota of descriptive text. Mr. 
Leyland is to be unreservedly complimented on his 
selection of subjects for illustration, and the plates 
are of good quality mechanically. 


Volumes VII. and VIII. of The World's Orators " 
(Putnam), edited by Dr. Guy Carleton Lee, have just 
been received. The first of these volumes completes 
the section devoted to Englishmen, and includes ten 
examples, from Erstine to Gladstone. The other vol- 
ume, edited with the assistance of Dr. Franklin L. 
Riley, is devoted to American secular oratory of the 
eighteenth century. Thirteen men are represented, 
among them being Otis, Hancock, Warren, Henry, 
Hamilton, Washington, and Samuel Adams. Ten of 
the thirteen have portraits. Two more volumes will 
complete this dignified and valuable work. 




The third volume of Professor A. B. Hart's " Amer- 
ican History Told by Contemporaries," published by 
the Macmillan Co., covers the period 1783-1845, and 
has for its subject " National Expansion." We are 
glad that this work is nearing completion, because it is 
of the utmost value to teachers of history in our schools 
and colleges, and cannot too soon be placed within their 
reach. The volumes are of such generous dimensions 
that they really serve to illuminate the subject, which 
cannot be said of some of the scrappy source books 
that have recently appeared. There is little benefit to 
be got from the study of source material unless a large 
amount of it is made accessible to the student. It re- 
quires to be delved in, rather than read consecutively. 

Not librarians alone, but private collectors of books 
as well, will find in Mr. Ainsworth Rand Spofford's 
" Book for All Readers " (Putnam) a helpful guide in 
many perplexing matters, and a safe informant upon 
many subjects that must be of interest to all who live 
among books and use them intelligently. The twenty- 
seven chapters of this volume are simply packed with 
pertinent facts relating to their several subjects; such, 
for example, as bindings, book plates, pamphlets, cata- 
loguing, copyright, and most of the subjects that con- 
cern the professional librarian. The product of ripe 
experience, the work is trustworthy, and has, besides, 
no little charm of manner. 

Four new volumes in Messrs. Silver, Burdett & Co.'s 
" Silver Series " of English texts for schools provide 
the following material: Rnskin's " Sesame and Lilies," 
edited by Miss Agnes S. Cook; Tennyson's "Lancelot 
and Ekine " and " The Passing of Arthur," edited by 
Mr. James E. Thomas; Goldsmith's "The Traveller" 
and " The Deserted Village," edited by Mr. Frederick 
Tupper; and Arnold's " Sohrab and Rust urn," with 
other poems, edited by Mr. Joseph B. Seabury. 


" A Life in Song," a volume of poems by Mr. George 
Lansing Raymond, is issued in a second edition by 
Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Longfellow's " Giles Corey of the Salem Farms " is 
published, with stage directions, by Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. in their " Riverside Literature Series." 

" The Principles of Vegetable-Gardening," by Mr. 
L. H. Bailey, is still another of the series of books upon 
agricultural and horticultural subjects that this indefa- 
tigable writer has been producing during the past few 
years. It is published by the Macmillan Co. 

A new edition of Mr. Robert S. Barrett's " Standard 
Guide to the City of Mexico," is published in the city 
with which it is concerned by the Modern Mexico 
Publishing Co. It seems to be an excellent practical 
handbook, besides being made attractive by a profusion 
of illustrations. 

Mr. Charles L. Bowman, New York, publishes a new 
edition of " Hints for Home Reading," edited by Dr. 
Lyman Abbott. The contents include a series of papers 
by such men as C. D. Warner, H. W. Beecher, F. B. 
Perkins, Mr. H. W. Mabie, Dr. E. E. Hale, which are 
followed by a classified " Book Buyer's Guide." 

A re-issue of " Madame, a Life of Henrietta, Daugh- 
ter of Charles I., and Duchess of Orleans," by Julia 
Cartwright (Mrs. Henry Ady), first published in 1894, 
is imported by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Co. This care- 

fully written biography of a singularly attractive and 
unfortunate princess, with its lesson of courage and 
patience and cheerfulness, is at all times welcome both 
to the student and to the general reader, and is none 
the worse for that tone of perhaps somewhat excessive 
eulogy which attests the writer's interest in her theme. 

M Notes on Speech-making " and " The Philosophy 
of the Short-Story," both by Professor Brander Mat- 
thews, are two small and readable books published by 
Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. The contents of both 
have before been printed in other forms, but we are 
glad to have them in the present convenient shape. 

" Brush and Pencil," of Chicago, which has come to 
occupy a place distinctively its own among American 
art journals, has absorbed " The Collector and Art 
Critic " of New York, and the latter publication will 
hereafter cease to exist. " Brush and Pencil " is now 
edited and owned by Mr. F. W. Morton, and under his 
supervision the magazine has of late shown marked im- 
provement in appearance and matter. 

The map reproductions of Mr. B. F. Stevens of Lon- 
don have for years been well known. Of special value 
to Americans and all interested in American history is 
his latest reproduction, "Fac- simile of the Unpublished 
British Headquarters Map of New York and Environs, 
1782." The map is made from the original drawing in 
the War Office, London, and is in 24 sheets which can 
be joined and mounted as a whole for wall use, or kept 
separate in portfolio form. But 100 copies are printed, 
and are offered on subscription only, by Messrs. B. F. 
Stevens & Brown, London, England. 

A German edition of an American scientific mono- 
graph is not often met with, although this compliment 
to sound scholarship is not undeserved by a good many 
of our recent academic productions. Such an honor has 
recently been paid to Professor John H. Huddilston, 
and we have just received (Freiburg i. Br. : Fehsenfeld) 
a handsomely-printed brochure entitled " Die Griech- 
ische Tragodie im Lichte der Vasenmalerei," in which 
we promptly recognize the substance of a monograph 
published in English two or three years ago. The trans- 
lation is by Fraulein Maria Hense. 

Fit zed ward Hall, one of the greatest of American 
philologists and Oriental scholars, died on the first of 
February, at his home in Marlesford, England. He was 
born in New York, in 1825, and was educated at the 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Harvard College. 
In the latter institution he was a classmate of Childs, 
Lane, and Mr. C. E. Norton. An unexpected trip to 
India in search of a runaway brother, proved a turning- 
point in his life, and enlisted him in the ranks of orien- 
talists. He remained in India until 1862, occupying 
various government posts, returning only for a vacation 
in 1859, when Oxford made him a D.C.L. For seven 
years, he made his home in London, where he served 
in various capacities as professor, librarian, and exam- 
iner. In 1869, he removed to Marlesford, where the 
rest of his days were spent. Here he completed bis 
edition of the " Vishnupurana," and began the series of 
works on English philology by which be is best known 
to English and American scholars. His services to the 
" New English Dictionary " and to the " Dialect Dic- 
tionary " were very great, and were given with no other 
thought than that of advancing the science to which his 
life was devoted. Readers of THE DIAL will remember 
the many contributions with which he has enriched its 
pages, and will join with the many thousands of scholars 
who deplore his death. 



[March 1, 


March, 1901. 

Africa, Along East Coast of. R. H. Davis. Scribner. 
Agriculture in Twelfth Census. Le G. Powers. Rev. of Revs. 
Am. Literature, Three Centuries of. W. M. Payne. Atlantic. 
Animals in Literature. George S. Hellman. Atlantic. 
Australia, Scenes of Country and Town in. Rev. of Reviews. 
Beet-Sugar Industry. Ray S. Baker. Rev. of Reviews. 
Boer War, The. Herbert E. Horwill. Forum. 
Brahms, Recollections of. Georg Henschel. Century. 
British Confederation. J. W. Root. Atlantic. 
Browning, Santayana on. Helen D. Woodard. Poet-Lore. 
Business Situation in U. S. C. R. Flint. North American. 
Canada, British Rule in. Sir J. G. Bourinot. Forum. 
China, The Settlement in. T. F. Millard. Scribner. 
Chinese Diplomacy, Machiavelli of. R. E. Lewis. Forum. 
Colonial Poets, Early. A. Kingsley Glover. Poet-Lore. 
Cuba, Independence of. Frank D. Pavey. North American. 
Democracy and Efficiency. Woodrow Wilson. Atlantic. 
Democratic Party, The. Charles Denby. Forum. 
Dramatic Season, Recent. W. D. Howells. North American. 
Edward VII. W. T. Stead. Review of Reviews. 
Edward VII., Career of. J. Castell Hopkins. Forum. 
Empress Dowager, Flight of. Lnella Miner. Century. 
English Language in America. Brander Matthews. Scribner. 
Fossil Beds, The. John Day. J. C. Merriam. Harper. 
Freedmen's Bureau, The. W. E. B. DuBois. Atlantic. 
Garden, Making a. Anna L. Merritt. Lippincott. 
Grecian Discoveries, Recent. Chas. Waldstein. No. Amer. 
Homicide and Italians. Napoleone Colajanni. Forum. 
Immigrants, Among the. Arthur Henry. Scribner. 
Iron Mining. Waldon Fawcett. Century. 
Japan, Impressions of. Henry C. Potter. Century. 
" Journalism, Tabloid." A. Maurice Low. Forum. 
King of England, The. Sir C. W. Dilke. North American. 
Labor Conditions in Switzerland. W. B. Scaife. Forum. 
Labor Disputes, Settlement of. J. R. Commons. R. of R. 
Life after Death, Nature of. J. H. Hyslop. Harper. 
McKinley as President. H. B. F. Macfarland. Atlantic. 
Map, Transformation of the. Joseph Sohn. Scribner. 
Marshall, John. James B. Thayer. Atlantic. 
Mexico, Native Races of. H. S. Brooks. Lippincott. 
Missions, Protestant Foreign. Judson Smith. No. American. 
Municipal Ownership. Richard T. Ely. North American. 
Nations, Competition among. Jacob Schoenhof. Forum. 
Nature, Poetic Interpretation of. C. A. Binkley. Poet-Lore. 
New York, Shopping in. Lillie H. French. Century. 
Pope's Civil Princedom. Archbishop Ireland. No. Amer. 
Positivism. Frederic Harrison. North American. 
Postal Service Perils. H. A. Castle. North American. 
President, Growing Powers of. H. L. West. Forum. 
Quaker-City Girlhood, A. Mrs. E. D. Gillespie. Lippincott. 
Russia, Hopes and Fears of. Felix Volkhovsky. Forum. 
Russia's New Economic Regime. Henry Norman. Scribner. 
Serao, Matilde. Henry James. North American. 
Seville. Arthur Symons. Harper. 

Shakespeare's Fidelity to History. T. Williams. Poet-Lore. 
Tea-Gardens, American. Leonora B. Ellis. Rev of Reviews. 
Webster as Leader of Opposition. J. B. McMaster. Century. 


[The following list, containing 64 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


The Private Life of King Edward VII. (Prince of Wales, 
1841-1901.) By a member of the royal household. With 
portraits, 12mo, pp. 306. D. Appleton & Co. $1.50. 

Life of the Emperor Frederick. Edited from the German 
of Margaretha von Poschinger; with Introduction by 
Sidney Whitman. With portrait, large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 460. Harper & Brothers. $2.50. 

Jean-Paul Marat: The People's Friend. By Ernest Bel- 
fort Bax. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, pp. 353. Small, Maynard 
& Co. $2.50. 

Huldreich Zwingli: The Reformer of German Switzerland, 
1484-1531. By Samuel Macauley Jackson. Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 519. " Heroes of the Reformation." G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $2. 

Riverside Biographical Series. New volumes: Thomas 
Jefferson, by H. C. Merwin ; William Penn, by George 
Hodges ; Peter Cooper, by Rossitar W . Raymond. Each 
with photogravure portrait, 18mo, gilt top. Honghton, 
Mifflin & Co. Per vol., 75 cts. 

Hero Patriots of the Nineteenth Century. By Edgar 
Sanderson, M.A. With portraits, 12mo, gilt top, pp. 329. 
T. Y. Crowell & Co. $1.50. 


Chapters from Illinois History. By Edward G. Mason. 
With portrait, large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 322. H. S. 
Stone & Co. $2.50. 

A History of the Parish of Trinity Church in the City of 
New York. Compiled by order of the Corporation and 
edited by Morgan Dix, S.T.D. Part II., To the Close of 
the Rectorship of Dr. Moore, A.D., 1816. Illus. in photo- 
gravure, 4to, gilt top, uncut, pp. 345. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $5. 

The Story of Borne. By Norwood Young ; illus. by Nelly 
Erichaen. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 403. " Mediaeval 
Towns." Macmillan Co. $1.75. 

A Narrative of the Mutiny on Board the Ship "Globe" 
of Nantucket, in the Pacific Ocean, Jan., 1824. By Wil- 
liam Lay and Cyrus M. Hussey. New edition ; 12mo, 
uncut, pp. 163. New York : Abbey Press. 75 cts. 


Celtic Folklore, Welsh and Manx. By John Rhys, M.A. 
In 2 vols., large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Oxford University 

Frangipani's Ring : An Event in the Life of Henry Thode. 
Trans, by J. F. C. L.; with marginal designs by Hans 
Thoma and 12 photographic reproductions. Large 4to, 
gilt top, pp. 179. J. B. Lippincott Co. $6.50 net. 

Eugene Schuyler: Selected Essays; with a Memoir by 
Evelyn Schuyler Schaeffer. With portrait, 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 364. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.50 net. 

Italian Influences. By Eugene Schuyler, Ph.D. 8vo, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 435. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.50 net. 

Three Plays for Puritans . By Bernard Shaw. 12mo, un- 
cut, pp. 315. H. S. Stone & Co. $1.50. 

The Religious Spirit in the Poets. By the Right Rev. 
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Mr. Francis W. Halsey has made an important contribution to the history of the old New York 
frontier. An enthusiastic historian, Mr. Halsey has made Brant, Clinton, Johnson, and other 
figures of Colonial and Revolutionary New York live again in his pages, and his narrative is as 
exhaustive as it it entertaining. $2.50 net. 




[March 16, 




By Mrs. WILLIAM STARR DANA (Mrs. Parsons) 

A Guide to the Names, Haunts, and Habits of our Common Wild Flowers. With 48 full- 
page colored plates by ELSIE LOUISE SHAW, and no full-page illustrations by MARION 
SATTERLEE. 6oth thousand. Crown 8vo, $2.00 net. 

"Of all the aids to the study of nature none has won a wider popularity than Mrs. William Starr Dana's 
' How to Know the Wild Flowers.' Here accurate science is put in a simple, practical form, and presented 
with unusual grace of style, and the book has become the favorite companion for open-air rambles of flower- 
lovers who were daunted by the dry particularity of the average botany." Evening Post (Chicago). 


A Guide to the Names, Haunts^ and Habits of our Native Ferns. By FRANCES THEODORA 
PARSONS (Mrs. Dana). With 144 full-page illustrations, and 6 full-page illustrations from 
photographs. Crown 8vo, $1.50 net. 

" This is a notably thorough little volume. The text is not voluminous, and even with its many full- 
page illustrations the book is small ; but brevity, as we are glad to see so many writers on nature learning, is 
the first of virtues in this field. . . . The author of ' How to Know the Ferns ' has mastered her subject, 
and she treats of it with authority." -- Tribune (New York). 

A new edition of Mrs. Dana's popular book " According to Season" with much additional 
matter and 32 plates in color, is in preparation. 




With 178 full-page illustrations from photographs, and with 162 illustrations from drawings. 
Second edition. Crown 8vo, $2.00 net. 

C. S. SARGENT, Professor of Arboriculture in Harvard University, says: "Of such popular books 
the latest and by far the most interesting is by Miss Harriet L. Keeler. . . . Miss Keeler's descriptions are 
clear, compact, and well arranged, and the technical matter is supplemented by much interesting and reliable 
information concerning the economical uses, the history, and the origin of the trees which she describes." 



Mrs. Gilbert has been a well-known actress 
for many years, and her recollections of her 
life, and of the leaders of the stage whom she 
has known, are among the most interesting 
of their kind. 

Illustrated. $1.50 net. 



Mr. Brady's new volume describes his ex- 
periences in the army and navy, with many 
stories based upon historical incidents of heroism 
and danger, and covering a wide range of life. 
Illustrated. $1.50. 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, Publishers, New York 







Mrs. Wharton's new volume of stories is 
marked by her usual distinction of style and 
substance. Several of the stories in the pres- 
ent volume are new. 




Mr. James has written in this book one of 
his most interesting character studies. This 
story represents the latest developments of the 
author's mature talent, and presents a question 
that will interest every reader. $1.50 


By HARRISON ROBERTSON, author of "Red Blood and Blue" 

"The Inlander " is a new novel of the South land, by the author of " How the Derby 
was Won " and " Red Blood and Blue." In u The Inlander " Mr. Robertson again proves 
his right to rank with the best of our Southern writers. $1.50 


By "ZACK" 

This is the best work which the author of 
that powerful book of short stories, " Life is 
Life," has done. In " The White Cottage" 
" Zack " has a broader field than in her early 
sketches, and has handled this larger theme 
with equal dramatic intensity. (/ press.) 



A vivid picture of life and character in New 
York City in the eighteenth century. The 
atmosphere and local color of the period are 
admirably reproduced, and the story is most 
interesting. $1.50 


An historical novel which the author has made out of materials gathered from the very 
popular play of the same name. It is a merry tale of a merry time. 

With Portrait of Nell Gwyn. $1.50. 



The first literary work of an entirely un- 
known writer, and yet a novel of most unusual 
interest and rare artistic power. The time is 
the present, the scene the South. $1.50. 



Short stories that suggest " The Golden 
Age " in their charm and manner. The point 
of view is that of imaginative boyhood, the 
background the Connecticut hills. $1.50. 



Stories of army life in the Philippines by a correspondent of unusual ability and wide experi- 
ence. The American army woman plays an important part. Illustrated by Christy. $1.50. 



Another of the interesting psychological 
stories which have earned M. Bourget first 
rank among the living writers of this class of 
fiction. $1.50 



A new story by Mr. Hornung, with an 
Australian scene and the element of mystery 
which the author knows how to use so effect- 
ively. $1.25 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, Publishers, New York 



[March 16, 


sudden flaming up of a star from the tenth magnitude to the first an event of 
rare occurrence has turned the eyes of millions to the skies of night. Few persons 
realize how much delight can be obtained with a good opera glass. Garrett P. Serviss 
has written a book, entitled "Astronomy with an Opera Glass." It was remarkably 
successful. Most timely is his new book : 

Pleasures of the Telescope 

A Descriptive Guide for Amateur Astronomers and all Lovers of the Stars. By 
GARRETT P. SERVISS. Illustrated with charts of the heavens, and with drawings of the 
planets and charts of the moon. 8vo, cloth, $1.50. 




General Wilson is 

While the British 

one of the greatest 


:;: :;: 

* * 

* * 

army was at Bloem- 

American authori- 

fontein, LORD ROB- 

ties on military af- 
fairs* He has twice 

The sweep of 

Mr. Alfred Ayres, 

"Old Glory" was 

ERTS engaged RUD- 

visited China! once 

commerce is rapidly 

in his "Orthoepist," 

designed by Betsy 


fifteen years ago in 

destroying the old 

"Verbalist," and 

Ross in Philadel- 

several other bril- 

J o 

a private capacity; 

landmarks of New 

"Mentor," has 


liant journalists, to 

in 1900 as General 


hurled his critical 

The picturesque 

edit a paper called 

of American forces. 

Mr. Ulmann con- 

spear at many ill- 

figures of the time, 

The Friend. Selec- 

Doubly important, 

ducts a party of 

favored errors of 

sea-rangers and 

tions from this have 

therefore, is his 

young people to 

speech. He again 

Quakers, redcoats, 

been edited by Mr. 


places about the 

comes to the defence 

Continental sol- 

Julian Ralph. It has 

^r III V* 

Travels and Invest- 

city interesting for 
historic events, and 

of his mother tongue 
and corrects some 

diers, even Wash- 
ington himself, help 

an introduction by 

igations in the 
"Middle Kingdom" 

describes them most 

half-dozen blunders 

develop a strange 

is fully illustrated; 

A study of its 

entertainingly in 

made by well nigh 

and thrilling story 

a unique book. 

i7 J 

Civilization and 


by the author of 

\\7 _-* 

Possibilities. To- 
gether with an 
Account of the 
Boxer War, the 
Relief of the Lega- 
tions, and the Re- 

A Landmark 
History of 
New York 

Some 111= 
used Words 

"In Defiance of the 

Betsy Ross 

A Romance of 

War s 


establishment of 


the Flag. By C. C. 


Peace. By General 

MANN. With many 





illustrations. 12mo. 

AYRES. One vol., 

vol., 12mo. Cloth, 



Cloth, $1.50. 

16mo. Cloth, $1.25. 



Third edition, 


revised throughout, 

* * 

* * 

* * 

OOG vol o vo 

enlarged and reset. 




12mo. Cloth, $1.75. 

Cloth, $2.00. 

A SAILOR'S LOG: The Autobiography of Admiral ROBLEY D. EVANS, U.S.N. 
The Book of the Day. One volume. 12 mo. Illustrated. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, New York City 





The Private Life of 

King Edward VII. 

(Prince of Wales, 1841-1901) 
By a Member of the Royal Household. 

12 mo, illustrated, 81.50. 

"This sketch of the intimate life of England's 
new sovereign is presented with much sympathy and 
with great discretion. It brings the reader into 
close relationship with the man, showing him where 
he has touched the public heart, recounting at close 
range his life at Sandringbam, in the country, at 
Marlborough House, as a student, observer, and 
churchman; as a husband and father, as the arbiter 
of fashion and the patron of the race track." New 
York Times. 


Life and Letters of 

Thomas Henry Huxley 

By his son, LEONARD HUXLEY. In two 
volumes, cloth, illustrated, 8vo, 549 and 
547 pp., $5.00 net. 

" The most important addition made to biograph- 
ical literature in this decade." New York Herald. 

" His life, as herein set forth, will repay the study 
of every man, especially of every professional man 

every theological student and minister. His let- 
ters are spicy and full of humor. . . . We commend 
them heartily to the reading public. They are at 
once highly entertaining and immensely instructive." 

Philadelphia Presbyterian Journal. 


The Individual 

A Study of Life and Death. By Prof. 
N. S. SHALER, of Harvard University. 
12mo. Cloth, 81.50. 

The only certain thing is Death. 

The instinct of all creatures is to fear Death. 

Yet it has been powerfully argued that, since 
Death is universal, it must be beneficent. 

The most interesting question before mankind is 
this: What comes after we die .* 

Professor N. S. Shaler of Harvard University has 
grappled with this absorbing question in a scientific 
and reverent spirit. Mr. Shaler has an international 
reputation as a savant. His views are based on pro- 
found study. It is not strange that his new book is 
attracting wide attention. We respectfully recom- 
mend every one that thinks to read this book. 

New Velazquez Dictionary 

New Edition, revised and enlarged, by 
and JUAN L. IRIBAS, A.B., LL.D. One 
volume, 8vo, 801 pp., cloth, $3.50. 
More than 8,000 titles have been added; the defi- 
nitions have been simplified and corrected; a multi- 
tude of new terms have been inserted. The pro- 
nunciation has been carefully noted, and the accents 
have been used in accordance with the new regula- 
tions of the Spanish Academy. 

" It should take its deserved place as The Spanish 
dictionary." New York Outlook. 

" So far as we have been able to judge by tests 
here and there, the revisers have done their work 
with sound scholarship and excellent taste. The 
New Velazquez is happily timed for the new vogue 
of Spanish." New York Nation. 

The Transit of Civilization 

From England to America in the Seven- 
teenth Century. By EDWARD EGGLES- 
TON. Uniform with " Beginners of a 
Nation." Small 8vo. Cloth, $1.50. 
" An exceedingly valuable contribution to the his- 
tory of the American people." American Hebrew. 
" No such account has ever been given of the col- 
onies, and no such view exists of England in the 
seventeenth century." Brooklyn Eagle. 

u A profound book in its motive and plan, but so 
simply and picturesquely set forth . . . that it 
opens vistas of speculation and interest to the most 
casual reader of unscientific tastes." Albany Argus. 
"Scholarly, dignified, and profound." Boston 

A History of Chinese Literature 

(Aberd.), Professor of Chinese in the 
University of Cambridge. One volume, 
12mo, 557 pp., index, cloth, $1.50. 
The 10th volume in the " Literatures of the 
World " Series. 

" Few recent histories of literature are more preg- 
nant with new and interesting material than this. 
There is nothing like it in any library, and one may 
say, with assurance, that there is not a dull page in 
it " Boston Transcript. 

" The book abounds in stories, plays, poems, and 
teachings, characteristic of the Chinaman, and sheds 
new light on the ways and means of the sublime 
Mongolian." New York Commercial Advertiser. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, New York City 



[March 16, 




Cloth, $1.50. 
Illustrated by CLINEDINST 
and FARRAND, $2.00. 
in tints, $10.00 net. 

" The novel has become a classic." Philadelphia Item. 
" The book is vital with the essence of human nature." Oakland 
" Pictures were the one thing needful to increase the inestimable 
charm of this delightful book." Philadelphia Item. 
The World Almanac compiled a list of the "largest editions" 
of new books published during 1899-1900. "David Harum" heads 
the list. Thirty-five copies of " David Harum " are in the Boston 
Public Library. Probably 3,000,000 people have read this wonder- 
ful book! More than 507,000 copies have been sold! 



12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

Praised by the Chicago Record for its " characteristic merits of 
sincerity and rugged strength"; the Springfield Union for its 
"originality, humanity, and artistic construction"; the Detroit Free 
Press for its "absorbing interest." The Boston Herald says: " The 
story has that unfailing human spark of interest, a touch of genuine 
romance, which would give it vitality had Mr. Garland a less firm 
grasp or a more superficial knowledge of Western ideas and ideals. 
. . . The novel is breezy and thoroughly interesting from start to 
finish. It has the value of standing for something more than a mere 
story." The London A thenceum says : " Mr. Garland 's work is always 
fresh and vigorous and this story is full of his characteristic energy." 


The Story of a Social Career 
Author of "A Puritan Pagan." 
One Volume. 
12mo, 363 pp. Cloth, $1.50. 

"It may be rightly guessed that 'MRS. CLYDE' is worth 
reading. There are those who have said that, being fiction, it but 
thinly hides real identities in the social world. The publishers do 
not encourage this idea. But it is a strong novel of the material 
school, vigorously worded, clear in its pictures of persons and scenes, 
liberal in epigram and clever in generalization." New York World. 


12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

" A charming little plot enveloped in a bright web of wit and 
epigram." Publishers' Weekly. 


12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

"Full of life, and vivid in its unflagging interest." Boston 
" One of the best novels the author has written. It places him 
in the front rank of living novelists." Daily Express. 


12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

" One of the most amusing books of the season." San Francisco 
" One ineffable tangle of prodigious impossibilities set forth with 
the most engaging aplomb, with the blandest humor." New York 

New Volumes in Appletons' Town and Country Library 

Each, 12 mo, cloth, $1.00 ; paper, 50 cents. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, New York City 

1901.] THE DIAL 163 


Assistant Curator of Mammalogy and Ornithology, American Museum Natural History. 


A Guide to the Study of Our Common Birds 

By FRANK M. CHAPMAN. With 75 full-page plates and numerous text 
drawings by ERNEST SETON-THOMPSON. Library edition. 12mo. Cloth, 
$1.75. Colored edition. With 75 lithographic plates. 8vo. Cloth, $5. 

New Popular Edition. Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, with Mr. SETON- 
THOMPSON'S magnificent drawings reproduced in colors by lithography, $2. 
"No more valuable or beautiful book upon birds can be desired." Philadelphia 


" There is no better book in existence for the use or delectation of the beginner in the 

fascinating study of ornithology." CHICAGO TRIBUNE. 


By FRANK M. CHAPMAN. Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, $1.75. 

"The book is one that will appeal to every lover of Nature." Boston Saturday 
Evening Gazette. 

" Altogether the book is a charming one." New York Herald. 

"Written in a charmingly intimate way, without a touch of pedantry . . . delight- 
ful reading." New York Tarries. 

" It combines very thorough scientific knowledge with the keenest appreciation of the 
outdoor life of bird and man." Philadelphia Press. 

" Of unique interest and value." Boston Times. 

"All the pictures are interesting, many of them are exquisite, and the book is 
valuable and desirable because of its usefulness as a guide to bird study, and the 
pleasure afforded by its extremely attractive pages." BOSTON BEACON. 

"Full of practical information." New York Critic. 


Each 12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.75. 

Familiar Life in Field and Forest 

Familiar Features of the Roadside 

Familiar Trees and Their Leaves 

Familiar Flowers of Field and Garden 

These volumes are to be recommended for spring and summer reading. 
They are simple in style, stimulating to the powers of observation, interesting 
hi their graceful uplifting of common things into the realms of poetry. 

D, APPLETON & CO., Publishers, New York City 



[March 16, 

Little, Brown, & Company's 

Forthcoming Spring Books 

A New Colonial Romance by Mrs. 


A Romance of a Maryland Manor in 1644. By 
MAUD WILDER GOODWIN, author of " The 
Head of a Hundred," " White Aprons," 
etc. Illustrated by HOWARD PYLE and 
other artists. 12mo, $1.50. 

Richard Le Gallienne's New Romance. 



By RICHARD LE GALLIENNE. 12mo, $1.50. 

*A Novel of American Society. 

A Romance of North and South. By SIDNEY 
McCALL. 12mo, $1.50. 

The Story of tbe Founding of Detroit. 


With Some Account of the Gallant Sieur 
Cadillac and his Colony on the Detroit. 
trated by CLYDE O. DE LAND. 12mo, $1.50. 

Fawcett's Life of Queen Victoria. 


edition, with an introduction by Mrs. BRAD- 
LEY GILMAN, and a chronological list of the 
events which occurred in the reign ; with a 
list of the eighteen Prime Ministers and a 
list of all the members of the Royal Family. 
Illustrated with portraits. 12mo, $1.00. 

Mrs. Campbell's New Novel. 


A Novel. By HELEN CAMPBELL, author of 
" Prisoners of Poverty," etc. 12mo, $1.50. 

A Unique Problem Story. 


By ELLIS MEREDITH. 16mo, $1.25. 

A Novel of North Carolina. 

A Novel of the Seventies. By JOHN LARGE. 
12mo, $1.50. 

A Humorous Story in Dialogue. 



By ANNA BOWMAN DODD, author of " Three 
Normandy Inns," " Falaise, the Town of the 
Conqueror," etc. 12mo, $1.00. 

Professor Wells' s Handbook of German 



By BENJAMIN W. WELLS, Ph.D. New and 
Enlarged Edition. 12mo, $1.50. 

Now Ready. 



500 numbered copies. Large 8vo. With 
100 illustrations. Half morocco, gilt top, 
$10.00 net. 

254 Washington Street, Boston. 

1901.] THE DIAL, 165 

Some March Publications of 

Henry Holt & Co. 

29 W. 23d Street, 

puritan anD Anglican. Studies in Literature. 341 pp., 8vo, $2.00 net 
One of the best works of an author already highly esteemed for his notable books on Shakespeare, Southey, 
and Shelley. These essays cover Puritanism and English Literature, Sir Thomas Browne, Hooker, Herbert, 
Vaughan, Milton, Jeremy Taylor, Baxter, Bunyan, Butler, the Transition to the Eighteenth Century, etc. 

The Speaker ( London ) : " The reader need go no further than the first page in order to convince himself 
that Dowden has a grip on the whole subject. Professor Dowden, as a great Shakespearian student, has, in study- 
ing the Puritans and Cavaliers, the enormous advantage of thoroughly comprehending the fountain-head." 

. 3ioiw'0 Cfte Crimson (HIeeD. 335 PP ., i2 mo , $1.50. 

A powerful story of a modern Hamlet of English and Italian stock, who, however, was impeded by relations 
which Hamlet was free from. A " wild justice " ( the " crimson weed " of the title ) furnishes a motive more 
Southern than Northern in its appeal. Despite its tragic vein, there is comedy in the story, and a strong love 

CtfaSOn'S OPpnorism anD Suggestion, in Therapeutics, Education, and Reform. 

344 PP ., 12mo, $1.50. 

In this new work Dr. Mason, whose Telepathy and the Subliminal Self is already in its fourth impression, 
makes a strong plea in a popular vein for two very important, though much abused, curative agencies. 

SdCCtlOnS from Dante\S Dltrina CommeDta. Chosen, translated, and edited by 

RICHARD JAMES CROSS. The original and translation on opposite pages. 224 pp., 16mo. 
A book that it is hoped will enable those knowing very little Italian to read all of this great poem that is of 
interest to the 20th century reader in the original. The translator has been able in nearly every instance to fol- 
low the Italian word for word, and yet to make a translation as enjoyable as any that has been made of Dante. 
He has also supplied notes when necessary. 

LAtitms's German anD %unss Settlements of Pennspluania. A study of the 

So-called Pennsylvania Dutch. 268 pp., 12mo, $1.50. 

a3ctaekan'S Rise Of tjje %ti)iS.S Republic. Second Edition, Revised and En- 
larged. xi.-423 PP ., 8vo, $2.00. 

Prof. Albert B. Hart of Harvard ( on the first edition ): " The book is an excellent one, and there is in Eng- 
lish nothing so handy as an outline of Swiss history." 

New Impressions of Three Successful Books. 

Third Impression of C&C COUrtOt Q^emOiflBu 8vo, $2.00. 
" This delightful memoir." Outlook. 
" More entertaining than any fiction." Literary World. 
" Exceedingly entertaining and valuable." Bookman. 

Third Edition, Revised, of LatHgnac'0 8gu0ic anH $@u0ician$. $3.00. 

Dial : " A veritable cyclopaedia of music." 

W. J. Henderson, Musical Critic, New York Times : " One of the most important books on music that has 
ever been published ... A style which can fairly be described as fascinating." 

Twelfth Impression of I^Ope'jS Uupett Of ^ettt^aU. 12mo, $1.50. With eight full- 
page illustrations by C. D. Gibson. 

Some Books in Press for Early Publication. 

Qissing's A Man with a Future. 12mo. 
Martian's Daughters of the Veldt. 12mo. 

Bennet's The Polar Pit. A Romance. 12mo. 
Hope's Father Stafford. A New Edition. 12mo. 



[March 16, 


Two Women and Their Soldier Lovers. 

When Blades Are Out and 
Love's Afield 


A LOVE story which has all the stirring 
appeal of the sea novels for which this 
author already is famous, but which deals 
with fighting ashore in Revolutionary days. 
Mr. Brady's wilful, winsome heroines are 
delightful ; his romance tender, yet piquant. 
The dress of the book is especially artistic 
and rich. 

Illustrated. With many decorations. 
12mo. $1.50. 

By the author of " Alice of Old Vincennes." 

Sweetheart Manette 


A TALE of old Bay St. Louis, charm- 
* ingly set, instinct with poetry. The 
heroine a captivating, impetuous, dainty 
girl ; the rivals for her heart each with his 
manly qualities. The tale itself unfolding 
stirring incident and romantic passages, 
among the author's best work. Already 
meeting with large sales the country over. 

Frontispiece. 12mo. 

A Mystery That Defies Guessing. 

That Mainwaring Affair 


A STORY which grips the reader on the 
first page, and challenges intuition and 
reason alike to solve the crime of Hugh 
Mainwaring's death. The best elements of 
the detective tale are interwoven with a love 
story, and the reader's sympathy and interest 
deftly drawn to a point in the closing chap- 

Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

Anecdotes of Famous People. 

A Book of Remembrance 


*T*HE recollections of a long life brimming 
1 with activities, touching the political, 
social, artistic, and commercial world at 
many points. By a woman of wit, humor, 
and sense, and of many illustrious acquaint- 
ances. For every one who cares for those 
anecdotes which give glimpses of great 
people as they are or were, and who relishes 
a story well told. 

Illustrated. Crown octavo, $2.50 net. 

By General CHARLES KING A Rattling Army Novel. 

In Spite of Foes 

A STORY of the ten years' upward struggle of a United States army officer whose pluck, 
** energy, and good faith put him again in the line from which he was thrust by cir- 
cumstance and the malice of an enemy. A stirring, strong story, told with the swing and 
enthusiasm for his subject which has made the author one of the most entertaining of 
American novelists, and one of the first military romancers in the world. 

Frontispiece. 12mo. $1.25. 

A t all Bookstores, or sent, postpaid, by 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY, Publishers, Philadelphia 

1901.] THE DIAL, 167 


The Career of a Beauty 


ANEW novel from a pen which has won many readers. The story of a young woman 
whose physical graces brought her rank and fortune, and of her struggle against 
the temptations of her heart. 12mo. Cloth, $1.25 

A Little Grey Sheep 


A STRONG study of English social and intellectual life, revelatory of temperaments 
and infused with humor and satire. By the author of the successful novel, " The 
Splendid Porsenna." 12mo. Cloth, $1.50 

A Cabinet Secret 


THE narrative of a tremendous conspiracy which shook Great Britain to its very foun- 
dations. And so cleverly is the concoction of a wholesale abduction of cabinet 
officers handled, that the reader is almost persuaded that some such outrage was a secret 
of those who lately fought for the Boer cause in Europe. 

Illustrated. Wmo. Cloth, $1.50 

A l^l*. ^4-4-l^t V> + +~A I IK, Bird Land Echoes, and 

Abbott s Dird Library me B^S About us 

By C. C. ABBOTT, M.D. 

DR. ABBOTT'S long study of animal life, his charming style, and the attractive dress 
and illustration of these two familiar books, should bring them many new readers. 
The two volumes are contained in a flat box. They also are sold separately. 

'* v " Illustrated. 2 volumes. $3.00 

The Step=Mother 


Paper, 50 cents ; cloth, $1.00 

Chemical Analysis of Iron 


THIS work already has a wide reputation among analytical chemists. The incorpora- 
tion of new and improved methods and the addition of methods for the analysis of 
the different ferros, make the new edition especially desirable. 

Fourth Edition. Illustrated. Octavo. Half morocco, $4-00 net. 

At all Bookstores, or sent, postpaid, by 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY, Publishers, Philadelphia 



[March 16, 


HERB LIES : Being: a Collection of Ancient and Mod- 
ern, Humorous and Queer Inscriptions from Tomb- 
stones. Compiled and edited by W. H. HOWE. 
Silk cloth, unique cover design. Frontispiece. 75 cts. 

OUT VULGARITY. Being a book of Jests, 
Toasts, Eccentric Rhymes, Witty Sayings, etc. Com- 
piled and edited by JOHN R. KEMBLE. Bound in 
cloth, with frontispiece. 75 cts. 

Thinkers, Writers and Speakers. Selected from the 
best sources and classified, including a list of authori- 
ties quoted. 75 cts. 

KEK. Cloth, 12mo, 75 cts. net. 

ARNOLD, author of "The Light of Asia." A strong 
argument in favor of immortality, written with all the 
charm and imagery of this gifted author. With a 
superb photogravure frontispiece. Bound in white 
and gold. (In a box. ) 75 cts. 


MILLY: At Love's Extremes. A Tender Love 
Story. By MAURICE THOMPSON, author of 
" Alice of Old Vincennes." Beautifully illus- 
trated, and dainty cover design. One of the 
most popular novels in the United States to-day. 
Cloth, $1.50. 

LINNET. A Romance of the Tyrol. Fifth edition. 
By GRANT ALLEN. With photogravure portrait 
of the author. Cloth, red and gold, $1.50. 


A novel. By B. L. FARJEON. Beautifully illus- 
trated. Cloth, $1.25; paper, 50 cts. 

ARD MARSH. A new edition of this well-known 
detective story. Cloth, $1.25; paper, 50 cts. 

MORRISON. Illustrated. Cloth, $1.25; paper, 50c. 

The Truth About Prince Charlie. 

THE RISING OF '45. Edited from Contemporary 
Writers, by C. S. TERRY, M.A. $1.25. 

The Golden Days of Scottish Literature 
and Art. 

IN THE DAYS OF JAMES IV. Edited from Con- 
temporary writers, by Q. Q. SMITH. 75 cents. 

Containing the Famous Casket Letters. 

MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS. Edited from Contem- 
porary writers, by R. S. RAIT. $1.25. 

A Charming Book of Romance. 

WERE WOLF: Four Lais rendered into English 
Prose from the French of Marie de France and others, 
by JESSIE L. WESTON, with designs and illustrations by 
Caroline Watts. 75 cents net. 





Novels, Poems, and Life 

42 photogravure illustrations. Introductions by 
MAURICE KINGSLEY. The only illustrated 
edition issued. 14 volumes, cloth, gilt top, 
$20.00. Half crushed morocco, $41. 00. Supplied 
separately in cloth at $1 50 a volume. 


By David D. Wells 

Cloth, 8vo, $1.50. 

" By far the best work of the author of ' Her Ladyship's 
Elephant. ' " Portland Transcript. 

"Not since the writings of George Meredith has there 
been an author whose stories are so nearly of his order as 
is this book. " Worcester Spy. 

" No one can consider himself unrepaid for having read 
this book from cover to cover." 

N. Y. Times Saturday Review. 


By Nelson Lloyd 

Cloth, 8vo, $1.25. 

" Has the dry force of 'David Harum.' " Outlook. 
"The reader will love him." Omaha World-Herald. 


By A. C. Laut 

Cloth, 8vo, $1.50. 

" Better than 'Alice of Old Vincennes.'" 

Toronto Globe. 
" Better than Gilbert Parker or Ralph Connors." 

Toronto Star. 

"A. C. Laut is another Mary Johnston. 'Lords of the 
North' equals 'To Have and to Hold,' 'Richard Carvel,' 
or ' Alice of Old Vincennes.' " Detroit Free Press. 

"A better book than 'Janice Meredith' or 'Richard 
Carvel.' " Christian Nation. 


By Kate Upson Clark 

Cloth, 8vo, $1.25. 
" The stories are marvelous." 


By Amelia E. Barr 

Cloth, 8vo, $1.50. 16 full-page illustrations. 

" One of the best stories ever written by Amelia E. 
Barr." St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 

" One of the best books which has appeared for years. 
We trust that every library will soon have a copy on its 


Christian Nation. 








By COLUMBUS BRADFORD. i2mo, $1.50. 
This work is absolutely unique in Christendom. Its 
conclusions may appear to coincide in one essential 
point with the doctrines of Theosophy, but the course 
of reasoning by which they are reached is entirely free 
from mysticism and is in full harmony with the ad- 
vanced teaching of both Science and Religion. All 
who have felt at times the apparent futility of the indi- 
vidual life will be comforted and uplifted by the brave 
optimism of this original book. The main conclusions 
of the work are: The human personality does not 
leave the body at death; the germ of life persists and 
in due time returns to another body; the perfection of 
the race will be realized through the gradual ameliora- 
tion in successive lives of its individual members. 
The working hypothesis of the author is: The dead 
live again by being born again. 


By J. B. ELLIS, author of "The Dread and Fear of 

Kings." I2mo, $1.25. 

A clever and amusing story of Spanish life and 
character at a time which is peculiarly interesting to 
Americans, the close of the ifth century. The scenes 
in the earlier part of the story are laid in the " city of 
silk," before the beleaguered walls of Granada, and 
later the hero escapes the spies of the Inquisition by 
joining the Columbus expedition. In Garcilaso the 
author has presented a fine portrait of the Spanish 
hidalgo, ignorantly religious, haughtily courteous, 
arrogantly brave. The Quixotic Garcilaso tells the 
tale himself, and there is a subtle irony in the method 
by which he is made to reveal his foibles while wholly 
unconscious of their existence. The love story is full 
of complications, now serious, now amusing, which 
end happily. 




This is an admirably comprehensive and interesting story of the nation by the well-known author of 
" A Constitutional History of the American People," "The Constitutional History of the United States," etc. 
It is thus far the only history of America in a single volume which is at once readable, comprehensive, and 
scholarly. It is a book alike for the student and for busy men and women. 

Nearly 50,000 copies ba<ve been sold. 


"What a lot she knows! And how brightly she 
tells it all! We seem to be reading contemporaneous 
confidential letters to an intimate friend, written ' not 
for publication ' by any means the style is too good 
for that but simply because the writer is interested, 
and never imagines the reader to be otherwise." 

Nenv York Mail and Express. 

Per -volume, crown 8*vo, illustrated, $2.50. 


The Last Years of the 19th Century. 

Spain in the 19th Century. 

Italy in the 19th Century. 

Europe in Africa in the 19th Century. 

England in the 19th Century. 

Russia and Turkey in the 19th Century. 

France in the 19th Century. 


By EMMA WOLF, izmo, $1.00. 

" Describes graphically the Jew in modern conditions and the difficulty 
of escaping from racial limitations. A strong piece of work." The Con- 
gregationalist (Boston). 

"A more interesting story concerning one of the great problems of life 
we have never read. As a novelist Miss Wolf stands beside Zangwill and 
Henry Harland." Journal (Chicago). 



Author of "Beatrice of Bayou 

Teche." I2mo, $1.25. 

"Contagious fire breathes in every page, and with each chapter the 
story starts anew, a glittering mass of quick thought and action." Public 
Opinion (New York). 

"It is altogether a most delightful contribution to the tales of adven- 
ture; particularly so in its revelation of the possibilities of the history of 
our own country, so often decried as lacking the background of a roman- 
tic past." Tbe Evening Transcript (Boston). 

For sale by Booksellers generally, or mailed on receipt of price by the Publishers, 

A. C. McCLURQ & COMPANY, 215-221 Wabash Avenue, Chicago 



[March 16, 


Dickens Thackeray Scott 


CACH NOVEL is complete in one volume, and the size is only 4^ *6^ inches and not 
*-? thicker than an ordinary magazine. Think of it there are from 556 to 1,000 pages in each 
volume, yet the type is as large and as easily read as that you are now reading ! The thinness 
of these volumes is all due to the India Paper, which is the thinnest printing paper in the 
world. The enormous sales these wonderful little books are having is not alone due to their con- 
venience when traveling, but because they make a library set which any one would be proud to 

In Order that You May Examine One of These Beautiful Volumes of the 

we make the following offer : On receipt of the price of a volume, we will send you, postpaid, 
any novel you select which is already published. If you are not pleased with it, return it to 
us at once and your money will be refunded without question. If you keep it, we will 
send you monthly our " Which Next " postal card, bearing the titles of novels published to date. 
You will simply check the one or more books you wish and return postal card, with money, to 
us. In this manner you may acquire these standard works at a remarkably low cost, and you 
are never in debt. 

Each Volume may be had, handsomely bound, in the following styles : Cloth extra, 
gilt top, $1.00; Leather Limp, gilt top, $1.25; Leather Boards, gilt edges, $1.50. 


Already published "The Pickwick Papers," "Nich- 
olas Nickleby," "Barnaby Rudge," "Oliver Twist," 
and " Sketches by Boz," " Old Curiosity Shop," "Mar- 
tin Chuzzlewit," " Dombey and Son," "David Copper- 
field," "American Notes." Others will follow. 


Already published "Waverley," "Guy Manner- 
ing," and "The Antiquary." Scott's novels will be 
complete in twenty-five volumes. The remaining 
twenty-two volumes will be published at the rate of 
two a month. 


Now Ready and Complete in Fourteen 

" Vanity Fair," "Pendennis," " The Newcomes," 
"Henry Esmond," "The Paris Sketch Book, etc.," 
"The Book of Snobs, etc.," "Burlesques, etc.," 
"Men's Wives, etc.," "The Virginians," "The 
Adventures of Philip," "Catherine, etc.," "Barry 
Lyndon, etc.," "Essays, Reviews, etc.," "Contribu- 
tions to Punch, etc." 

Department Q 37=41 East Eighteenth Street NEW YORK 

1901.] THE DIAL 171 




That is why 40,000 copies have already been sold. 

" Since Stevenson laid aside his pen there has not appeared in 
English speech anything so worthy of the word perfection as Booth 
Tarkington's 'MONSIEUR BEAUCAIRE.' It is a piece of 
literature. It is a poem, an idyl, the very flower of romance, and 
the one exception, in this weary historical array, which seems to 
have breathed into it the breath of immortality." St. Paul Dispatch. 

Illustrated in Colors, $1.25. 

Fourth Edition. Tenth Thousand. 


Cloth, 12mo, $1.50. 

A novel of American life. " A heroine to fall in love with, a 
hero we are glad to have win her. I didn't look to like them, but 
I did," writes Charles F. Lummis in The Land of Sunshine. " A strong 
fascination about this novel of manners," says the New York Mail and 
Express. "Without claiming any especial skill as a prophet, I should 
like to predict a big sale for this book," writes Elizabeth Knigbt 
Tompkins. Hundreds of other good words for this book. 





[March 16, 

Longmans, Green, & Co.'s New Books 


A Series of Verse Translations from the Greek 
Dramatic Poets, with Commentaries and Explana- 
tory Essays, for English Readers. Edited by GEORGE 
C. W. WARR, M.A. 

and Explained by GEORGE C. W. WARR, M.A., ex- 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Professor of 
Classical Literature in King's College, London. Illus- 
trated by 13 plates, in photogravure and half-tone, 
from antique sculpture and painting. 276 pages, 
cloth, gilt top, $2.00. [Ready. 

*#* Other volumes are in preparation. A descriptive circular 

of the Series, with a specimen page, will be mailed to any 

address upon request. 


1485. By CHARLES GROSS, Ph.D., Harvard Univer- 
sity. 8vo, pp. xx.-618, $5.00 net. 
*#* This book contains a systematic survey of the printed 

materials relating to the political, constitutional, legal, 

social, and economic history of England, Wales, and Ireland 

to 1485. 


Through the Lion-Land to the Court of the Lion 
of Judah 

By HERBERT VIVIAN, M.A., author of "Servia: The 
Poor Man's Paradise," "Tunisia, and the Modern 
Barbary Pirates," etc. With 79 illustrations and 
2 maps. 8vo, pp. xvi.-342, $4.00. 


By the author of " Charles Lowder." With frontis- 
piece. Crown 8vo, pp. xix.-569, $2.50. 

*#* This Life is not an abridgment of Dr. Liddon's work, 
but an entirely independent memoir, written at the earnest 
request of Dr. Pusey's daughter, who desired that such a 
memoir should be published chiefly for the many who have 
not time to study the four-volume Life, or means to possess 
themselves of it. All family letters belonging to her, as well 
as those on public matters, have been placed at the disposal 
of the writer of this memoir, which has been written from 
original documents, and deals more especially with the per- 
sonal history and character of Dr. Pusey. 


M.D. 40 plates with descriptive letterpress. Demy 
4to, in portfolio, $2.50 net. 

*** These plates are designed to supplement existing 
treatises on Art Anatomy, and to form a convenient means 
of reference for painters, modellers, and designers. The 
figures are all photographed from the living model. 
A Prospectus may be had upon application to the publishers. 

New Books by Brander Matthews. 


By BRANDER MATTHEWS, D.C.L., Professor of Dra- 
matic Literature in Columbia University. 16mo, oOc. 
** In the final ten years of the nineteenth century an in- 
creasing attention has been paid to the history of fiction and 
to the principles of narrative art. In many of the leading 
American universities the modern novel has been serving as 
the subject for lectures and as the material for private study, 
in the course of which the short-story received a fair share of 
attention. It is in consequence of this incessant discussion of 
modern fiction and of its methods that the author and the 
publishers have been made aware of a demand for the pres- 
ent essay. 


By BRANDER MATTHEWS, D.C.L. 16mo, 50 cts. 

*** The two papers which make up the body of this little 
book present two aspects of the same subject ; and they are 
the result of the same impulse a desire to set down simply 
a few hints for those who are seeking to get at some of the 
fundamental principles of the difficult art of speech-making. 


Containing Descriptions of the Hardiest and 
most Beautiful Annuals and Biennials, Hardy 
Herbaceous and Bulbous Perennials, Hardy 
Water and Bog Plants, Flowering and Orna- 
mental Trees and Shrubs, Conifers; Hardy 
Ferns, Hardy Bamboos, and other Ornamental 

By JOHN WEATHERS, F.R.H.S., Late Assistant Secre- 
tary to the Royal Horticultural Society, formerly of 
the Royal Gardens, Kew, etc. With 163 illustra- 
tions. Large 8vo, pp. xii.-1192, $7.50 net. 


By MAUD MARYON. With 4 illustrations by GORDON 
BROWNE. Crown 8vo, cloth, ornamental, $1.50. 

" A delightful book of reticent yet complete personality. 
Should be read by all lovers of flowers and good reading." 


SURVEYS, Historic and Economic 

Essays and Reviews. By W. J. ASHLEY, M.A., Pro- 
fessor of Economic History in Harvard University, 
author of " English Economic History and Theory." 
With an Analytical Table of Contents. 8vo, 
pp. xxvii.-476, $3.00. 


By F. W. PULLER, of the Society of St. John the 
Evangelist, Cowley. With an Introduction by 
EDWARD, Lord Bishop of Lincoln. Third Edition, 
Revised and Enlarged. 8vo, pp. xxxvi.-568, $4.00 net. 

Longmans, Green, & Co., 91=93 Fifth Ave., New York 




The Century Co.'s Spring Books 

Ready in April and May 

Heady April Third 


By Hamlin Garland 

Frontispiece by Relyea 

This is the story of a Colorado prospector who 
goes to London with a mine to sell. He invades 
society, shocks it, amuses it, and is lionized by it, 
bnt returns to America, his mine unsold, discour- 
aged and homesick. The mine has increased in 
value while he is away, and the story ends with bis 
winning the love of a charming American girl. It 
is a story of picturesque contrasts, and its hero sug- 
gests a masculine counterpart of " Daisy Miller." 
Perhaps the word " breezy " characterizes it better 
than any other. The author has written several 
successful books, bnt in the judgment of many this 
is his best and most entertaining effort as a fiction 
writer. 12mo, 396 pages, $150. 


By Sir Walter Besant 

Illustrated by Phil May, Joseph Pennell, and 
L. Raven-Hill 

In these sketches of London's East Side there is 
a subtle penetration and delineation of motives like 
that to be found in Dickens's " Uncommercial Trav- 
eller." A study of types, it is none the less a study 
of class principles, psychological and metaphysical, 
but never heavy. The author is thoroughly con- 
versant with his subject, and is one of the most 
delightful of English writers. His book " All Sorts 
and Conditions of Men " suggested the famous Peo- 
ple's Palace. The illustrations in " East London " 
are many and interesting ; they include character 
studies by Phil May and L. Raven-Hill, with views by 
Joseph Pennell. 8vo, 364 pages, richly bound, $3.50. 


By William Barry 

A designing mother and a strong-willed son play 
at cross-purposes in this Irish story, though the 
motif of the author is to picture the servile peasan- 
try and domineering landholders- in Ireland fifty 
years ago. The wizard's knot is a tangled one, and 
the book teems with incident and adventure. The 
author, a Catholic priest, is welt known to novel- 
readers by his powerful stories, "Arden Massiter" 
and " The Two Standards." ISmo, 406 pages, $1.50. 

Ready April Seventeenth 


By Edwin Asa Dix 

In this story of New England life the author 
works out a plot involving a recluse, who at dying 
leaves his money to be disbursed by three trustees, 
and a man who separates himself from his family 
and mankind through his chronic inclination to brood 
over fancied wrongs. Mr. Dix's previous novel, 
"Deacon Bradbury," has been one of the hits of the 
past season, and in the present book several of the 
same characters are reintroduced. ISmo, 289 pages, 


By John Luther Long 

The Prince is a little blind boy, and the Illusion 
is his belief that he is a real prince. This is instilled 
into him by his mother, who seeks to keep him 
always unconscious of his squalid surroundings. The 
same author's " Madame Butterfly " has been very 
successful, the dramatization being equally so. 12mo, 
SO 4 pages, $1.25.' 

Ready May First 


By Bertha Runkle 

Illustrated by Andre Castaigne 
The scene of the story is laid in Paris at the close 
of the sixteenth century. M. Etienne, son of the 
Duke of St. Quentin, plays the leading part, and the 
action is rapid and brilliant. The struggle between 
the League and Henry IV. furnishes the motif of the 
book. This has been the most popular serial novel 
ever printed in The Century Magazine. One well- 
known critic calls it " the greatest piece of historical 
fiction ever produced by an American." ISmo, JfiQ 
pages, $1.50. 

Ready in May 


By Augusta Foote Arnold 

With 600 Illustrations 

This might be called " How to Know the Beach," 
for it contains a full description of everything to be 
found on the seashore, from a star-fish to a king- 
crab, with all the seaweeds and mosses. It is inval- 
uable to the nature-student as a text book for the 
summer outing. 800, 500 pages, $S~frO net. 




[March 16, 

Hougfjton, Jfttf t tin 51 Company's J^eto Jioofcs 



By ALICE BROWN, author of "Meadow Grass," 


"Tiverton Tales," etc. 12mo, $1.50. 

12mo, $1.50. 

The story of the struggle of an enthusiastic New 

" An admirable performance. ... It is no small 

Hampshire girl between love and an imagined 

achievement to have conceived a character of such 

"call." Fortunately love wins the day. It is a charm- 

bravery as Miss Frothingham's hero. The heroine, 

ing story of New England village life, with amusing 

a genuine artist, but still womanly; the man who 

portrayals of eccentric New England character. It 

plays Damon to the hero's Pythias ; the girl who 

has Miss Brown's fine literary touch, also uncom- 

loves the hero, he being all unconscious of her feel- 

mon freshness, humor, and personal charm. 

ing; the physician who pronounces the hero's doom 


and, later, gathers strength from his example, are 
described with skill extraordinary in an untried 

By HERBERT D. WARD, author of "The White 

writer." New York Times Saturday Review. 

Crown, and Other Stories," etc. Illustrated. 

Square 12mo, $1.00. 


A lens-maker, who is a reverent doubter, dies and 

By JENNETTE LEE, author of "Kate Wetherill." 

his spirit goes out among the stars. Far off he 

IGmo, $1.25. 

meets light which left the earth long before, bearing 
the pictures of great events. He witnesses the 
resurrection of Jesus, and his doubts are removed. 
The story is novel in conception, is told with much 
dramatic interest, and is an excellent Easter book. 

A striking story of the passion of the inventor for 
working out his dreams and the opposition of his 
wife, a practical New England woman. In and out 
through the story is woven the life of the family and 
of " the Street " and the New England factory town 


in which the scene of the story is laid. 



By OSCAR FAY ADAMS. Fourth Edition, much en- 
larged. 8vo, $3.50. 

By STANTON H. KING. Illustrated. 12mo, $1.50. 

This valuable handbook contains over 7500 brief 
biographies of American authors, comprising state- 
ments of the life and writings of each author named. 
It is virtually indispensable for all who desire in- 
formation about American writers. 

A plain tale of twelve years in the merchant and 
naval marine, simple in style and presenting the real- 
istic side of sea life. The writer sailed in many ships 
and visited many ports of the world, but the chief 
interest of his story will be found in his account of 

the actual conditions of life before the mast. 


BY CHARLES E. PHELPS, Judge of the Supreme 


Court of Baltimore. With an Introduction by 


the eminent Shakespearean lecturer, Henry A. 

Plar>r 19mn <R1 ^O 

By JEAN N. MC!LWRAITH, author of " A Book 

v/iapp. i inOj V.L.OU. 
A scholarly and entertaining book on the humor and 

about Longfellow," etc. Illustrated. Crown 
ftvn <asi KO 

legal knowledge of Shakespeare. It shows how Shake- 
speare became familiar with law, and has a special 
interest for lawyers who are students of Shakespeare. 

<J W, %p.L.t^\/. 

The hero fights in Scotland for Prince Charlie, for 
love of a lady above him in station. After Cullo- 
den the scene shifts to New York and Canada, 



where there are trading and exploring adventures 
among Indians, and fighting between French and 


English, and where the hero finally wins something 

Volumes have already appeared on Andrew Jack- 

far better than a battle. 

son, James B. Eads, and Benjamin Franklin. Three 

more are now ready: 



For the Vacation Tourist in Europe. Covering the 


portions of Europe commonly visited by tourists. 


By W. J. ROLFE. Edition for 1901, carefully 

Strong, compact, effective accounts of the careers 

revised to date. With Maps, Street Plans, Money 

of these notable Americans. Each IGmo, with 

Tables, a Calendar of Festivals and Fairs, etc. 

photogravure portrait, 75 cents ; School Edition, 

Accurate, clear, compact, so as to go in one's 

with half-tone portrait, 50 cents net. 

pocket. Flexible leather cover, $1.50 net. 

rot sale by all Booksellers. 1 \ A tt ivfa t-rt ti fVltff ltt JP /TT rt vt M ss *t M ^Rrtfi^rtfrt 
Sent, postpaid, by the Publishers, UO 1101)1011 , U^UlIUl (X VcLQ ill {mill?, iDU&lQU 






Etidorhpa. A Novel of Mystery. By the author j 
of " Stringtown on the Pike," etc. 12mo, cloth, i 
illustrated, 31.50. 


Observations of Henry. By the author of 
" Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow," etc. 12mo, 
cloth, illustrations in color, $1.25. 


Souls of Passage. By the author of "The 
Bow of Orange Ribbon," etc. 12mo, cloth, illus- 
trated, SI. 50. 


Pro Patria. By the author of " The Garden of 
Swords," etc. 12mo, cloth, illustrated, $1.50. 

The Fanatics. A Novel. By the author of 
Lyrics of Lowly Life," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


A Question of Silence. By the author of the 
Sherburne books, etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

Every Inch a King. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

John Charity. By the author of "The Pro- 
cession of Life," etc. '12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

According to Plato. By the author of "The 
Jessamy Bride," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


Olive Tracy. By the author of "Probable 
Sons," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


The Second Dandy Chater. By the author of 
" A Prince of Mischance," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


Her Majesty's Minister. By the author of 
" Scribes and Pharisees," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


The Crow's Nest. By the author of "A Social j 
Departure," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.25. 


The Eternal Quest. By the author of " The 
Minister of State," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

The Way of Belinda. By the author of 
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The Passing of the Great Queen. By the 

author of " The Master Christian," etc., etc. 16mo, 
white cloth, 50 cts. 


A History of Criticism. By the author of 
" Corrected Impressions," etc. Vol. I. now ready. 
8vo, cloth, $3.50 net. 


The Life of the Bee. By the author of " Wis- 
dom and Destiny," etc. 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 


The Story of My Life. By the author of 

" Walks in Rome," etc. 2 volumes, 8vo, cloth, 
illustrated, $7.50. 


Journal of Hugh Qaine : Printer. Edited by 

the author of " Janice Meredith," etc. 8 vo, cloth. 

New York in Fiction. By the Editor of The 
Bookman. 12mo, cloth, illustrated, $1.35 net. 


Masters of Music. By the author of "The 
Story of the Rheingold," etc. 12mo, cloth, illus- 
trated, $1.50. 


Empresses of France. By the author of 
"Famous Operas," etc. 12mo, cloth, illustrated, 
probably $2.50. 


Love Letters of Dorothy Osborne to Sir 
William Temple. New edition, 12mo, cloth, 
with frontispiece, $1.25. 

Life and Sport on the Pacific Slope. 8vo, 
cloth, illustrated, $1.50. 


Turner and Ruskin. By FREDERICK WED- 
MORE. 2 volumes, 4to, illustrated, $50.00 net. 

Love's Argument and other Poems. By 

the author of " Concerning Isabel Carnaby," etc. 
12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

Wasps and Their Ways. By the author of 
" Flowers and Their Friends." 12mo, cloth, $1.50. 

The Pronunciation of 10,000 Proper Names. 

12mo, cloth, probably $1.00. 





[March 16, 

Lee and Shepard's 

New Books 

Ready April 1. 


Or, Peter Paneuil and his Gift. 

By ABRAM ENGLISH BROWN, author of " John 
Hancock, His Book," etc. 8vo, cloth, illus- 
trated, 81.50. 
A most valuable book from a historical point of 

view, and as interesting as any fiction. 


Compiled by ANNA E. MACK, Editor of " Be- 
cause I Love You." Cloth, gilt top, 11.00. 

A collection of thoughts for Easter Day and every 
day. A beautiful gift. 


Or, Last Battles in the Philippines. 

Being the Sixth and Concluding Volume of 
the Famous Old Glory Series. By EDWARD 
STRATEMEYER. Cloth, illustrated, $1.25. 

The book that thousands of boys are eagerly wait- 
ing for. 


By HENRY WOOD. Cloth, fine laid paper, 
gilt top, $1.25. 

A thoroughly revised and much enlarged edition of 
Mr. Wood's noted " Political Economy of Natural Law." 


By AMANDA M. DOUGLAS. Cloth, fifty full- 
page illustrations, $1.25. 

A new and improved edition of a standard book by 
a favorite author for the young. 

One of the Best Selling Books in 
the Country. 


A Story of the Maine Coast. 

The Great New England Novel. By CHARLES 
CLARK MUNN. Cloth, richly bound and 
beautifully illustrated, $1.50. 

Send for Our Complete Catalogue. 

Lee and Shepard, Publishers, Boston 




173 Pages. Illustrated. Cloth. 

Price, $1.00. 

" 7s more effectual in imparting an idea 
of the man and some aspects of the Pres- 
ident than any one of several pretentious 
volumes ten times its size." 

in Christian Advocate. 


United Society of Christian Endeavor, 


Two Important Books 


A Life Study in Criticism 


Illus., izmo, cloth, $1.75. (Just Ready.) 

Mr. H. B. Baildon, at presentLectureron English 

Literature in the University of Vienna, and an old 

schoolmate of Stevenson, not only indicates the 

nature and quality, but also the range and extent, 

of Stevenson's achievements. The volume contains 

a complete bibliography of Stevenson's books, and 

of books and articles on Stevenson. Two portraits, 

one never before published, add to the attractiveness 

of the volume. 



With an introduction and chapter on the study and 
arrangement of Book Plates by Henry Blackwell. 
Illustrated, square 8vo, boards, $2.00 net. 
The volume will contain over zoo reproductions 
of representative and rare book plates, particularly 
examples of American book plate designers, and two 
Japan paper insets of two plates of Mr. E. D. French 
never before reproduced, these being printed direct 
from the original plates specially for this work. 


7 & 9 West Eighteenth Street, New York City 

1901.] THE DIAL 177 



By JOSEPH Y. BERGEN, Instructor in Biology in the English High School, 

Boston, and author of "Elements of Botany." For Introduction, $1.50. 

A NOTHER notable book by Mr. Bergen, whose "Elements of Botany'"'' has come to be the most widely 
** used recent text-book on the subject in higher schools and academies. It is not intended to take the 
place of the Elements, but to offer a more extended and comprehensive course for schools that wish to devote 
an entire year to the subject. The flora includes seven hundred species. The descriptions are written in the 
very simplest language consistent with accuracy, and technical terms are omitted in every case where ordinary 
language is sufficiently concise and accurate to answer the purpose. 



By GEORGE F. ATKINSON, Professor of Botany in Cornell University. 

T N this new book is presented the unusual and attractive combination of rare scholarship with great felicity 
1 in writing for young people. The object in presenting these studies in the form of " Stories of Plant Life " 
has been to interest the child and pupil in the life and -work of plants. 

Part IV., "Life Stories of Plants," the author has presented in the form of biographies. This feature of 
" reading" the stories which plants have to tell forms the leading theme which runs through the book. The 
plants talk by a "sign language," which the pupil is encouraged to read and interpret. This method lends 
itself in a happy manner as an appeal to the child's power of interpretation of the things which it sees. 

This book, by so great an authority as Professor Atkinson, is certain to provide for the child and the 
teacher a source from which to obtain both profit and enjoyment. 


Boston New York Chicago San Francisco Atlanta Dallas Columbus London 



By Miss M. L. FORSSLUND. A Dramatic Story of the Long Island Coast. 12mo, cloth, 81.50. 
In addition to telling a story of the most intense heart interest, the writer has succeeded in depicting certain 
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By A. P. VALDES, author of The Joy of Captain Ribot. Translated by Rachel Challice. 12mo, cloth, 81.50 

The character sketching is most masterly, and the story is written in the crisp, clear style for which this 

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By F. FRANKFORT MOORE. 12mo, cloth, illustrated, $1.50. 

Full of life and action. A greater story than " The Jessamy Bride," by this capable writer, and the best of 
all the Nell Gwyn stories yet written. 

Lessons in Law for Women 


12 010, special binding, 81.50. 

The author in his profession has been often impressed 
with the helplessness of women in matters of business, 
and in a little book of about 350 pages, which he calls 
a primer, he undertakes to explain the fundamental and 
general principles of the law as to the property holdings 
in which women can be expected to have an interest. 

Our Fate and the Zodiac 


12 mo, artistically printed and bound, 81-25. 
The author has collected an astonishing amount of 
detail regarding the characteristics, tastes, and tenden- 
cies of those born under the different signs. Written 
in a delightful style and beautifully printed, with blank 
space at the end of each division on which autographs 
may be collected. 




[March 16, 1901. 

The Macmillan Company's New Books 


Reconstruction in Theology 

Theology and Philosophy in Oberlin College. 

Cloth, $1.50. 
On the relation of theology to natural science, the 

inferences from the evolution theory, etc. 

The Government of Minnesota 


By FRANK McVEY, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, 
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An unusually well equipped aid to the teaching of 

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The History of South Carolina 

Under the Proprietary 



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" Its general accuracy and thoroughness of treat- 
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-Journal of the Southern History Association. 

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Under Royal Govern- 

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" It supplies a long-felt need ... is unusually 
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Dictionary of Architecture and Building 

iBy RUSSELL STURGIS, Fellow of the American Inst. of Architects, author of " European Architecture," etc. 


scription for sets NEERS, AND OTHER EXPERT WRITERS, AMERICAN Half morocco, $30. 

of three 4to vols. AND FOREIGN. Vol. I. Just Ready. 

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of the Middle Ages 

of " Ancient Ideals," etc. 

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A Treasury of Irish Poetry 
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ROLLESTON. Introduction by the 
former. Cloth, $1.75. 

The American Negro 



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Stmt*i;Hflnt!jlg Journal of Hitcrarg Criticism, Discussion, ano Information. 

THE DIAL (founded in 1880 ) is published on the lt and 16th of 
each month. TEEMS OF SUBSCRIPTION, 82.00 a year in advance, postage 
prepaid in the Untied States, Canada, and Mexico; in other countries 
comprised in the Postal Union, 50 cents a year for extra postage must 
be added. Unless otherwise ordered, subscriptions trill begin with the 
current number. REJUTTAXCES should be by draft, or by express or 
postal order, payable to THE DIAL. SPECIAL RATES TO CLUBS and 
for subscriptions with other publications icill be sent on application; 
and SAMPLE COPT on receipt of 10 cents. ADTEBTBKO RATES furnished 
on application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 

No. S54 MARCH 16, 1901. Vol. XXX. 





A Much -Needed Reform in oar Great Dailies. 

Joseph Jastrow. 

The Editing of Poe. A. G. Newcomer. 
"ProfessorTriggs on Professor Wendell." A Reply. 

Oscar Love 1 1 Triggs. 

The First County Library in the United States. 
A. L. Day. 

TERS. E.G.J. 184 

OUR IDEA OF TRAGEDY. Edward E. Hale, Jr. . 187 


Rice 190 


Jack 192 


A history of Chinese literature. A new anthology 
of English verse. A critic as dramatist. An eccen- 
tric philosopher and his correspondence. The 
much-discussed "Englishwoman's Love- Letters." 
Israel's hope for the future. A popular mushroom 
book. Two volumes on mediaeval towns. A narra- 
tive of American society. Religion in the forecastle. 
An enjoyable book on the garden. A critical 
translation of .Eschylus. 


A classified list of over 750 titles of books to be issued 
by the American publishers during the Spring of 1901 . 

NOTES . 205 


For a number of years past, the condition 
of the bookselling trade has been a matter of 
much concern, not only to the booksellers and 
publishers immediately interested, but also to 
the wider public that takes an interest in all 
questions affecting popular culture. The prac- 
tice of publishing books at a fictitious price, 
never actually demanded, is quite indefensible ; 
and the custom of selling books at all sorts 
of discounts, based upon " what the traffic will 
bear," if not strictly indefensible, is at least 
so demoralizing to the trade that some effort 
to secure uniformity of practice is well worth 
making. Under the stress of the forces of 
competition, the book business has suffered 
severely in both directions from the side of 
the publisher and dealer alike and the effect 
upon the general public has been equally un- 
fortunate, for the old-time bookstore has almost 
disappeared from the social economy of all but 
a few of our largest cities. The individual 
purchaser of books, allured by the inducements 
of dealers in general merchandise or by the 
advertisements of houses of supply in the large 
cities sometimes even by the direct bid of 
injudicious publishers for the retail trade 
has deserted the local bookseller, and forced 
him either to retire from business, or to add 
all sorts of " notions " and * k side lines " to his 
stock, thereby becoming a very different sort 
of person from the bookseller of a generation 
or two ago. 

After a long period of agitation of these 
vexed questions, the publishers of the country 
have at last realized the necessity of concerted 
action, and have agreed upon a plan, to be put 
into general operation the first of May, which 
it is hoped will restore something like uni- 
formity to the system of discounts, make the 
retail price of a given book the same wherever 
purchased, and cause whatever booksellers have 
survived the demoralizing conditions of recent 
years to take heart for the future. Since the 
"plan in question is put forward by the Ameri- 
can Publishers Association, and agreed upon 
by nearly all the large and reputable houses, 
there is at least a fair chance that it will 



[March 16, 

accomplish its purposes. At all events, the 
outcome of the experiment about to be made 
will be watched for with eager interest by 
all who are intelligent enough to understand 
the importance to the whole public of a 
healthful activity in all the branches of the 
book trade. 

The essential features of the plan proposed 
are presented in the following summary. All 
copyright books sold under ordinary trade con- 
ditions are to be listed at net prices, which 
prices shall be substantially those now actually 
charged by the leading booksellers. Every 
intelligent purchaser knows that the real price 
of a book is only eighty per cent of the ficti- 
tious price advertised, and the fictitious price 
is now to be suppressed altogether. From this 
arrangement school books, subscription books, 
and works of current fiction are to be excluded. 
The publishers then agree to sell their books 
only to such dealers as will maintain the net 
retail prices set upon them. Thus the book- 
seller who cuts his prices will also cut himself 
off from obtaining further supplies. Libraries 
are to receive a discount of ten per cent from 
retail prices, and the discount to booksellers 
is to be twenty-five per cent, although this 
latter stipulation is not binding upon publish- 
ers. A year after publication, the restriction 
upon booksellers shall cease, although the 
publisher may then have the right to repur- 
chase all copies which may remain unsold, at 
the price which was originally paid for them. 
When the publisher sells his own books at 
retail, he shall add to the list price the express 
or postal charges to all customers from out 
of town, instead of mailing " postpaid," as is 
now the universal custom excepting with 
"net" books. 

The result of the operation of the plan thus 
outlined is obvious enough. If the publishers 
concerned shall live up to this agreement in 
good faith, there will be an end of the under- 
selling of new copyright books by department 
stores and dealers in miscellaneous goods. 
There will also be an end of retail mail orders 
sent direct to publishers from towns that have 
booksellers of their own. The local bookseller 
will be sure of a reasonable profit upon his 
sales, and will be encouraged to work up his 
hitherto languishing trade. The department 
stores will suffer no real loss, and will prob- 
ably find bookselling as profitable as ever, 
although no longer able to lure the book-buyer 
from his proper allegiance, except in the case 

of popular novels, which will remain unaffected 
by the new arrangement. This is, of course, 
a very large exception, and it cannot be de- 
fended as a logical one. But it is best not to 
be too radical all at once, and we think that 
the publishers have acted wisely in admitting 
this compromise. If the plan works well in 
other respects, it will be no difficult matter to 
bring fiction within its scope in the near future. 
Indeed, we augur well for the new departure 
chiefly because it is so moderate in its terms. 
So limited a measure of reform as this has ten 
times the chances of success that a thorough- 
going reform would have. And yet, limited 
as it is, we think that it can accomplish much 
for the encouragement of legitimate booksell- 
ing, and for the rehabilitation of one of the 
worthiest and most civilizing of human occu- 

The example of the German book trade has 
been chiefly influential in determining this 
plan of the American publishers. The general 
system for controlling prices, as now proposed 
for this country, has long been in successful 
operation among German publishers and book- 
sellers, with results that fully justify its wis- 
dom. Although opposed in Germany by a few 
obdurate undersellers, the opposition has not 
been sufficiently formidable to interfere seri- 
ously with the plan, and is now almost com- 
pletely overcome. The result has been, and is, 
that German books are sold at uniform prices 
throughout the Empire, and, what is far more 
important, the German bookseller is enabled 
to earn a livelihood from his business. Every 
German town of any size has at least one well- 
appointed book-shop, and this condition of af- 
fairs is so warmly appreciated by the public 
that few voices would now be raised in favor 
of a return to the old disastrous system of com- 
petitive underselling. It is distinctly worth 
while to increase slightly the cost of books to 
individual purchasers, if thereby the business 
of dealing in books may be kept in the hands 
of bookmen, and if books of all sorts may thus 
be brought within the easy reach of book- 

In expressing our approval of this plan, as 
about to be inaugurated in the American trade, 
we are not blinking the fact that it means 
higher retail prices for a good many books. 
As a general rule, we believe in the most open 
and unrestricted competition in business af- 
fairs, and are opposed to regulations, whether 
public or private, in restraint of trade. But 




it seems to us that the book trade is of so pecul- 
iar a nature, and bears so important a relation 
to the culture of the community, that it de- 
serves to be dealt with on an exceptional basis. 
However sound in principle the doctrine of 
unrestricted competition may be, its rigorous 
application to the present case would seem to 
suggest the doctrinaire theorist rather than the 
philosophical observer. It is a form of trade 
protection, no doubt, but, however sinister the 
associations of that word, fair-minded people 
must admit that there are instances in which 
protection is the policy of wisdom rather than 
of selfish interest. This seems to us to be 
clearly one of those instances, and we assert 
without hesitation that a flourishing book trade 
is of such vital importance to the civilization 
of any community that a community may prop- 
erly be taxed for its support. The tax in 
question will be a small one, and its incidence 
will be upon the persons most directly bene- 
fitted. which seems to us all that need be urged 
in its defence. 


It would be hard to believe that Milton ever 
doubted of the poetic vision, or would have ex- 
changed it. if he could, for a practical view of life. 
His weighing of the matter in " Lycidas " is evi- 
dently more for the sake of argument, to set forth 
the grounds of his impregnable conviction, than to 
voice any question of his own mind. He was too 
thorough-going an idealist, even in the days when 
sportive Amaryllis conld allure, to be seriously 
moved by the pleasures or practices of others. His 
profound and capacious nature was stayed on itself 
in a composure whence no accident or affliction 
could drive it A spirit privileged, like his, to con- 
template all time and all existence could withstand 
with ease shocks that perturb or destroy smaller 
souls, attractions that would draw them from their 

It is not, however, a common privilege to view 
in this large ab extra way the matters which make 
up one's personal share of conscious existence. If 
hell and heaven were opened to an ordinary mortal, 
in a vision like Dante's, no such tremendous effect 
would be produced. The traveller would return, 
like other personally conducted tourists, with scarce 
a recollection of the things he saw. If he did re- 
member some singular impression, it would be to 
congratulate himself on having only familiar ex- 
periences to deal with thereafter. The value of 
such observation as against commonly received 
opinion would be insignificant. The joys of the 

Paradiso would distil no life-long sweetness in his 
heart. For the bartering and selling and envy- 
ing and talking of everyday life are more real 
than the eternal verities to him who is not born 
with the mystic vision, and would be, though one 
rose from the dead to tell. Honest Sancho has 
been proved right so often that even the would-be 
Quixote gives over denying, and begins to lose 
faith himself. 

Indeed, the idealistic temperament is a gift as 
inconvenient as some we read of in old fairy tales, 
which may fall into bad hands, which bring suffer- 
ing if ill-used, and yet cannot be got rid of. This 
talisman may diffuse the steady glow that warms 
and transfigures, or it may yield but a flickering 
flame. Sometimes, as with Burns, its fitful illumi- 
nation reveals the rocks on which the hopeless 
mariner drives, but is not strong enough to enable 
him to steer clear. Sometimes we follow the vague 
gleam until we feel, as the poet dough did of Car- 
lyle's impassioned leadership, that it has led us out 
into the wilderness to die. 

Despondency is a frequent enough mood in the 
most practical career, whose rewards are patent to 
all, and which has the approval of the whole world. 
How much larger must be the natural proportion 
of discouragement in attempts which lie outside the 
sphere of common effort, and whose success, if 
recognizable, attracts but cold attention. Minds 
enamored of perfection have a wintry road to travel 
in a world where the expedient and relative alone 
are appreciated. To run a race with straining con- 
testants at your heels, amid the plaudits of sympa- 
thizing acquaintance, with a great prize in sight, is 
quite different from a lonely sprint, without spec- 
tators, toward an elusive goal which everybody 
pronounces an optical illusion. The bravest run- 
ners are weighed down by the tacit opposition, as 
by heavy atmospheric pressure. Wordsworth even, 
with all his deliberate planning to live the life of 
the spirit, had his moments when he prayed for 
pagan faith, that he might recapture his lost sense 
of the hidden beauty of the world. For him some- 
times, as for poor Susan in his song, 

" The stream would not flow, and the bill would not rise, 
And the colors had all passed away from his eyes." 

And Shakespeare, the most wonderful mind, so far 
as we know, that the human race has ever produced, 
tells what he feels, 

" When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes, 
I, all alone, beweep my outcast state, 
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, 
And look upon myself, and curse my fate, 
Wishing me more like to one more rich in hope, 
Featured like him, like him with friends possest, 
Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope, 
With what I most enjoy contented least." 

If these are the feelings with which the sons of 
Phoebus are at times overwhelmed, what must be 
the dismay and weakening of the knees of the com- 



[March 16, 

mon mortal who essays this quest. Uneasy regret 
for him that turns hack ; no complacent success for 
the victor ; between the two, all variations of defeat 
and discouragement. 

But ah, what compensation ! After Lowell has 
given the details of the Florentine's exile, he adds 
these words : " Looked at outwardly, Dante's life 
was an utter and disastrous failure. What its in- 
ward satisfactions were, we, with the Paradiso 
open before us, can form some faint conception." 
Newman says, in his Apologia, that he used to wish 
that the Arabian Tales were true. His imagination 
ran on unseen influences, magical powers, and talis- 
mans. The human soul has other ways of escaping 
its limitations, and these influences need not be in- 
voked with such potentialities within. In the son- 
net quoted from above, Shakespeare is absorbed in 
forced contemplation of conventional values, when 
the thought of his love suffices to release him, and, 
like the lark, rising from sullen earth, straightway 
his soul mounts and sings at heaven's gate. One 
may be held by peremptory custom and have prac- 
tical views thrust upon one, until resistance seems 
useless, and the voice of the majority is admitted 
to be the voice of God. One rush of disinterested 
feeling, an evening sky, the pure outline of a distant 
hill, and the old charm is set working, and the 
spirit is released. Lines of verse, by no means 
didactifc, sometimes work this transformation, when 
the most powerful exhortations of Emerson or 
Browning or Carlyle have been ineffectual. Lan- 
dor's lines to Rose Aylmer have no connection with 
effort of any kind, yet they have this melting quality 
to me. With the haunting music of " Rose Ayl- 
mer " in my ears, I can shake off any weight of 
freezing custom, and do the impossible in chasing 
the flying goal. Marlowe and those other Eliza- 
bethan playwrights loved the sound of Greek, though 
they knew not a word of it, because it had such a 
thundering sound, as if it conjured devils. We 
know that certain words, as well as holy water, did 
conjure devils in the romantic Middle Age ; and, 
sure, certain dark fears and doubts that vex men's 
minds now, may be exorcised by means as simple 
and irrelevant. The subterranean life from which 
great impulses come, does not respond to logical 
appeals. That naive old lady who drew such con- 
solation from the rich sound of the word Mesopo- 
tamia, knew the potency of suggestion to open 
charmed, magic casements upon large and noble 
scenes. At a touch, apparently remote and power- 
less, the importunate claims of society, the involved 
situations that cramp and school the soul to petty 
issues, yea, the great globe itself and all which 
it inherit, may, like the baseless fabric of a vision, 
fade into thin air, and leave but the freed spirit 
face to face with immensity. In the revolution of 
feeling Shakespeare describes in his sonnet, no ex- 
ternal change has taken place. Others have ad- 
vantages generally prized which he has not. This 
is the occasion of his grief, though the real cause 

probably lay in a deeper dissatisfaction. Suddenly 
a tender thought wells up from the unconscious 
deep. He is no richer, handsomer, greater than 
before, yet now he would not change his state with 
kings. This is your true idealist. The impulse, 
denied to his prayer of anguish, has come unfore- 
seen, but here it is, and " the moon, it is under his 
feet." In a twinkling, this mortal has put on im- 
mortality. From a clod, a thing of causes and 
effects, he is become a living soul and lays hold on 

eternal life. 




(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

You conclude a note in a recent issue of THE DIAL, 
calling attention to the fact that one of the prominent 
daily papers of the Atlantic coast is about to seek the 
collaboration of specialists and scholars in various fields 
for its reviews of current contributions to literature, 
with these words: "This is the way in which the thing 
ought to be done, and we wish that other journals 
would follow so excellent an example." Upon this 
most excellent text I should like to preach a very 
short sermon. That this is the only way in which 
it ought to be done, is one of those obvious propo- 
sitions that needs only to be clearly stated to gain en- 

How far it is a good thing that the great dailies have 
invaded so comprehensively the field of criticism of 
books, is a question that need not be decided in this 
connection. That they have done so and will continue 
to do so is obvious; and I am equally convinced that, 
if it be wisely done, the good will far outweigh the in- 
cidental evils. Every publisher knows how large a part 
of his copies for review go to the great dailies, and how 
frequently his press notices must be compiled from the 
same source. In the aggregate, the papers are influ- 
encing the opinions on matters of literature of an 
enormous proportion of the wisely-reading and of the 
unwisely-reading public. Their responsibilities are large, 
however lightly they may be carried. Many an excel- 
lent daily paper (I mean relatively so, in contrast to 
the many more that are worse) is well made up, obvi- 
ously gives special attention to its various departments, 
but fails utterly on the score of its book-reviews. I 
fancy that the volumes which too confiding publishers 
send on a venture to the best papers are swept together 
periodically and carried off by some omnivorous but 
most undiscerniug reader, who reviews or concocts no- 
tices of them of various degrees of merit or the absence 
of it. On the topics that interest him he produces 
something readable or at least coherent; the others are 
smudged over with a non-committal paragraph which 
means black or white or any intermediate shade of 
grey. These neutral, conventionally-phrased, damned- 
with-faint-praise testimonials are easily recognizable in 
collections of " press-notices." 

I have mainly in mind the great dailies away from 
the Atlantic coast, which are, indeed, the worst offend- 
ers in this respect. I have specially in mind the paper 




which stimulates the digestion of my breakfast, which 
certainly is careful as to its political and general news, 
its foreign items, its editorials, its sports, and its ac- 
counts of crime; which also contains an admirable 
musical and dramatic column; but whose book-reviews, 
and indeed all attempts to consider matters of science 
or literature in any part of its columns, are shockingly 
bad. Not always so, for when the professional book- 
reviewer gets hold of a book which is in his line, he pro- 
duces a creditable notice. The wrong is that he should 
be called upon to give utterance to criticisms upon 
things which he does not understand, even if he reads 
them which in some cases is doubtful. 

Within a short time I recall two contributions which 
may be given as concrete examples. The one was an 
editorial on a sensational announcement of a scientific 
worker of no unquestioned standing, in which were 
massed such a collection of gross errors and misconcep- 
tions as would hardly be excusable in a high school 
pupil. The other was a review of a book in regard to 
which every remark made was utterly inappropriate, 
and would have been about equally pertinent if the 
book had been Webster's Dictionary or Euclid's geom- 
etry, instead of, as it was, a series of essays on certain 
popular phases of science. The very next day appeared 
a laudatory appreciation of a manual of the most un- 
scientific, superstitious kind which was not worth serious 
attention, and then (all probably by the same hand) a 
good and worthy review of a volume which the reviewer 
had read and appreciated. 

This is the absurdity of the way in which the great 
dailies issue opinions on literary and scientific matters; 
this is what makes " newspaper science " a term of deri- 
sion, and brings it about that you can find wholesale 
laudation of almost any effusion which an author can 
persuade or bribe a publisher to print. The remedy is 
obvious. It is to have this work at least as carefully 
allotted as the various departments of the sporting 
page, and have books reviewed and editorials written 
by persons who are acquainted with the particular facts 
and opinion discussed, not by one who must profession- 
ally pose as a concentrated omniscience. Within the 
reach of the great dailies are professors at the Univer- 
sities, and specialists in all departments, who should be 
willing to assume this function as part of their civic ob- 
ligations; and it should be the policy of the great 
dailies, if they review books at all, to be willing to have 
it properly done and make the doing of it an attractive 
privilege to the scholar and the specialist. The notion 
that the scholar is not to be trusted, is given to fads, 
will not abide by practical conditions of space and read- 
ability, may be true of a small minority, but in regard 
to the great majority of whom such service would nat- 
urally be asked, it is simply a superstition, a survival 
in current beliefs kept alive by the jokes and jibes of 
the mentally impoverished paragrapher. The great 
dailies have no excuse in this direction. It is in most 
cases a neglect due to a lack of appreciation of their 
possibilities and their responsibilities, and one which, it 
is hoped, they will be anxious to atone for as speedily 
and as effectively as may be possible. As disseminators 
of opinion upon all topics which they decide to fall 
within their scope, it should be the aim and the boast 
of the dailies that they print the fittest news, and the 
most reliable opinions, even including the news and 
opinions of the world of science and letters and art. 


Madison, Wis., March 2, 1901. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The distress of your correspondent, " S.," in THE 
DIAL for Feb. 1, over the supposed misquotation in 
Mr. Stedman's Anthology, is another straw which shows 
how set the winds of American appreciation of Poe. 
Our poets, even Poe, are household poets, well-loved, 
memorized, but not critically studied. Now Poe is the 
only one of them of whose works we have something 
like a definitive critical edition, and yet so little is that 
known that a supposed error in Mr. Stedman's Anthol- 
ogy does not suggest a comparison with Messrs. Sted- 
man and Woodberry's Poe. I can scarcely conceive of 
an Englishman using his Tennyson thus. 

The communication is further interesting as showing 
the futility of a priori aesthetic reasoning. " Gray eye 
glances " is called a " distressing alliteration " of which 
Poe would have been incapable! Yet Tennyson changed 
" The tall masts quiver'd as they lay afloat " (" Dream 
of Fair Women ") to " The high masts flicker'd as they 
lay afloat," and, though the change was compelled by 
other changes in the same stanza, the alliteration was 
not found offensive. And how should alliteration have 
been offensive to the poet of " weak and weary," 
"quaint and curious," "nodded, nearly napping," 
"named Lenore "? The simple fact is that we are used 
to "dark eye glances"; and poets may take a lesson 
upon the danger of changing their printed text. " These 
old shoes," said Emerson, " are easy to my feet." 

The really interesting question under all this is the 
wisdom of Messrs. Stedman and Woodberry's adoption 
of Poe's marginal emendations. Their general principle, 
which they defend, is doubtless right, and it would be 
too delicate a task (a priori reasoning again) to decide 
that the principle should be departed from in any par- 
ticular instance. Yet in this instance " gray eyes " 
was substituted after 1845, and Poe's judgment in those 
latter disastrous years might well be questioned. Was 
the change made for purely aesthetic reasons, or out of 
personal caprice ? We might at least be pardoned for 
preferring to keep the color of the eyes which originally 
inspired the poem. A. G. NEWCOMER. 

Stanford University, March 1, 1901. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

I have read, in your issue of March 1, Mr. Gardner 
TealFs comments on my criticism of Professor Barrett 
Wendell. I am very sure that when Mr. Gardner Teall 
comes to read " A Literary History of America " he 
will not be tempted himself and he will not in the least 
understand my temptation. Living in the midst of 
Massachusetts culture and Massachusetts Transcenden- 
talism and Massachusetts Unitarianism, he can never be 
made to feel how little these things enter into the con- 
sciousness of one who has lived in the South and West, 
and he will read Professor Wendell's 479 pages on Amer- 
ican Literature in Boston with perfect contentment, and 
dismiss the Rest of the Story with a single chapter. 

My questions were asked in all seriousness and were 
intended to arouse thought. That they do not appear 
as an " examination test " is proven by the fact that 
Mr. Teall attempts to answer them without having read 
the book under discussion. (But perhaps Mr. Teall 
acquired this habit when he was at Harvard.) If I 
was rude and irreverent it was because of bad manners 
acquired by association with the class of " social de- 



[March 16, 

generates " that Mr. Wendell declares to have settled 
in the West the class that produced Lincoln and 
Grant. We have had the advantages of nothing better 
than missionary stations most of us, like Eugene 
Field, were only lately driven out of the trees. 

Mr. Teall's answer to one question propounded is not 
very convincing. If one is to write a literary history 
of America he should take account of all the literatures 
of America : if he confines himself to literature in En- 
glish should he call his work " A Literary History of 
America "? What lies back of the Mardi Gras festival 
at New Orleans must surely balance the life forces of 
New England Transcendentalism. 

Mr. Teall's suggestion for chronicling the literary 
doings of the United States by parishes strikes me as 
a good one. When Mr. Teall finishes his Whitman and 
his Wendell I hope he will read the two volumes on 
the literature of Indiana reviewed by Mr. Martin W. 
Sampson in THE DIAL of March 1. Indiana is a typical 
Western parish. The writer of " The Hoosiers," Mr. 
Sampson remarks, " traces the growth of the intellec- 
tual life within the State, from its territorial beginnings 
to the present day; the varying make-up of its popu- 
lation; the individual marks of its most characteristic 
institutions and towns: in short, he soberly essays a 
chapter in American cultur-geschicte, dealing with the 
State whose life he knows from within." The other 
volume is a book of selections from Indiana poets 
one hundred and forty-six in number. There would 
certainly be no blank page for this parish, and perhaps 
material enough (with Riley, Thompson, Evaleen Stein, 
and a few others, as demi-gods) for as considerable a 
mythology as has been developed in Massachusetts. 
Upon the blank pages reserved for other parishes I 
would indeed write passages from Whitman: upon one 
I would inscribe " Unnamed Lands," on another " There 
Was a Child Went Forth," on toother "The Ox- 
Tamer," on another (if there should be that many 
blanks) " Laws for Creations." I am more inclined to 
this suggestion, because, as I gather from answers to 
my questions received from New Orleans and San 
Francisco, this is precisely the method pursued by Mr. 
Wendell only he has filled up the blanks with Ref- 
erences and Index. 

And I have one more question upon the general 
theme : What justification is there for the time-honored 
belief that a man is not historically significant until he 
is dead ? If the rule is to be broken in the case of 
Mark Twain, why need it be obeyed in other instances ? 

The University of Chicago, March 4> 1901. 




(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In your issue of January 16, 1901, Mr. E. I. Antrim 
states that the " Brumbach " Library of Van Wert, O., 
founded January 1 last, was the first county library in 
the United States. If Mr. Antrim will consult Mr. 
N. D. C. Hodges, Librarian, Cincinnati, O., he will learn 
that the Public Library of Cincinnati was made a pub- 
lic county library a short time before September 1, 
1899. Also, by writing Mrs. S. B. Maxwell, of Mead- 
ville, Pa., he will learn that the Norris-Jewett Library, 
for the county of Trenton, Mo., which Mrs. Maxwell 
organized and catalogued, was founded in 1894. I 
write to correct the error of Mr. Antrim's statement. 

Meadville, Pa., March 1, 1901. A ' L - DAY< 

We are glad to note that one of the two at- 
tractive companion volumes containing selected 
writings of the late Eugene Schuyler contains 
also a Memoir wherein the public services of 
Mr. Schuyler during his long and varied dip- 
lomatic and consular career are interestingly, 
if summarily, set forth. Besides the Memoir 
this volume embraces the paper on "Count 
Leo Tolstoy Twenty Years Ago "; a consular 
reminiscence entitled " The Minnesota Heir of 
a Serbian King "; and a short story (the au- 
thor's only excursion into the field of fiction), 
entitled "The Lost Plant." In the fellow 
volume are assembled, besides two or three 
hitherto unpublished papers, a score or so of 
Mr. Schuyler's foreign letters to "The Nation," 
and these are, we need scarcely say, altogether 
model productions of their kind pleasant lit- 
erary and descriptive causeries with a flavor of 
scholarship that lifts them quite above the 
common run of newspaper letters. The vol- 
umes, it may be added, are separately indexed, 
and each is complete in itself, though they are 
meant to be shelf companions. 

Mr. Schuyler was born at Ithaca, N. Y., Feb. 
26, 1840, of virtually pure Dutch ancestry. 
He was, his sister and affectionate biographer 
records, a pretty and clever child, fond of 
books, flowers, pictures, music, and " good 
things to eat," and blessed, or perhaps afflicted, 
with so fastidious a sense of the relations be- 
tween taste and smell that he used to insist on 
the union on the dinner-table of certain flowers 
with certain viands sweet peas, for instance, 
being in the opinion of this young Sybarite 
the indispensable floral associate of roast beef. 
As a boy Mr. Schuyler attended the Ithaca 
Academy, acquitting himself with such lustre 
in his brief grapple with the curriculum of 
that institution that the trustees were moved 
to present him on parting (when he was about 
twelve years of age) with three large volumes 
of "Selections from the British Poets." With- 
out looking this formidable gift horse too 
openly in the mouth Eugene intimated, with 
some discernment, that on the whole he would 

* EUGENE SCHUTLEK : Selected Essays ; with a Memoir 
by Evelyn Schuyler Sehaeffer. With portrait. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

ITALIAN INFLUENCES. By Eugene Schuyler. New York : 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 




rather have the complete works of one poet 
than another man's selections from the works 
of all of them. At fifteen he was entered at 
Yale College, where, we learn, he worked not 
for honors bat from natural love of learning. 
Honors came, however, a Clark premium 
for proficiency in Latin in his junior year, and 
in his senior year a Berkeley prize for Latin 
composition. He was graduated fifth in a class 
of over a hundred, and had the rank of Philo- 
sophical Oration, taking also the Berkeley and 
Clark Scholarships. A classmate of Schuyler's, 
Professor Wright, of Yale, has testified warmly 
to his personal charm and refinement, his pre- 
cocious attainments, and natural taste and ap- 
titude for exact scholarship and broad culture. 
After graduating, in 1859, Mr. Schuyler 
remained at New Haven for two years, and 
was the first to receive there, in 1861, the de- 
gree of Doctor of Philosophy. He studied law 
at Columbia College, and, after a period of 
preparatory office work, began practice with 
Mr. James Bruyn Andrews as partner. His 
bent for literature showed itself early. During 
the period of his law studies he wrote pretty 
constantly for the " Round Table," the " New 
Path," the "New Englander," and the " North 
American Review," and was a contributor to 
** The Nation " from the time of its first ap- 
pearance to the end of his life. In 1867 he 
published a translation of Turguenief 's " Fath- 
ers and Sons," and this was shortly followed 
by his edition of Professor Porter's transla- 
tions from the " Kalevala," a task for which, 
with his usual thoroughness, he prepared him- 
self by learning Finnish in order to master the 
poem in the original. The practice of law was 
not especially to Mr. Schuyler's taste, and in 
1867 he forsook Themis for the foreign ser- 
vice, obtaining an appointment as Consul at 
Moscow. On the way to his post he formed 
some notable acquaintances that of M. Taine 
at Paris, of Sainte-Beuve, and of Turguenief, 
who gave him a letter of introduction to Tol- 
stoy. Mr. Schuyler had the social gift, and 
was, in fact, socially as well as officially always 
persona gratissima at the various courts to 
which he was, during his long career abroad, 
accredited. At Moscow, as later at St. Peters- 
burg, he was even, as his biographer assures 
us with a certain touch of " Mrs. Jarley," the 
" enfant gate " of the native nobility and gen- 
try, from Prince Odoiefsky downward. Of 
his friend the Prince, Mr. Schuyler wrote in 

"... I dined last night with the Prince Vladimir 

Oddiefsky, enfamille, with his wife and one young man 
whose name I can't recall. The Prince is an agreeable 
old man of about sixty-five, a bibliophile, with a splen- 
did library which overflows every room except one 
salon, where plants in profusion take the place of books. 
. . . The Prince is also a musician. Nothing would do 
but I must try a duet with him ; so we played half a 
dozen, apparently to his satisfaction, for he compli- 
mented me a good deal, and then showed me, as a 
special favor, a piano he had had made on mathemat- 
ical principles. ... I pleased the old lady by showing 
her a new game of solitaire, and am invited to a salon 
on Friday evening, when I am to be introduced to the 
haute societe of Moscow." 

With the change of administration in 1869 
came the usual division of spoils. Mr. Schuyler 
seems to have ingenuously fancied that his 
proved special fitness for his post would cause 
his retention in it. He was soon undeceived. 
During a trip to Kief he received information 
that he had been superseded, and that his pay 
had stopped some weeks before. The consul- 
ship at Revel (something by no means " equally 
as good ") was offered him ; but in the mean- 
time Mr. Curtin, the new Minister to Russia, 
who knew absolutely nothing of the ways or 
speech of the people to whom he was sent, 
found himself obliged to blink political con- 
siderations and select a subordinate who could 
supply his deficiencies. Accordingly Mr. 
Schuyler went to St. Petersburg as Secretary 
of Legation, where he soon became a notable 
and even a leading figure in diplomatic circles. 
Mr. Curtin resigned in 1872, and was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Orr, through whom Mr. Schuy- 
ler obtained a leave of absence which enabled 
him to visit Central Asia a region just then 
specially interesting as the new field of Russian 
political enterprise. Mr. Schuyler's journey 
was an arduous one, but he returned well laden 
with information, which was embodied later in 
his book on Central Asia, as well as, it may be 
added, in the famous report for the State 
Department, the frankness of which raised 
quite a gale of excitement in Russian official 
circles at the time. This report was prepared 
at the request of Mr. Jewell (Mr. Orr's suc- 
cessor at St. Petersburg) who, like Mr. Schuy- 
ler, supposed it would be considered a confi- 
dential document. The Department, however, 
published, in the Red Book of December, 1874, 
Mr. Schuyler's blunt account of Russian in- 
iquities in the new satrapy, and a great hubbub 

Mr. Schuyler's report bore good fruit in 
the shape of reforms in Central Asia, and it is 
an error to suppose that his frankness em- 
broiled him with the Russian Government 



[March 16, 

always ready to wink at the reprehensible acts 
of its agents so long as they go on unnoticed 
of the world and to Russia's material profit, 
and to disclaim them when notoriety and pub- 
lic clamor seem to imperil the testamentary 
policy of the great Czar. In 1880 Mr. Schuyler 
wrote to a friend : 

" I suppose it is impossible to eradicate a popular 
error, but the Russian Government never found fault 
with me in any way or shape, and never hinted at my 
recall either in St. Petersburg or Washington ... I 
remained after that (the publication of the Report) as 
Charge d' Affaires for more than a year." 

Mr. Boker accepted the Russian mission in 
1874, and in 1876 Mr. Schuyler was appointed 
Consul-General and Secretary of Legation at 
Constantinople. On his way thither he stopped 
at Belgrade, then in a turmoil of anti-Turkish 
patriotism, and where he saw Prince Milan, 
who, it is now curious to note, impressed him 
as a "very remarkable young man," and 
" singularly intelligent and well-informed." 
Mr. Schuyler adds : 

" He gave me much information about Serbia, and 
in the course of his talk showed me that he was well 
acquainted with America, and followed the march of 
events there better, I fear, than do many Americans 
in Paris." 

The story of Mr. Schuyler's services to hu- 
manity in helping to dispel the cloud discreetly 
thrown by the Disraeli government over the 
atrocities in Bulgaria of Toryism's protege 
the " unspeakable Turk," is too well known to 
need repetition here. To parallel the deeds 
done in that hapless country by the Bashi- 
Bazouks it is necessary to revert to the days 
of Attila or Tamerlane, or, alas ! to more recent 
events in China, over which Christendom would 
fain draw a veil. 

Mr. Schuyler started for Bulgaria on his 
mission of investigation in July, 1876. With 
him went Mr. McGahan of the " Daily News," 
the London paper which deserves honorable 
mention for its disclosure to the British nation 
of the real state of affairs in the Turkish prov- 
inces, and its disproof of Mr. Disraeli's pleas- 
ant theory that the Bashi-Bazouk, so far from 
being the bloody monster depicted by " coffee- 
house babble," sentimental philanthropy, and 
sensational journalism, was, in point of fact, a 
mild and peaceable " Circassian " who was not 
only sweetly incapable of harming anybody, 
but was himself cruelly persecuted by his Bul- 
garian neighbors. Whether Mr. Disraeli was 
deliberately lying, for diplomatic ends, or was 
really persuaded of the truth of the cruel non- 
sense he was uttering, is uncertain ; but it was 

soon made plain to him that England was in 
no mood for fooling, and was determined to 
know the truth about Bulgaria. What that 
truth was, was soon made plain through the 
reports of Mr. Schuyler, and may be gathered 
in its shocking details from the extracts from 
his diary and letters in the present Memoir. 

Of the proceedings of the abortive Confer- 
ence of the Powers at Constantinople which 
followed the disclosure of the facts, as of the 
events in the city during the war which fol- 
lowed the failure of the Conference, the Me- 
moir affords some interesting glimpses. When 
hostilities were virtually over, and the Russians 
were at San Stefano, General Grant arrived 
at Constantinople. Regarding his view of the 
situation Mr. Schuyler says : 

" Grant is very strong in his ideas against the Turks 
and what ought to be done with Turkey . . . Among 
other things the General said : ' Had I been in the posi- 
tion of the Grand Duke Nicholas, I should have re- 
fused to make peace except at Constantinople. The 
occupation of Constantinople for the English fleet 
could not have prevented it would have been an ac- 
complished fact, which the European Powers would 
have bad to treat as best they could. I should have 
insisted on one condition that Turkish rule in Europe 
had forever come to an end.' " 

Mr. Schuyler's Bulgarian revelations had 
not endeared him to the Turks, who, with dip- 
lomatic indirection, soon began complaining of 
him on the score of his too vigorous support of 
his Government's treaty rights in their coun- 
try. A leave of absence was given him, to 
relieve the situation, and he was soon trans- 
ferred to the consulship at Birmingham a 
stop- gap, as it proved, for in 1879 he was 
made Consul- General at Rome, where his posi- 
tion was an agreeable one, despite the refusal 
of the punctilious and venerable Minister, Mr. 
Marsh, to present him at Court, on the ground 
that it " would be derogatory to the dignity of 
the Service to associate the Commercial with 
the Diplomatic branch in social matters." Our 
author adds, " To a man who had been used 
to being on pleasant terms with royalty in 
many countries, this view was unexpected." 
Mr. Schuyler, however, survived this early 
frost, and was soon pleasantly sunning himself 
as usual in the favor of the court circle to 
the scandal, we infer, of the conscientious Mr. 

In 1880 Mr. Schuyler was transferred to 
Bucarest as Diplomatic Agent and Consul- 
General, and three years later was appointed 
Minister to Greece, Serbia, and Roumania. 
In 1889 he was made Diplomatic Agent at 




Cairo, an unfortunate appointment, for the 
Egyptian climate was unsuited to him, and 
soon brought about disorders which proved 
fatal. Mr. Schuyler died, on June 16, 1890, 
at Venice, while on his way to Carlsbad, and 
was buried on the island of San Michele, in 
accordance with his own request. In him his 
country lost a graceful and an accomplished 
man of letters, and a public servant of excep- 
tional fitness for the branch to which his tal- 
ents were devoted. 

Mrs. Sehaeffer's memoir of her brother is 
simply and pleasantly written, and she has in- 
terlarded it freely with extracts from journals 
and letters which are always entertaining and 
sometimes valuable. Of the quality of the 
companion volume we need hardly speak. The 
letters, or essays as they deserve in some cases 
to be called, are in Mr. Schuyler's best vein, 
and everybody knows how agreeably and intel- 
ligently Mr. Schuyler wrote on literary and 
artistic themes. E. G. J. 


In the last five years the young play-goer 
and play-reader may well have wondered 
whether in his father's time, or his grand- 
father's, there were brought out any such plays 
as now. Such a one has considered the reso- 
lute and earnest probings of Ibsen ; he has 
appreciated the realism and the romance of 
Hauptmann and Sudermann ; he has been 
able to judge what there might be beyond tem- 
porary sensation in Maeterlinck ; he has seen 
* Cyrano de Bergerac " and " L'Aiglon "; the 
calm beauty of " Herod" makes him anticipate 
the performance with eagerness ; he may have 
but just arisen from the new translation 
of D'Annunzio's " La Citta Morte." Is it 
merely because they are of our own time that 
we hold these plays, these men, great? Prob- 
ably there really is more of the true tragic 
spirit now than there has been for many years. 
It is, then, a good time to speak of Tragedy, 
and there will be not a few readers for Mr. 
Courtney's lectures just published. Mr. Court- 

DRAMA. Three Lectures delivered at the Royal Institution 
by W. L. Courtney. New York : Brentano's. 

L'AIGLON. Drame en Six Actes, en vers, par Edmond 
Rostand. New York : Brentano's. 

THE DEAD CITY. By Gabriele D'Annunzio. Translated 
by Arthur Symons. London : William Heinemann. 

HEROD. A Tragedy. By Stephen Phillips. New York: 
John Lane. 

ney says that " in the present age there is no 
particular liking or room for tragedy," but he 
will probably have readers for all that. 

Whether there will be many that will follow 
him contentedly to the end is another matter. 
I cannot, for one thing, take Mr. Pinero's 
" The Second Mrs. Tanqueray " as typical of 
the present idea of tragedy or as earnest of the 
future : Mr. Courtney seems to hold some such 
idea. Now I have just reread the play (between 
the last sentence and this) and that with great 
pleasure, for it is a strong and moving piece 
of work. But I cannot regard it as a great 
tragedy for a reason that is worth noting be- 
cause of its connection with all Mr. Courtney's 
dealing with the subject from -JSschykis down. 
It may seem pedantic at the present moment, 
but I have long been impressed with the keen- 
ness of Aristotle's view of the effect of tragedy 
and that view I have understood rather differ- 
ently from Mr. Courtney. Mr. Courtney 
(pp. 38, 39) believes that Aristotle held that 
tragedy was useful as a purge because the 
spectators, seeing " what fools the tragic char- 
acters made of themselves by indulging in such 
emotions (as pity and fear) left the theatre " 
chastened and humble, realizing that feelings 
are dangerous guides, and emotional displays 
the mark of a feeble nature. Now, I have 
never interpreted the famous passage of Aris- 
totle in that sense, nor, it may be added, have 
I ever felt thus on leaving the theatre. My 
understanding of Aristotle has been that the 
pity and fear roused by tragedy were such 
emotions as purged out of the character (merely 
for the time perhaps) all small and petty fears 
and weaknesses. And when Aristotle said that 
tragedy purged the soul, he meant that the 
soul of any spectator who had seen before him 
the awful agony of Prometheus or CEdipus, 
was, while under the influence of the tragedy, 
purged or cleansed of his own small fears and 
pains. " What are our woes and suff ranee ?" 
as Byron said of Rome. Some such feeling as 
this I have supposed Aristotle had in mind 
when he lectured on the Katharsis, and some 
such feeling I have often had when the curtain 
fell on a tragedy, a species of calmness, of rest, 
after emotional conflict. On the whole Aris- 
totle's doctrine seems a little too confined : he 
held that tragedy purged the mind of its own 
vicious pity and fear. It would seem as though 
it might purge the mind of many another feel- 
ing. But even with the limitation of Aristotle 
one cannot very well adopt the rather narrow 
view of tragedy taken by Mr. Courtney, who, 



[March 16, 

by the way, has very slight regard for the 

Mr. Courtney presents the leading idea of 
tragedy as a conflict (p. 43) : the essential 
character of the Greek drama lay in the conflict 
between the human will and fate (p. 43), in 
the Shakespearean drama between man and the 
laws of the universe (p. 70). So far his treat- 
ment is consistent enough, though probably 
not sufficient. But when we come to modern 
tragedy, the idea seems to be different. Mr. 
Courtney says of Ibsen, whom he regards 
rather dubiously, that his idea of tragedy is 
" the failure on the part of a given individual 
to achieve his mission " (p. 124), and he adds 
that this " might be the description of every 
tragedy in the world's history." But this later 
formula does not seem precisely the same as 
that which we had before, though presumably 
not inconsistent with it. Nor, if we return a 
moment to "The Second Mrs. Tanqueray," 
shall we find that it is to be called a tragedy 
(let alone a great one) by this definition or by 
the earlier one. What is it that makes Paula 
Tanqueray a tragic figure ? That her life is a 
conflict ? that she fails to achieve her mission ? 
Not at all : she has no mission, nor is her life 
more of a conflict than is usual. Mr. Courtney 
does not say why she is to be thought of as 
tragic : he says (p. 129), " The character of 
Paula Tanqueray is one of the most triumphant 
creations which has ever been composed for the 
stage," but he does not say why she is to be 
thought of as a tragic figure ; and a careful 
study of his three lectures shows that if we ac- 
cept his views, Mrs. Tanqueray is not what he 
thinks she is. 

My own idea of tragedy is somewhat different 
from Mr. Courtney's. It is, I am sorry to say, 
rather a cloudy, sometimes even a muddled, 
idea, but such as it is, it takes in Mrs. Tan- 
queray better than Mr. Courtney's idea does. 
So I shall try to explain it. 

There is a great deal in the relation of in- 
dividuals to the world in general that appears 
to us very strange. Sometimes things go ex- 
actly right, just as we expect, wish, hope, or 
think or admit they ought to go. There is no 
tragedy in such matters, although these things 
are not always pleasing. Often they are very 
sad. For example, the death of a noble young 
fellow in war is in itself not tragic. It may 
become a tragedy when we think of its effect 
upon his widowed mother whose life had been 
absorbed into him, or upon somebody else. 
But in itself such a death, although one of the 

very sad things of life, is a wholly noble and 
fitting end to a devoted and unselfish life. It 
is not tragic : Mrs. Browning was quite right 
when she spoke of the young Lombard soldier in 
the hospital as " young antipathetic with dying." 
And like such a death is many an event in life 
which we cannot refuse to acknowledge pre- 
cisely what it ought to be, and these events, 
happy or unhappy, we do not call tragic. 

But there are also many events in life, many 
combinations of individual and universe as we 
might say, which we do not understand thor- 
oughly, which appear to us quite incongruous, 
paradoxic, inconsistent, and not at all explain- 
able according to our previous ideas. These 
combinations may be ridiculous when they are 
trivial, may be interesting when they are not 
trivial but still of no great import, may be both 
from different standpoints, and are tragic when 
they concern the great interests of those who 
have our sympathy. Thus QEdipus, to use one 
of Mr. Courtney's examples, is a tragic figure, 
not because free will struggles with fate, but 
because we have here a good man who has un- 
wittingly got into a horrible plight, he has 
done things so horrible that to try to realize 
them makes the heart almost stop beating. And 
why ? No answer : good men ought not be in- 
volved in such difficulties ; we would not even 
wish bad men such luck. And such a spec- 
tacle chills one (much as Aristotle says) : it is 
one of those cases where the human mind says 
to itself that in spite of every precaution, all 
prudence, sagacity, far-seeing wisdom, one 
may fall into horrible evil. And that is 
tragedy, for we cannot say why it should be so. 

Then take Hamlet, to get something typical 
of Shakespeare. Here is a man who has almost 
everything of the best kind given him to begin 
the world with, position, brains, heart ; he 
should be one to make his mark. Instead, he 
finds himself in such a position that he hurries 
along the course of events and is murdered. 
That is tragic, not as being a conflict, not even 
because the man is broken against one of the 
laws of the universe. It is tragic because 
when the conditions are once given we do not 
deny a single step, yet we cannot see why it 
should have happened at all. Granted that 
Hamlet was too weak of will, how did he get 
so ? By too much thinking ? Is not thinking 
the great faculty of man, the thing that raises 
him above the beasts ? Why should too much 
thought put the thinker in the power of the 
circumstances around him ? We do not under- 
stand these things. No one understands 




" Hamlet "; as soon as one understands it, it 
ceases to be tragedy. 

And to come down to Ibsen. Mr. Courtney 
mentions a number of plays, let us take 
44 An Enemy of the People." Is Stockmann a 
tragic figure? Certainly, if conflict be the 
essence of tragedy, for he is always in a con- 
flict. But I fancy no one will finish the play 
with the idea that they have seen a tragedy : 
they have seen a resolute battle between one 
man and a hundred or more ; the man gave as 
good as he got and at the end was ready to go 
on. He is not a tragic figure (although a fine 
one) nor is the play a tragedy. When we 
turn to " A Doll's House," we find something 
different. We have here a conflict, certainly, 
between man and wife : but that is not tragedy, 
we understand that well enough for practical 
purposes ; a brawling house is not tragic. But 
in " A Doll's House " it was an extraordinary 
case, or perhaps it only seemed so because of 
the skill in putting the case. Here were two 
people who might have lived happily, in the 
main that is, with no more disagreement than 
is well enough to accentuate trust and affec- 
tion. And why did they not? Well, the 
world is going on nowadays and people are 
acting under influences that often they do not 
understand. A hundred years ago Nora and 
Thorvald would have understood each other 
well enough. To-day they do not, and we are 
not far enough from them to do much better. 
Therefore, as they are both our friends, they 
are tragic in our sight. There might have 
been happiness, but there was unhappiness. 
Was it by accident ? Could they help it ? Do 
we understand it ? No, to all three. We do 
not understand Nora, and, as Mr. Courtney 
remarks, when interpreted by Duse we under- 
stand her less than ever. 

Such is tragedy always, a pursuing of 
some of the strange and unexplainable courses 
of life. The finer and nobler the actors, the 
greater and more universal the evil which they 
do not escape, the greater the tragedy. This 
is the tragic element in the story of the Due 
de Reichstadt. He is, on the whole, an attrac- 
tive man with a good head and heart and great 
ambitions. People love him : he ought to do 
well. Now he does not do well at all, because 
although he has an immensely daring imagina- 
tion, he has also a besetting triviality that pre- 
vents his ever understanding what it really is 
that he is trying to do. It does not appear 
that he had the remotest comprehension of 
what it meant to be Napoleon Bonaparte. He 

knew that his father had been a glorious con- 
queror, and he knew accurately the uniforms 
of his father's army. But he does not seem to 
have known much more. The figure offers, 
then, one of those incongruities which are 
always painful to us in those who arouse our 
sympathy. In fact, the incongruity is not con- 
fined to the Due de Reichstadt : it is so pain- 
fully apparent to each one of us when we think 
of ourselves and our own ideals, that it cannot 
but have for us an absorbing interest. The idea 
being, therefore, something that absorbs our in- 
terest, and having this characteristic of strange 
unexplainableness about it, we call it tragic. 

So much for an idea of tragedy different 
from Mr. Courtney's. Now for Mrs. Tanqueray, 
who will probably be remembered by many 
who have not Pinero's plays at hand. She is 
not a tragic figure by reason of any conflict 
nor any unfulfilled mission. She is tragic for 
another reason. 

Mrs. Tanqueray was a woman who had come 
to a certain age and had got tired of her life. 
It had not been a happy one ; we may blame 
it or not, that is beside the immediate question : 
there comes a man who loves her and believes 
in her, and she conceives a future very different 
from the past and much happier, and the play 
begins. In the play she finds that she cannot 
get rid of her past ; it comes up against her 
more and more insistently and unbearably, and 
she finally kills herself. What is the tragedy ? 
Merely this : that although we know that she 
could not have turned over a new leaf (gluing 
the old ones down), we are not at all clear as 
to why she could not. It seems as if she should 
have had a chance. Why cannot a woman 
like Paula Tanqueray wipe out the past and 
begin again? First, because the particular 
kind of past that she had cannot be wiped out, 
and second, because no past at all can be wiped 
out. But although we know this well enough 
we do not understand it, and so the particularly 
poignant or general cases make great tragedies. 

The Due de Reichstadt was a peculiarly 
poignant and general case of an incongruity 
of life, poignant because the character has an 
intense personality, and general because his 
case is the case (to some degree) of every 
idealist. Mrs. Tanqueray. on the other hand, 
was neither poignant nor general ; she was 
more the first than the second, but not truly 
either. So the play is not a great play, nor is 
any other play of Pinero's great, for the same 

Apply the test, however, to Ibsen's " Ghosts": 



[March 16, 

you will find that Mrs. Alving is a figure before 
which the imagination calms and quiets down 
and cools, so as to leave one in that state of 
mental insensibility that comes of pressing a 
question until we find there can be no possible 
answer to it. Or Sudermann's " Heimat." 
The play is not precisely a tragedy because no 
real evil befalls Magda. But it is a tragedy 
as far as concerns her father, not because he 
is a poignant case, but because he is such a 
general one : he is the father who cannot un- 
derstand his child, the burger who cannot un- 
derstand the world outside the city wall, the 
man of the past who cannot understand the 
present. Or Hauptmann : Hannele is a bet- 
ter instance than Heinrich in "The Sunken 
Bell "; Hannele, for whom the world is too 
brutal and who dies in a fantastic reminiscence 
of past imaginings. Rostand we have already 
tested : Cyrano would have done as well as the 
Due de Reichstadt. Cyrano is a perfectly 
general type, the person who does not get his 
due (i. e., every one of us), but he is also a 
personality. Maeterlinck I must leave out 
because it seems almost a piece of folly to 
speak of not understanding the action pre- 
sented in his plays. He surrounds his char- 
acters with such elements of mystery that it 
would be an exaggeration to say that we truly 
understood anything about them. That is why 
they are all ridiculous to some people, tragic 
to others. 

Mr. Courtney, then, might have found mod- 
ern dramatists who illustrated the idea of 
tragedy better than Pinero. It must be re- 
membered that he does speak of Maeterlinck 
and Ibsen, and also that he delivered these 
lectures before the appearance of " L'Aiglon." 
Also before Mr. Arthur Symons had translated 
" La Citta Morte " and before Mr. Stephen 
Phillips had presented " Herod." 

I have left myself too little space for these 
very interesting books. Of D'Annunzio's play, 
undoubtedly a powerful and emotional piece, 
it must be enough to confess that to its intoxi- 
cated, rarified, isolated atmosphere my criterion 
of the tragic has about as much relation as an 
ordinary foot-rule. In a certain way, perhaps, 
we might speak of it, but it would take too 
much explanation. " Herod," on the other 
hand, offers a somewhat better illustration. 
Herod is a man of ambition and of action, a 
man quite able to deal easily with every com- 
bination of the involved politics of his time. 
He is definite and direct, perfectly self-confi- 
dent, perfectly adaptable to each new necessity, 

never unready, and therefore powerful. But 
he is in love with Mariamne, and so much in 
love with her that she is more important to 
him than anything else. That in itself is a 
tragic situation and one that nobody can un- 
derstand. But in the case of Herod, the situa- 
tion is further intensified by his own misap- 
prehension. He is keen-sighted in politics but 
not with women. He does not seem clearly to 
understand whether he loves Mariamne better 
or his power ; he certainly does not rightly 
understand her. With his absolute self-confi- 
dence he cannot see how a plan of his can go 
astray. Therefore he orders the death of 
Mariamne's brother. Mariamne finds him out 
and hates him. He is tricked into ordering 
her death, and then he finds out how much he 
loved her. All this is presented in very beau- 
tiful classic verse and the effect is very strong. 
Incongruity, paradox, inconsistency, and yet 
such as we cannot deny when we grant the 
facts at bottom, and so a tragedy. Whether 
a great tragedy or not will depend ultimately 
upon the breadth of the motive, the wideness 
of the general appeal. The play has the pre- 
serving power of style, but of course something 
more is needed for immortality. 



It has been one of the greatest of misfor- 
tunes for both the United States and the Phil- 
ippines that their relations should have drifted 
into the bubbling chaldron of American poli- 
tics, making misrepresentation the rule and 
not the exception, and rational knowledge and 
investigation a practical impossibility. But 
an equal misfortune is promised in the possi- 
bility of a sectarian aspect being given to the 
question through the attitude of the Filipinos 
toward the Friars of their islands and the atti- 
tude of the American government toward the 
Friars. The question is a delicate and some- 
what complicated one, but its details are so 
little a matter of public knowledge that the 
recent books by Messrs. Sawyer and Robinson 
deserve especial attention from the light they 
throw on it and the excuse they give for dwelling 
on that phase of the general topic at this time. 

Mr. Frederic H. Sawyer is an Englishman 

H. Sawyer. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Albert Q. Robinson. New York : McClure, Phillips & Co. 




resident in Luzon for the last fourteen years, 
and a traveller from time to time through the 
archipelago. He is in keen sympathy with the 
Americans in their general design of bringing 
the islands under their control, though sharply 
critical of the methods they have used up to 
this time. Mr. Albert G. Robinson was the 
efficient correspondent of the New York 
"Evening Post " in the islands from July, 
1899, to February, 1900, and his volume is 
made up for the most part of letters sent dur- 
ing that time to his paper, revised in the light 
of the latest information within his possession. 
To the seeker after truth both volumes are in- 
valuable ; to the partisan anxious only to con- 
ceal facts they will, it is to be feared, prove 
unwelcome, so certain is it that the taint of 
Europeanism and imperialism brings distrust 
of enlightenment. 

It has been pointed out before that the treaty 
of Paris, while it settled no question of human 
rights, devoted Articles VIII. and IX. to 
maintaining the property and other material 
rights of the religious orders in the Philippines. 
Mr. Sawyer believes the Americans to have 
been imposed upon in $is regard, and it is 
certain that the advice of Mr. John Foreman 
concerning the matter was deliberately rejected. 
" As soon as the effect of the treaty was 
known," Mr. Sawyer adds, " Archbishop 
Nozaleda, who had fled to China from the ven- 
geance he feared, returned to Manila. He 
seemed to have a good deal of interest with 
General Otis, and this did not please the na- 
tives, nor inspire them with confidence." 
When it is realized that this prelate was held 
responsible by the Filipinos for the enormi- 
ties of the 1896 massacres, including the mar- 
tyrdom of Jose Rizal, it is apparent that a 
mistake has been made from the point of view 
of everyone except the Friars, of whom the 
Archbishop, himself a Dominican, is the rep- 

For in the Philippines, as in Cuba and 
Porto Rico, the natives, though devoted sons 
of the Church, are not pledged to any admi- 
ration for the Friars or the Spanish clergy 
generally. Their uniform ambition has been 
to have clergymen of their own race, secular 
priests, not religious. It is a matter of com- 
mon knowledge that the evils which run in the 
train of benefieed Friars were one of the prin- 
cipal causes of the Lutheran Reformation, and 
that the Church recognized the justness of the 
universal complaints in the Council of Trent 
by forbidding Friars to hold benefices. Un- 

fortunately the Philippines, like the United 
States, are in partibus infidelium, and in them 
the decrees of the Tridentine Council do not 
run. The complaints of Europe in Luther's 
time are the complaints of the Filipinos to-day. 
They are devoted to their native priests, and 
their revolt is not against the faith but the dis- 
cipline of the Church, nor are they open to 
criticism from Roman sources any more than 
those wise ecclesiastics who sought to do away 
with such abuses by forbidding Friars from 
benefices at Trent in the sixteenth century. 
Against these abuses the Tagals arose again 
and again, laying down thousands of their lives 
to be free. Yet it is with the Friars that the 
American government has allied itself, and it 
is with them its army and navy is acting at the 
present time, as its policy has